Your search returned over 400 essays for "valuation"
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Case 5 : Business Valuation

- Case 5 – Business valuation -Viewpoints & Insights When developing a valuation for Richards Building Supply Co, there is key aspects of the prevailing practices and procedures used by financial theorists and valuation consultants to the assessment of cost of capital in order to apply it as a present value discount rate in a traditional present value model. The main structure of business valuation is cost of capital. Key statement states “Value today always equals future cash flow discounted at the opportunity cost of capital (”....   [tags: Weighted average cost of capital]

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Analysis Of The Movie ' Stock Valuation '

- Stock Valuation Introduction This week Team B reviewed and discussed the "Concept Review Video: "Stock Valuation." In this video, a former lawyer by the name of Katherine Collins Lang now a private investor reflects on how her grandmother was the next door millionaire with a profession as a teacher. Her grandmother invested in the market with blue chip stocks, and they grew over time. Katherine Collins inherited the stocks and eventually sold off those stocks at a loss in the telecommunications industries in 2001-2002 when stocks were down....   [tags: Stock market, Stock, Bond, Investment]

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Inventory Valuation for Decision Makers

- Inventory valuation is one of the factors that decision makers have to consider before making any decision in their business. They can know how different inventory assumptions affect the cost of good sold and the resulting net income. Inventory valuation is value a company allocates to its inventory in storage and when it is sold. There are several methods to calculate the inventory values to know how much they cost. These methods are specific identification, cost average, first in, first out (FIFO), and last in, first out (LIFO)....   [tags: sterage, sold, cost, methods, average]

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Cost Costs For Stock Valuation

- QUESTION 1 a)Costs can be classified on the basis of cost objective which could be stock valuation or decision making or for control purposes. Describe each classification of cost. Costs for stock valuation In costs for stock valuation, all elements related to the production process (Direct and indirec costs) have to be accounted for in getting the accurate cost of a single product. In other words, Direct costs must include all direct materials, labor and other direct costs. Indirect costs must include all production overheads, administrative overheads, selling overheads and distribution overhead costs....   [tags: Costs, Variable cost, Marginal cost, Total cost]

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Valuation And Risk Of Bonds

- Valuation and risk of bonds Bonds are debt obligation with long-term maturities. The issuer of bonds agrees to make payments of interest (or coupon) and principal on a specific date to the bondholders. Bonds are commonly issued by Malaysia government, licensed banks which are under Banking and Financial Institutions Act 1989, Islamic banks which are under Islamic Banking Act 1983, National Mortgage Corporation of Malaysia, and listed companies. The aim of those institutions is to obtain long-term funds....   [tags: Bond, Investment, Finance, Debt]

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Discounted Cash Flow Valuation

- The purpose of this paper is to give a clear understanding of discounted cash flow valuation. The paper will explain what a discounted cash flow valuation is and its importance in financial business decisions regarding investment strategies. This paper will give a detailed discussion about discounted valuations for both present and future multiple cash flows with respect to even and uneven schedules using clear step-by-step examples. Also included will be some advantages and disadvantages in using the discounted cash flow valuation method for corporate business....   [tags: fianancial business, financial analysis]

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Equity Valuation of WalMart

- EQUITY VALUATION – WALMART Equity valuation is a major tool used to analyse investment choices using the company’s past and current performance, in addition to its business plans, in order to forecast its future financial position and valuate the stock. This paper will examine and valuate Walmart based on my projection for the company’s performance over the next few years. SECTION I Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., branded as Walmart and traded on the NYSE as WME, is a multinational retail corporation headquartered in Bentonville, Arkansas (United States)....   [tags: Major Tool, Analyze Investment Choices, Company]

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Property Valuation

- Valuation of real estates or properties basically, refers to appraising a property or a real estate to form an opinion about the value of the property. This value is normally the properties’ market value. Properties are heterogeneous in nature; meaning they are not all identical or alike and thus, they have different values. However, it is possible to get a range for the values. There are some obvious factors like physical locaction of a property that automatically makes the market value of different properties differ....   [tags: Real Estate ]

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Property Valuation

- Introduction Valuation of real estates or properties basically, refers to appraising a property or a real estate to form an opinion about the value of the property. This value is normally the properties’ market value. Properties are heterogeneous in nature; meaning they are not all identical or alike and thus, they have different values. However, it is possible to get a range for the values. There are some obvious factors like physical location of a property that automatically makes the market value of different properties differ....   [tags: Real Estate, Property]

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How does forward contract valuation differ from futures contract valuation?

- A. How does forward contract valuation differ from futures contract valuation? Futures and forward contracts are viewed as derivative contracts because their values are derived from an underlying asset. The forward contract is an agreement between two parties, which are buyer and seller and they must fulfil their contractual obligations at a price established at the beginning upon the expiration date, the buyer must pay the agreed price to the seller and the seller must deliver the underlying asset to the buyer....   [tags: Finance]

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Risk Management in Stock Valuation and Markets

- Introduction Investor’s investment decisions are based on the valuation of stock which they conducted before making the decision. Generally investors prefer to invest in the undervalued stocks and sell their holding of stocks that they considered to be overvalued. There are many different methods of stock valuation. In addition, there are many factors which increases the risk related to the valuation of the stocks. This paper focuses on the fundamental analysis used for the valuation of the stocks....   [tags: investment decisions]

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The Valuation Of Ecosystem Services Within Nigeria

- The progressively rising demand on natural resources makes protection of ecosystems and biodiversity essential (MA, 2005 cited in Frank, et al., 2012). Meanwhile, the concept of natural capital measurement has been promoted as the guaranteed path to promoting the value of the environment across societies. The focus of this paper is, therefore, to assess the potentials for the valuation of ecosystem services within Nigeria, identify existing challenges to its proposal and implementation, as well as promoting certain actions that will facilitate its establishment in environmental policy initiatives within the country....   [tags: Natural environment, Ecology, Ecosystem]

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Investment Valuation Ratios

- Investment valuation ratios compare current share price to various per-share performance indicators such as earnings, dividends, sales, and operating cash flow to help investors evaluate whether the stock is overvalued, fairly, or undervalued as an investment opportunity. Income, value and growth investors have different investment objectives and thus may have different views on a stock’s value relative to its price. The relationship between a company's stock price and its per-share metrics is also referred to as a multiple....   [tags: Performance-based Stock Evaluation]

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A Company Valuation Of General Electric Company

- A company valuation of General Electric Candidate Number: KJDY3 Words Count: 1446 11/2015 General Electric Company (GE) is an USA-based corporation, which in leading position around the industry and world scope. This essay aims to make a company valuation of GE using Two Stage Discounted Cash Flow (DCF2S) method, and using multiples analysis as back-up analysis. DCF2S is the most common method for a company valuation. Two stages are referring to explicit projection period and the terminal value period....   [tags: Weighted average cost of capital, Stock market]

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Apple Leads the Pack in Brand Valuation

- Apple Leads the Pack in Brand Valuation If we look at the sales figures of Apple, we will find that it is slowly slipping from the commanding heights from where it used to capture the consumers’ imagination. Now, it seems that Apple is trying to sell the same product with different packaging. If we study the products of Apple, we find that after the death of Steve Jobs, Apple is struggling to bring out something revolutionary that will change the way we use technology. Apple has set the bar for itself so high that the consumers always expect something unique from this company....   [tags: business analysis]

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Stock Price Valuation and Beta Calculation

- There are many choices in the market for the investors to generate more money and income with the capital that they able to invest. These tools are categorized into many different types of market such as equity market, bond market, and mortgage market, according to their characteristics. The markets are well-growing and establishing all around world due to the people’s awareness of investment, the globalization, the governments’ policies, and the change of technology. Equity market is one of the well performing markets....   [tags: Finance]

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Using Discounted Cash Flow Valuation

- Discounted Cash Flow Valuation Today financial corporate managers are continually asking, “What will today’s investment look like for the future health of the company. Should financial decisions be put on hold until the markets become stronger. Is it more profitable to act now to better position the company’s market share?” These are all questions that could be clearly answered if the managers had a magical financial crystal ball. In lieu of the crystal ball, managers have a way of calculating the financial risks with some certainty to better predict positive financial investment outcomes through the discounted cash flow valuation (DCF)....   [tags: Net present value, Discounted cash flow]

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Real Estate Portfolio Valuation: Annotated Bibliography

- The Authors studied why valuation estimates are likely to be biased estimates of market values due to clients' influence. The studies were done on the behaviors of clients in the UK, USA, and New Zealand. The authors pointed out that the information found has made a significant contribution to real estate literature, but the purpose of this research was to examine the prevalence of client influence and the impact on valuation in Nigeria. The survey found that nearly 80 percent of estate surveyors and valuers claimed some knowledge of client influence—mostly from private individuals....   [tags: Annotated Bibliography]

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A Short Note On 9 Billion Market Valuation For Linkedin

- There are a few assumptions that underlie the $9 billion market valuation for LinkedIn as of the end of July 7, 2011. One method would be the use of comparables; another method is the peers who are also publicly trading and the third method is performed by using other companies other than its peers who are publicly trading or can compare the valuation to companies which are outperforming the stock’s secondary market in order to find the true worth of the company through social networking sites (Investopedia)....   [tags: Stock market, Stock, Facebook]

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International Framework for Economic Valuation of Wetland Areas

- According to the definition given by the Ramsar Convention Manual (2013) “wetlands are areas where water is the primary factor controlling the environment and the associated plant and animal life” and it recognizes the existences of five major types of wetlands (Ramsar, 2013): 1) marine(coastal wetlands including coastal lagoons, rocky shores, and coral reefs) 2) estuarine(including deltas, tidal marshes, and mangrove swamps) 3) lacustrine (wetlands associated with lakes) 4) riverine(wetlands along rivers and streams) 5) palustrine (meaning “marshy” – marshes, swamps and bogs) Also, according to Ramsar (2013), wetlands are among the world’s most productive environments and its importance h...   [tags: ramsar,productive environments,ecosystems]

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How Do You Calculate Goodwill?

- Sellers and buyers have different approaches to valuation of goodwill. The seller will likely inflate goodwill due mainly to his or her emotional attachment to the business whereas the buyer is likely to deflate it. Goodwill, being an intangible asset, is not easily identified or measured. It is what attracts customers to continually patronize a certain business. It helps a business to earn more profits in the future. It could be any or all of the following: customer lists and relationships, brand name and logo recognition, business connections, reputation, trademarks, patents, inventions, employees and their skills, and vendor relationships....   [tags: Business Valuation]

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Asset Valuation Paper

- Asset Valuation Accounting for Managerial Decision-Making Introduction To start a new business and remain in business profitably, many critical decisions must be made when the foundation of a new business is formed. These decisions affect the company in the long run and often make or break an organization. Methods of inventory control and capitalization policies are among these critical decisions that will affect any business bottom line. Our team has investigated these policies and will present our recommendation for the method of inventory and capitalization policy for the XYZ Mattress Store in the remainder of this paper....   [tags: Business Accounting]

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Stock Valuation Methodologies

- Valuation methodologies overview Advantages and disadvantages Comparable company trading analysis Description • Compare the current trading level of a Company to its peers • Specifically determine how the market has valued the earnings, cash flow, net asset value, assets or other characteristics of similar companies. Compare these ratios to the Company’s performance and/or use them to impute an aggregate market value of the Company Advantages • Market efficiency means that trading values in theory should reflect industry trends, business risk, market growth, etc....   [tags: Business Finance Stock Market]

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The Stock Valuation Of Market Prices And Profit From Price Changes

- The main use of stock valuation is to predict future market prices and profit from price changes. The strongest stock valuation method, the discounted cash flow (DCF) method of income valuation, demands discounting the profits (dividends, earnings, or cash flows) the stock will bring to stockholders in the anticipated future, and computing a final value on disposal. There are plenty of different techniques to value stocks. The major part is to capture each approach into account while articulating a general opinion of the stock....   [tags: Stock market, Fundamental analysis, Stock]

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Valuation Of Financial Instruments : Relationship Between Bond Rating And Yield Maturity

- Valuation of Financial Instruments The relationship between bond ratings and yield to maturity is a significant measurement investors utilize to determine the worthiness of an investment endeavor. Yield to maturity is the total yield or profit on the bond if it is held until maturity. Basically it is the interest earned and payments of the coupon being reinvested at the current yield on the bond. This is the most valuable measure of yield because it reflects the total income that you can receive....   [tags: Bond, Stock, Investment, Time value of money]

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The Usefulness of Alternative Measures of Profit

- The purpose of the following report is to examine the relative usefulness of alternative measures of profit (or income) to equity investor and assess the potential contribution of key valuation models. The analysis will include a theoretical research part, containing a synthesis of equity valuation techniques and alternative profit measures. And also a practical part that should illustrates the potential differences in the information conveyed to investors by different profit measures of a NASDAQ company....   [tags: investor, valuation, industry]

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The Price of Diamonds is Too High.

- People have different ways of valuing a diamond. Some people look at the sentimental value, and some people consider the price of diamonds in their valuation process. So is it fair to say that the price of diamonds is too high. In this essay I will be discussing the validity of this statement with reference to the market of the diamond industry, the diamond cartel, how the price of diamonds is set, and the implications thereof. Before I analyse the topic, I shall discuss the history of the diamond cartel....   [tags: diamond industry, valuation process]

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Raising Money Should You Raise?

- Raising money is undoubtedly among the toughest aspects of running a business. Since it doesn’t grow on trees and you can’t live without it in the modern world, a business owner has to learn how to find it and use it in an efficient manner. There are often two schools of thoughts when it comes to answering the question, “how much money should you raise?” Some say there’s no limit; while others would rather if you didn’t bother raising money at all. But neither of these answers seems realistic or useful when it comes to the real world....   [tags: Finance, Economics, RAISE, Valuation]

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Human Capital - Roles of People, Organizational Aspects, Valuation

- The terms to describe employees in an organisation have changed from “personal” to “human resources” and of late, “human capital”. Human capital is an acknowledgement that people in an organisation and business are of an important asset who plays a big part in the development and growth of an organisation. It can be said, that the importance of human capital is tantamount to other assets within an organisation such as buildings, financial gains and machineries. It cannot be denied that people’s skills, abilities and knowledge contribute highly and productively to the performance and success of an organisation....   [tags: Business Management ]

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Value Relevance of Accounting Information during IFRS Convergence Process and Indonesia

- In value relevance literature, there are two basic types of valuation model that have extensively used by prior studies. Price model testing how firm`s market value relate to accounting earnings and equity book value. As seen in equation 1, based on Ohlson (1995), the model expresses the firm value as a function of its earnings and equity book value. The other type of value relevance valuation model is return model, which describes relation between stock returns and accounting earnings. The value relevance of accounting information studies using returns-earnings association is motivated by the seminal work of Ball and Brown (1968)....   [tags: valuation models, price model testing]

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Different Types of Income

- ... The duration consists of fixed cash flows, or the normal tendency of making the future payments to be present values; the Fixed Income valuation is usually the weighted average of the cash flow times till those fixed cash flow (Coupon rates + par value+ Time line). As a bond is considered to be a function of yield, Any kind of duration will also measures the price changing with negative or positive shocks to the asset or its sensitivity to increasing/ falling yield, the rate of change or the positive or negative bps shocks with regard to yield or the degree by which the Yield ad Price curve will cause for a parallel shift....   [tags: fixed-income, bond products, valuation]

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Managers And Shareholders Use Various Models

- Managers and shareholders use various models to conduct stock valuations. However, in order to do so effectively it is important to understand what influences stock prices. The article aims to access corporate management as a key influencer of stock value as well as the impact of external factors on this relationship. The study uses practical and scientific methods in accordance to various influential factors such as market conditions, demand, supply, competition, domestic and global markets to value companies effectively....   [tags: Stock, Stock market, Stock valuation, Investment]

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Valuation of Supersize me

- Evaluation of Super Size Me      Americans are fat and growing fatter with each passing day. One does not have to do look far to see how fat we are. Take a stroll to the supermarket, college campuses, offices, playgrounds, fast food restaurants, or malls and see the evidence of fat America. What is causing this epidemic of obesity. There are a plethora of reasons including overeating, lack of exercise, fast food, processed food, dieting, and sedentary lifestyles. Morgan Spurlock of New York City decided to tackle one aspect of this problem with his idea of studying the McDonald’s way by limiting his intake of food for one month to only McDonald’s and filming this adventure....   [tags: Morgan Spurlock Super Size Me]

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Corporate Valuation - Dandy Fashion Berhad

- The value of public companies is determined by the stock market. The value of companies not publicly quoted will be greatly influenced by the same market. Therefore, we will focus on the main stock-market-related ratios. They are: · Market Capitalization · Share values, nominal, book, market · Earnings Per Share (EPS) · Dividends Per Share (DPS) · Dividend Cover and Pay-Out Ratio · Earnings Yield · Dividend Yield · Price To Earnings Ratio (PE) · Market To Book Ratio Below is the balance sheet for Dandy Fashion Berhad: Dandy Fashion Berhad BALANCE SHEET AS AT 31 DECEMBER 2006...   [tags: Business Finance Stock Market]

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Business Analysis for Harris and Harris Group

- Harris & Harris Group Since 1983, Harris & Harris Group has a strong reputation for investing in companies with proprietary technology. Their main focus is on interdisciplinary life science companies, where innovative biology intersects with innovation in areas such as electronics, chemistry, physics, materials, information, technology, engineering and mathematics. Harris & Harris Group differs from competitors because their investments are not divided into specific funds. Currently, they invest in 25 small portfolio companies with total investments equaling $172 million....   [tags: valuation, biology, technology]

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Share Valuations

- Share Valuations " The valuation of unlisted shares is highly subjective, especially when the object is to fix a fair price for acquisition by the company or by the owners fellow shareholders" Share valuations are necessary because there are many circumstances when shares in private companies need to be valued, these include * Management buy outs, buy ins or disposals * Determining a price for the purchase by a company of its own shares * Setting a price for employee share options and management incentive schemes * Inland revenue "fiscal" valua...   [tags: Papers]

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Valuations Differences in Private Equity Funds, Mutual Funds, and Hedge Funds

- Over the last several years, the total number of investment options that investors have available to them, have increased dramatically. This is evident in the overall increase in the number of private equity funds, hedge funds and mutual funds. For example, the total number of private equity deals that were completed in the year 1970 was a total of 12 transactions accounting for $13 million of investment capital. In 2007, this number of transactions increased 2, 247 and accounted for a total of $70 billion in investment capital....   [tags: Finance ]

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Canadian Stock Market Value Measurement

- VALUE MEASUREMENT INTRODUCTION The purpose of this report is to understand the Canadian stock market and valuing stock prices of the following six Canadian companies: Bank of Montreal, Toronto-Dominion Bank, Canadian Tire, Sears, Husky Energy, and Petrol Canada. We have used ten years of data to examine the prices of these six Canadian companies under the Security Market Line theory. The stock prices of these companies have been taken from Yahoo finance and MSN finance. The simple linear regression method was used to calculate risk premium and beta....   [tags: Marketing Canadian Stock Market Valuation]

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Are Bull Markets Supported By Rational Growth in Stock Valuations?

- Introduction “The rich get richer” is a frequently heard adage in the United States, a country quickly associated with capitalism. US financial markets make headline news on a daily basis, so people are well aware when the domestic stock market’s indices rise or fall. Given the widespread distribution of information on the stock market’s performance, much excitement can easily be generated during a bull market, broadly defined as a trend during which stock prices are climbing. Does the publicity and excitement surrounding a bull market further perpetuate rising stock prices....   [tags: Finance Financial Economics Essays]

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Interest Rates and Bond Valuations

- The intent of this paper is to define what bonds are as a vehicle for investors including a detailed explanation of the basic terms associated with bonds, the different types of bonds available in the markets, bond ratings, and why investors might want to consider bond investing to have a more diversified portfolio. Finally, the paper will discuss the relationship between bonds and interest rates in determining bond valuations. Following the discussion there will be a brief summary of the main points explained throughout the paper....   [tags: investment, stock]

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Adoption Of Avms And The Drivers Of The Adoption

- The adoption of AVMs and the drivers of the adoption Automated Valuation Models try to replicate the market within which real estate is traded using derived representative mathematical models (McCluskey, 1997). It valuates properties by using mathematical modelling, primarily regression analysis. The most common use of AVMs is in the valuation of residential properties for mortgage and remortgage applications. The use of AVMs is adopted where there is increased availability and use of data....   [tags: Real estate, Real estate appraisal, Market value]

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Types Of Beautiful Scenery At The Night Moon

- I have seen many types of beautiful scenery while in college. The night moon accompanied me continuously for three years during volleyball practices and competitions. The rising sun served as the background during my days of long distance running. These experiences have shaped me into a girl who is persistent, optimistic and self-driven. Through frequent introspection, I realized that every experience in my life, whether significant or not, has shaped me in many ways. Therefore, I treat every decision as an investment into making myself a better person for the future....   [tags: Finance, Investment, Research]

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Evaluating The Way Underwriters Value Ipos

- In 2013, Nkiruka Nnorom a reporter for the Nigerian Newspaper, the Nigerian Vanguard in Nigeria wrote that since 2008, the level of subscription for the Nigerian IPOs has been low. Nigerian firms avoided IPOs altogether and embraced rights issues and bonds. The reasons were the level of competition and corruption. More importantly, there were no adequate valuation tools to value and price IPOs in Nigeria. The purpose of this descriptive non-experimental quantitative case study was to examine the way underwriters value IPOs in the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE), and to determine the accuracy of the valuation methods and their suitability in an emerging market of Nigeria....   [tags: Stock market, Initial public offering, Stock]

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The South African Code for the Reporting of Exploration Results

- SAMREC Code Summary The South African Code for the Reporting of Exploration Results in terms of Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves was established and modelled in the year 1998 after the JORG which is the Australian Mineral Resource and Ore Reserves Code. The basic aim of the code is to set out the minimum standard recommendations and guidelines for every public reporting of an exploration project. The code was drawn up by the Working Group of the SSC Committee, with the help and support of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (SIAMM) and the Geological Society of South Africa (GSSA) (SAMREC, 2007)....   [tags: minimum standard recommendations/guidelines]

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Financial Performance And Status From A Balance Sheet Perspective

- Question One: ITStaffing’s financial performance and status from a balance sheet perspective ITStaffing has had a strong financial position between 2009 and 2011. One of the factors that support this is the results of the current ratio for the three years. Current ratio is a liquidity measure which shows the ability of a company to settle its current liabilities using its current assets. (Young and Cohen, 2013). It is computed as current assets divided by current liabilities. In 2009, 2010 and 2011, the current ratio of ITStaffing was 4.96, 7.79 and 9.21 respectively....   [tags: Financial ratios, Revenue]

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An evaluation of property tax system in Malaysia

- 1.0 Introduction Rapid population growth and increasing urbanization have triggers increases in demand for real property. These developments ultimate translate to the responsibility of local authority in providing facilities for the public. Therefore, local government need some sources to provide these facilities. Basically local government income comes from taxes, fees and fines. Property taxes are the largest fund and backbone of municipal finance which is used to provide amenities and services....   [tags: Government, Malaysia's Real Property]

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Going to Sell Your Websites? - What are they Really Worth?

- Going to Sell Your Websites. - What are they Really Worth. Reprinted with permission of There may be no topic more controversial or misunderstood as the website valuation, also known as a website appraisal. Although they're especially useful for website owners contemplating the sale of their websites, valuations are seldom commissioned by sellers at all--since most are convinced that nobody knows their website’s value better than they do. And while valuations can also have an enormous impact on strategic planning, they're typically overlooked there, too....   [tags: Sell Websites Buy Websites]

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The Great Disconnect Continues : Investors Have Short Memories

- The Great Disconnect Continues Investors have short memories. In January, global financial markets were contemplating a potential Armageddon scenario of large Chinese currency devaluation, collapsing oil prices and another Eurozone banking crisis. Furthermore, the prospect of policy normalisation by the Fed was simply the icing on the cake. Gradually, these fears subsequently subsided: the appetite for risk has, therefore, seemingly returned. Dovish rhetoric from the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) has certainly helped....   [tags: Central bank, Monetary policy, Stock market]

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Ryanair Case Analysis

- MAJOR ISSUE From the perspective of Ryanair, the major issue facing the firm is its valuation in the long-term, known as its economic value. Although the firm maintains a bullish outlook, there are diverging opinions regarding the valuation of the firm among investors. The valuations of the firm vary widely, with stock price estimates ranging from €3.05 to €7.57. This range reflects discrepancies on whether Ryanair has solid business model and fundamentals as well as numerous issues that plague not only Ryanair, but the airline industry as a whole....   [tags: Business Analysis Airline]

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The Value of the Tax Shield of Debt

- Introduction Motivation and background Decisions about optimizing the capital structure of the firm, no matter if it is a small business or a global corporation, has always been an important issue for the management. Various authors, (e.g. Booth (2002), Cooper and Nyborg (2006), Farber, Gillet and Szafarz (2006)) state that debt policy may only be viewed in terms of maintaining a fixed market value debt ratio (Miles-Ezzell assumption) or a fixed dollar amount of debt (Modigliani-Miller assumption)....   [tags: Tax Shield of Debt]

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Artificial Intelligence and Investing

- Artificial Intelligence and Investing INTRODUCTION Artificial intelligence can be defined as the ability of a computer to perform activities normally considered to require human intelligence. The techniques of this intelligence include knowledge-based, machine learning, and natural language processing techniques. Investing can be defined as the act of committing money to an endeavour with the exception of obtaining profit. Investing activities require data identification, asset valuation (the process of determining the worth of something), and risk management (the process of managing the uncertainty in investment decision-making)....   [tags: Technology, Stock Exchange]

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Evaluation of Various Numerical Methods for Option Pricing Model

- ... Fischer Black and Myron Scholes derived a partial differential equation, now called Black-Scholes equation, which governs the price of the option over time. The key idea was to hedge perfectly the option by buying and selling the underlying asset in just the way and consequently “eliminate risk”. Many empirical tests have shown the Black-Scholes price is fairly close to the observed price. The formula led to a boom in the options trading and legitimized scientifically the activities of option markets around the world....   [tags: derivative, parties, contract, price]

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What Is Passive Management And Active Management

- This allows us to view any divergence as an opportunity as opposed to a threat. What we tend to find is the blue line and the red line (depicted as the spread to the “risk-free” rate of United States Treasuries) remain roughly in line over the long-term, but can vary in the short-term. Therefore, if the ratings agencies can be trusted, which we think they generally can be, then we have a great comparative that can be used to identify mispricing. In its simplest terms, if the yield on emerging market debt is greater than its equivalent United States corporate debt, then we would have a tendency to prefer emerging market debt as long as we are comfortable with the rating being assigned....   [tags: Investment, Risk, Currency, Finance]

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The Value Of Your Laptop

- Terms and Conditions Please read and fully understand our Terms and Conditions before agreeing to swap or trade-in your laptop, tablet or phone. By completing a valuation form and clicking submit, you are agreeing to be bound by these terms. Failure to accept our terms and conditions will result in us not being able to accept your laptop, tablet or phone. Legal Age You must be capable of entering into a legally binding contract. Outstanding Finance There must be no outstanding finance on the equipment to any third party....   [tags: Laptop, Personal computer, Solid-state drive]

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Measuring Random Appraisal Error in Commercial Real Estate

- Recent empirical studies imply that most appraisal error is nonrandom, which suggests that strategies that advocate portfolio assembly over individual property selection may be defective. Each step of the appraisal process involves an unknown amount of estimation error. The combination of these errors is unlikely to produce a perfect, error-free estimate of value. Thus, appraisal error is virtually unavoidable. Investors need reasonable estimates of value when buying, selling, or retaining commercial property, so an unknown amount of appraisal error adds uncertainty to the decision-making process....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Business Worth: How Do You Calculate Goodwill?

- Wikipedia defines Goodwill as “the value of an entity over and above the value of its assets . . . the intangible but quantifiable “prudent value” of an ongoing business beyond its assets, resulting perhaps from the reputation the firm enjoyed with its clients”. Goodwill to most of us is the capacity of a business to earn profits in the future. It is what attracts customers to continually patronize a certain business. If one has to put a monetary value on goodwill, it is the amount one pays in acquiring a business that is in excess of the fair market value of the business’ net assets....   [tags: sellers and buyers, assests]

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Analysis of The Tax Treatment of Investors

- Each of the three approaches discussed so far assumes that the present value of a dollar of tax saved by the company is fully reflected in shareholder value. But, in addition to arguments about the validity of each of these methods, there is also some disagreement as to whether the tax rate that should be used in calculating the value of the debt tax shield should be lower than the corporate tax rate because of taxes incurred by investors. The standard way to deal with this issue has been to define a net tax saving variable, T*, that reflects the tax treatment of the investors who hold the company’s debt and equity as follows: (1-T*) = (1-TC)[(1-TPE)/(1-TPD)], (4) where TPE is the marginal t...   [tags: wacc, apv approach, tax shield, equity]

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1174 words | (3.4 pages) | Preview

Brief Summary Of Standard Under U.s. Gaap

- Brief Summary of Standard under U.S. GAAP ASC 330-10 outlines the parameter of accounting and reporting for inventories in the financial statements. As ASC 330 defines inventories as assets because revenues can be obtained from its sale, or from the sale of goods or services in course of production, or from raw materials to be consumed in the production. Inventories are initially measured at cost soon as first recognized in accounting. ASC 330-10 standardize two types of inventory recording systems; periodic inventory and perpetual inventory....   [tags: Inventory, FIFO and LIFO accounting]

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1168 words | (3.3 pages) | Preview

Real Estate Properties And Residential Properties

- Real estate valuation is also known as property valuation or land valuation and defined as valuing the real estate property. There are two types of real estate properties: commercial and residential. Residential properties are meant for single family homes, whereas commercial properties are meant for offices, apartments, retail, or industrial buildings. The valuation of real estate properties is necessary, and there are various ways to value real estate properties. There are two types of real estate properties, and these are commercial and residential properties....   [tags: Real estate, Real estate appraisal, Cash flow]

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Management Assertions And The Audit Program

- Management Assertions and the audit program Financial Statement assertions are management’s explanation about the recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of information in the financial statement. Assertions may be classified in five main primary financial statement assertions: • Existence and Occurrence: Transactions recognized in the financial statements have occurred and relate to the entity • Completeness: All transactions that were supposed to be recorded have been recognized in the financial statement • Accuracy and Valuation: Transactions have been recorded accurately at their appropriate amounts • Cutoff: Transactions and events have been recorded in the correct accoun...   [tags: Balance sheet]

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The Case Of Level 3 Fair Value

- In the case of Level 3 fair value estimates, managers have private information concerning appropriate values underlying economic value of items in the financial statements. This organization’s information creates two different problems, moral risk and adverse selection. Also in the more realistic setting, neither the balance sheet and income statement reflects fully all fair value relevant information although management discretion can reduce from its relevance. The risks of fair value accounting disclose no basis for recognizing income but realized gains and losses....   [tags: Balance sheet, Income statement]

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The Validity And Reliability Of Dces

- The validity and reliability of DCEs as an elicitation method for the values of an environmental public commodity requires respondents to consider the contextual factors embedded in the survey as intended by the designer. The focus of this paper is on the context within which the commodity is provided, specifically in terms of being a public good. Besides the instrumental values, evaluations of public environmental goods/services are found to be influenced by their collective welfare aspects. If respondents did not attend to the context of provision or did not incorporate it in their choice decisions, however, one would expect the valuation to be guided mainly by the instrumental values of t...   [tags: Economics, Utility, St. Petersburg paradox]

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Economic Language: Willingness to Pay

- In the language of economists, “willingness to pay” describes the amount of money a person would sacrifice in order to obtain an additional unit of utility. In environmental economics, specifically, WTP is used to reflect the maximum amount a person would give up in exchange for an increase in an environmental “good” (for example, a one-unit increase in the cleanliness of a lake) or the minimum amount a person would accept in exchange for an environmental “bad” (for example, a one-unit increase in air pollution)....   [tags: Economics]

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Valuing a Website Before You Sell

- Valuing a Website Before You Sell Reprinted with permission of There is probably no part of the buying process that worries a potential buyer more than overpaying for a website. While this is understandable (who wants to pay more than something is worth), it has more to do with misinformation and one's total approach to buying a website than it does to being an expert at appraisals. The truth is, value is completely subjective. After all, what one website may be worth to you is entirely different from what it is worth to the next person....   [tags: Sell Websites Buy Websites]

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1092 words | (3.1 pages) | Preview

Short Term Liquidity, Profitability, And Coverage

- Ratios relating to short-term liquidity,profitability, and coverage are analyzed to get a better understanding of Chesapeake Energy. One of the common themes and industry norm for companies within the oil and gas industry is carrying high levels of debt. Hence, it is critical that there be high levels of cash inflow in order to meet the various debt obligations. Profit ratios must also be considered to ensure the company is generating enough net income in relation to the expenses it incurs, in addition, these ratios take into account assets, stockholders equity....   [tags: Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Asset]

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712 words | (2 pages) | Preview

Emotion Regulation : Ability Reframe And Reinterpret One 's Emotions

- Emotion regulation is the ability reframe and reinterpret one’s emotions. It works through a valuation process that targets the current emotional state, and it assigns that emotional state a positive or negative value. By assigning an emotional state a negative or positive value, it means the emotion is determined to be approachable or avoidable. Emotions are said to be comprised of a four-stage cycle, mainly known as W-PVA. The “W” stands for world. The world is the stimulus; it can act as an internal stimulus (memory) or an external stimulus (spider)....   [tags: Emotion, Psychology, Empathy, Feeling]

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Business Analysis : The Company Ambev, Who Makes And Distributes All Types Of Beverages

- For our group project, we valued the company Ambev, who makes and distributes all types of beverages. We collaborated as a group in determining some essential information in the beginning of this valuation as well as answering some key questions. Ambev primarily serves the geographical markets of Brazil, South & Central America, Canada and the United States, but operates in 18 countries. Having a rich heritage stemming back from the 1800’s, this company was officially established in 1999 and boasts over 100 labels on its own....   [tags: Corporate finance, Mergers and acquisitions]

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Getting the Best Terms When Buying a Business

- You have dreamed of owning a business. Now that you have found the right one for you, negotiate to buy the business. Do not be saddled with terms that can ruin your opportunity before it even gets started. Negotiations will evolve so you must have an open mind and a “can-do” attitude to produce a deal. Think about the points to be negotiated, what your position is and what your rebuttal will be for the seller’s comments. Here’s how to make sure you get the best deal when buying a business. Prepare for the negotiation....   [tags: Negotiation Strategies, Advice]

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How Useful are Financial Models: The Base Case

- INTRODUCTION Financial Model is defined as the model that captures the future operating, investing and financing activities that determines the future profitability, financial position and risk of a business venture (MacMorran, 2009). It is a decision making tool regarding investment, forecasting and valuation of a project or a company. It is an important element in investment decisions which helps to regulate financial activities. According to Janiszewski S. (2011) the importance of financial modelling is to reflect/represent the forecasted financial performance of a business venture....   [tags: financial risk and return assessment]

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Overview of the United States Banking Industry

- Introduction Households, businesses and governments all use banking of one form or another and chances are the bank you use has been part of a consolidation. Competition in the banking industry is extremely intense and one method banks use to improve their competitive advantage, increase their market power, grow their customer base, increase revenues and hopefully achieve greater profits is through consolidations. This report discusses consolidation in the banking industry, including an overview of the industry, explanation of mergers and acquisitions, motivation behind and factors affecting consolidations, as well as a look at some significant consolidations at well-known financial institut...   [tags: insurance, comercial, asset banking]

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Managing Risks Of Operations And Supply Chains

- Research Statement Bo Li I center my research agenda on managing risks in operations and supply chains. My favored research methodologies include analytical modelling, statistical analytics, game theory, and numerical simulation. My research will help managers make operational and strategic decisions in the presence of demand and supply risks. My investigation in operations-finance interface and supply chain risk management illustrates the important role of demand and supply risks for decision makers when inventory decisions lead to financial risks....   [tags: Management, Inventory, Supply chain management]

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Protecting And Conserving Natural Habitats And Ecosystems

- Over the last two decades there has been a heightened emphasis on protecting and conserving natural habitats and ecosystems in order to protect the environment (Saayman et al., 2015). This has resulted in an increased desire to participate in nature-based and wildlife viewing activities before it is too late, and a corresponding rise in popularity of ecotourism (Tonder et al., 2013). Today, more so than ever before, there has been a significant focus around ensuring that tourism development is biologically sustainable (Kruger and Saayman, 2013, cited in Saayman et al., 2015)....   [tags: Tourism, Natural environment]

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A Random Walk Down Wall Street

- The firm-foundation theory from book “A Random Walk Down Wall Street” argues about each investment instrument including common stocks and pieces of real estate. These two instruments have a firm anchor of something called “intrinsic value,” which is determined by careful analysis of present conditions and future prospects. When the market prices fall below the firm-foundation of intrinsic value, a buying opportunity arises. This opportunity arises because the fluctuation will eventually be corrected....   [tags: Investment, Stock market, Stock, Mutual fund]

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Economically Evaluating Wetlands

- Wetland is a term that can be used to describe wet habitats, such as bogs, fens, marshes etc., that experience either permanent or occasional inundation of water that allows either for hydrophytes to establish or for hydric soil to form (EPA, 2005). Additionally wetlands can be termed as ecotones, as these locations transition between aquatic and dry land ecosystems and in spite of these systems being incredibly diverse from each other they are very much dependent on each other for the establishment of the unique wetland ecosystems (Mitsch & Gosselink, 1993)....   [tags: wet habitats, ecosystem]

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Wal-Mart Financial Analysis

- Corporate Finance: Wal-Mart Contents Corporate Finance: Wal-Mart 1 1. Introduction 2 2. Success at Delivering Value to the Shareholders in the Last 5 Years 2 2.1 Growth in Earnings 2 2.2 Growth in Dividend Declared 3 3. Valuation of Equity 4 3.1 Net Asset Value (NAV) 5 3.2 Price / Earnings Ratio 5 3.3 Discounted Free Cash Flow 7 4. Reconciliation of Differences 8 4.1 Benefits and Costs of Using Net Assets Value 9 4.2 Benefits and Costs of Using Price Earnings Ratio 9 4.3 Benefits and Costs of Using Discounted Free Cash Flow 9 5....   [tags: Corporate Finance]

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1683 words | (4.8 pages) | Preview

Finance Q & A

- 1. Explain why market prices are useful to the financial manager. The financial manager is responsible for giving financial advice and support to clients and colleagues that will enable them to make good business decisions. Particular work environments differ considerable and involve both public and private sector organizations such as retailers, corporations, financial institutions, charities, and even small manufacturing companies and schools (Financial Manager, 2011). Primarily, financial managers look at the market price in maximizing the value of the firm....   [tags: Finance]

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International Financial Reporting Standards

- The globalization of business has resulted in the need for compatible accounting standards that can be used internationally for financial reporting. As a result, the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) were developed by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) to unify the various financial reporting methods and create a single accounting standard which can be applied to any financial statement worldwide (Byatt). The global standardization of financial reporting will increase the readability and enhance comparability of globally traded companies’ financial statements, without the need of conversion or translation....   [tags: Accounting]

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1068 words | (3.1 pages) | Preview

The Implementation Of The Treasury 's $ 700 Billion Financial Bailout Plan

- Question: There has been a lot of discussion about on the implementation of the Treasury 's $700 billion financial bailout plan lately. Some analysts have suggested using the fair-value approach to evaluate the distressed portfolios that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac hold. It sounds like a solution that could significantly reduce the bailout funding required. How does a fair-value approach evaluate those distressed portfolios. Answer: First, what is the fair-value approach. The fair-value approach is not a new concept....   [tags: Subprime mortgage crisis, Debt]

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701 words | (2 pages) | Preview

Movie Gallery Case Analysis

- Information available from Movie Gallery's 2005 10-K and second quarter 2006 10-Q were used in preparing this assessment. The website to locate Movie Gallery's 2005 10-K and second quarter 2006 (10-Q) can be located in the "investor relations" section on Movie Gallery's website at Movie Gallery, Inc.'s (the Company) most recent annual report was for the year-ended January 1, 2006 (the 2005 annual report year). The Company operates on a 52 / 53 week year with the year-end date being the Sunday following December 30....   [tags: Business Management Analysis]

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1526 words | (4.4 pages) | Preview

Cash Audit

- The audit objectives to be achieved for the audit of cash substantiate the following assertions: existence, completeness, rights and obligations, valuation, and presentation and disclosure. One of the objectives for a cash audit is to verify that the recorded cash balances exist at the balance sheet date and reflect all cash and cash items on hand, in transit, and on deposit with third parties. This objective validates both the existence assertion and part of the completeness assertion. Another objective is to make sure that the recorded cash balances include all of the cash transactions that have occurred along with the effects from those transactions; this would satisfy the remaining comp...   [tags: Accounting]

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1032 words | (2.9 pages) | Preview

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