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Osmosis in Potato Tubes

- Osmosis in Potato Tubes Osmosis: Osmosis is the movement of water molecules through a semi-permeable membrane from a high concentration to a low concentration. Diagram: [IMAGE] [IMAGE] Aim: To see the effects of different concentration of sugar solution on Osmosis in potato tubes. Key factor: In the investigation we change the sugar solution from: 0%-10%-20%-30%-40%-50% this is the independent variable; the dependant variable is the change in mass. Prediction: I predict that all the potato tubes in pure water or low concentration sugar solution will swell because water enters their cells by osmosis....   [tags: Papers]

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Hydrochloric Acid Into Tubes of Water and Sodium Thiosulphate Experiment

- Hydrochloric Acid Into Tubes of Water and Sodium Thiosulphate Experiment Plan ==== I am going to find out what happens if I put 5 different amounts of hydrochloric acid into 5 test tubes of water and sodium thiosulphate, which will be, kept the same amount. Prediction ========== I think that the more acid I add to the sodium thiosulphate and water mixture the quicker the reaction will be. I think this will happen because there will be more acid particles in the mixture which means there will be more collisions....   [tags: Lab Report]

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How to Develop with Deafness or Hearing Impairment

- I am currently an art education major, but my dream has always been to work and possibly teach at a deaf school. I was born with a hearing impairment. I was not deaf but I was hard-of-hearing. We did not know about this hearing impairment until I was about four or five years old. I taught myself to read lips, so for the longest time they thought I was just stubborn and hardheaded, but little did they know I just could not hear them. When I was around five years old I went to an audiologist and had ear tube surgery....   [tags: loss, development, tubes]

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An Investigation to Observe the Effect of Different Sugared Solutions on the Mass of Potato Tubes

- An Investigation to Observe the Effect of Different Sugared Solutions on the Mass of Potato Tubes Introduction: Diffusion is the natural random movement of gas and liquid particles, from a high concentration of that substance to a low concentration. An example of diffusion in body is in the lungs. Oxygen in the alveolar air spaces diffuses in to the blood capillaries. Osmosis it the diffusion of water particles through a partially permeable membrane, from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration....   [tags: Papers]

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The Development of Computers

- ... The main problem was that transistors, like other electronic components, needed to be soldered together. As a result, the more complex the circuits became, the more complicated and numerous the connections between the individual transistors and the likelihood of faulty wiring increased. The first large-scale machines to take advantage of this transistor technology were early supercomputers, Stretch by IBM and LARC by Sperry-Rand. This computer can handle a large amount of data and more complex....   [tags: logical operations, vacuum tubes]

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The Person That Made Me Who I Am Today

- The person that made me who I am today was my dad because he has been there for me since day one. My dad, always told me to do well in school, but the part that hurt me was when he got a bypass heart surgery when I was about 10 or 11 years old. I had to take care of my little siblings, and we would have to stay at one of my brothers’ godparents for a day or two, or probably more. When it was finally the time to take my dad into a room so we could visit him, they wouldn’t let us which made me mad because I wanted to visit my dad to see how he was doing and find out how he had come out of surgery....   [tags: Family, English-language films, The Tubes]

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Common Source of Error in Medical Laboratory

- The literature review was done to gather the information about the most common source of error in the medical laboratory. The majority of errors come from the pre-analytical phase that is considered the basis for all laboratory works. Pre-pre-analytic and true pre-analytic are two areas of the pre-analytical phase (Plebani, 2012). Test selection, patient identification, sample collection, preparation and handling are part of the pre-pre-analytical process, while storing, pipetting and centrifugation sample are actual pre-analytical processes (Hawkins, 2012; Plebani, 2012)....   [tags: pre-analytical phase, inappropriate tubes]

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Investigating the Effects of Varying Sugar Concentration on the Amount of Osmotic Activity Between the Solution and Potato Tubes

- Investigating the Effects of Varying Sugar Concentration on the Amount of Osmotic Activity Between the Solution and Potato Tubes Hypothesis: Osmosis is defined as the net movement of water molecules from a region in which they are highly concentrated to a region in which they are less concentrated. This movement takes place across a partially permeable membrane e.g. a cell wall. This means that the cell wall will let smaller molecules such as water through but does not allow bigger molecules to pass through....   [tags: Papers]

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Hospital Acquired Pneumonia Costs Hospitals An Estimated $ 20000 ( Roquilly )

- Each case of hospital acquired pneumonia costs hospitals an estimated $20,000 (Roquilly, Marret, Abraham, & Asehnoune, 2015). Ventilator­associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection in patients receiving mechanical ventilation, and it accounts for about half of all antibiotics given in the intensive care unit. It occurs in 9­27% of mechanically ventilated patients, with about five cases per 1,000 ventilator days (Hunter, 2012). VAP is a hospital acquired infection of the lungs that occurs 48 hours or more after tracheal intubation (Hunter, 2012)....   [tags: Pneumonia, Nosocomial infection]

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A Scientific Study of the Lactase Enzyme

- Section 1: Introduction Enzymes are proteins that are used to accelerate bio chemical reactions. Enzymes can only react with what is called a substrate. This is because the enzyme has a specific working property, such as having a distinct shape that only allows a perfect fit of a substrate. This substrate locks itself to the enzyme and produces a product. Lactase is an enzyme that breaks down lactose, a milk disaccharide of galactose and glucose. Lactase can only be found inside the inner walls of the small intestine....   [tags: enzymes, lactase, environmental factors]

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How The Enzyme Catecholase From Potato Extract Reacts

- Our hypothesis is that we believe, the test tube that has potato extract alone in it will have the darkest brown color, thus it will have the highest absorbency. The reason we believe this hypothesis is true is because, darker the color of the mixture, more light will be absorbed and also because it did not receive any pH which can make the mixture lose it’s ability the catalyze reaction. This experiment is designed to investigate and compare, how the enzyme catecholase from potato extract reacts and shows different absorbency when mixed with catechol, and different pH buffer to when it just has the catecholse present in it....   [tags: PH, Buffer solution, Acid dissociation constant]

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What is Nutrition and Why Is It Important?

- What is nutrition. Why is nutrition important. Nutrition, nourishment, or aliment, is the supply of materials - food - required by organisms and cells to stay alive. In science and human medicine, nutrition is the science or practice of consuming and utilizing foods (MNT, 2014). A nutrient is a source of nourishment, an ingredient in a food, e.g. protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamin, mineral, fiber and water. Macronutrients are nutrients we need in relatively large quantities. Micronutrients are nutrients we need in relatively small quantities (MNT, 2014)....   [tags: carbohydrates, proteins, nourishment]

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Defining The Problem And Selecting Variables

- Mani Kallupurackal Biology 2 IB I. Design Aspect 1: Defining the Problem and Selecting Variables Research Question/Problem: Does the amount of concentration of sucrose in water effect the amount of water passed through dialysis tubing. Variables: Dependent- The amount of water gained in the separate dialysis tubing Independent- The solutions with different concentrations of sucrose in the dialysis tubes which are 0M, .2M, .4M, .6M, .8M, and 1M concentrations of sucrose. Other relevant variables that need to be controlled- The temperature of the water; the amount of water, 250mL, in the beakers where the tubes are put in....   [tags: Diffusion, Osmosis, Concentration, Solution]

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A Experiment On The Decision Of Litmus Milk

- In order to learn even more about my specimen’s metabolic functions, I ran an experiment using a type of differential medium called litmus milk. This differential medium or any other type allows me to actually see certain changes that occur in the tubes after a certain metabolic reaction has taken place (Black, 2015). For this experiment two tubes that contain skin milk and the pH indicator, litmus were inoculated with specimens Ca and Cb. My first litmus milk tube was inoculated with a strain of specimen Ca that was taken from my specimen Ca glucose tube....   [tags: Metabolism, Enzyme, Amino acid, Protein]

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Specifity of Lactase and Its Effect on the Environment

- An enzyme is a protein that is produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change. Enzymes have an area with a specific shape, called the active site of the enzyme. The molecule on which the enzyme acts is called a substrate. After the reaction has taken place and the products of the reaction leave the active site, leaving the enzyme ready for another reaction . The active site of an enzyme has such a particular shape that only one kind of molecule will fit it....   [tags: proteins produced by living organisms, experiment]

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How Penguins Keep Warm

- How Penguins Keep Warm Befor experiment Aim I aim to investigate whether penguins huddling together in a group are able to keep warmer than a solitary penguin using test tube as model penguins. Prediction I predict that the penguins that are in a huddle shall stay warmer for longer than the penguin that is alone. This is because the penguins in the huddle shall absorb some of the heat energy lost by the surrounding penguins and so keep warmer unlike the penguin which is alone who will gain no heat energy as there are no surrounding penguins....   [tags: Papers]

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What is Fermentation?

- ... You want to fill the conical tube to at least 50 ml of water (Cressy). Take the four conical tubes filled with water and place two in each beaker, to do this you must invert the tube and cover the release hole as to not lose any water (Cressy). Then place the beakers with the tubes in the bath so they can be at the same temperature as the bath (Cressy). Next mark all of your test tubes in number order to be sure which tube contains what concentrations and pH (Cressy). Having mixed a solution to the specifications of 2.5 ml of glucose in all tubes, 3 ml of yeast in 2 tubes of pH 5, 2 tubes of pH 9, and the single pH 7 tube, the remaining two tubes will contain no yeast as they will be neg...   [tags: metabolic process, oxygen molecules]

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Finding A Feeding Tube Of A Patient With Advanced Dementia

- I chose this PICO question because I strongly felt the decision to place a feeding tube in a patient with advanced dementia is difficult for both family members and health care professionals. There is increasing evidence that the use of feeding tubes in these patients does not improve survival, prevent aspiration pneumonia, prevent or heal decubitus ulcers, or improve other clinical outcomes. Yet, despite this evidence, more than one third of nursing home residents with advanced dementia have feeding tubes, and many of these individuals have feeding tubes inserted on hospital admission for an acute care problem....   [tags: Feeding tube, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy]

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Intracellular Localization of Respiration and Glycolysis in Sarcophaga bullata

- Intracellular Localization of Glycolysis and Respiration investigates which part of the Sarcophaga bullata cells carries out glycolysis and respiration. Sacrophaga ba. mitochondria and cytoplasm from thoraces cell were used to form a homogenate, supernatant, and pellet. Mannitol, buffer mix, glucose, succinate, homogenate, supernatant, and pellet were added to seven different test tubes to create different solutions. The test tubes were then observed to see which ones bleached after the homogenate, supernatant, and the pellet were added to the solutions and mixed....   [tags: Medical Conditions]

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The Concentration Of Enzyme Concentration

- In this experiment, in the first part, the best concentration of enzyme was determined by recording the absorption over time. In the second part, the best concentration was selected from the previous experiment which was C and the optimum pH was determined. Introduction In an article, ‘Lab Presentation’ on Prezi, the peroxidase enzyme was tested on factors such as enzyme concentration and pH. It was measured using guaiacol as it turns orange when oxidized; spectrophotometer was used to determine the rate of absorbance....   [tags: PH, Enzyme, Oxygen, Acid]

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The History of Computers

- ... Not all of them were invented by the mathematician or physician. Among those machines were pioneering computers put together by english academics notably Manchester/Ferrenti Mark 1, built at Manchester University by Frederic Williams and Thomas Kilburn. And the EDSAC, Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator built by Maurice Wilkes at Cambridge University.      The microelectronic revolution started when they were using the vacuum tubes it consume a lot of power supply. As a comparison the ENIAC used about 2000 times as much electricity as the modern laptop....   [tags: charles babbage, digital computer]

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An Overnight Transformation Of One Bacterium Of A Colony Of Over A Hundred

- Laraib Aqeel Bio 206 9/29/15 An Overnight Transformation of One Bacterium to a Colony of Over a Hundred Introduction: Bacterial transformation is a basic technique that can introduce a plasmid to bacteria and use that bacterium to amplify the plasmids to make large quantities of itself. This is a basic technique that is used in a molecular biological laboratory setting that can help us visualize how the plasmid can transfer genetic information vital to the survival of the bacteria. Genetic transformation is used in many areas of biotechnology....   [tags: Bacteria, Antibiotic resistance, Escherichia coli]

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The Enzymatic Strength Of Catecholase And How Nearby Surroundings Affect Its Activity

- Introduction Catecholase is an enzyme formed by catechol and oxygen used to interlock oxygen at relative settings, and it is present in plants and crustaceans (Sanyal et. al, 2014). For example, in most fruits and vegetables, the bruised or exposed area of the pant becomes brown due to the reaction of catechol becoming oxidized and oxygen becoming reduced by gaining hydrogen to form water, which then creates a chain that is is the structural backbone of dark melanoid pigments (Helms et al., 1998)....   [tags: Enzyme, PH, Buffer solution, Enzyme inhibitor]

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A Brief Note On Bacteria And Its Effect On Human Behavior

- Purpose Bacteria is all about survival, so what does it do to survive. It acquires new genes. Bacteria can acquire these new genes through mutations and the transfer of genetic material. In other words, the ability to acquire some sort of external genetic material. Therefore, there are 3 ways for bacteria to acquire this external genetic material the first is conjugation, which is a process that involves cell-to-cell contact between sexually differentiated bacterial strains. Then we got the transduction process, which consists of a bacterial virus mediated transfer of genetic material from one cell to another....   [tags: Bacteria, DNA, Gene, Plasmid]

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Genetic Transformation of E. Coli to Green Fluorescent Protein

- Genetic Transformation of E. coli to Green Fluorescent Protein Introduction Genetic transformation is the process a cell undergoes to uptake a piece of foreign DNA from a different organism (Aldridge 2012). The process first started by a group of men named Herbert Boyer, Paul Berg, and Stanley Cohen during the 1970s (Aldridge 2012). As a result of their work, vaccines, medicine, and insulin became available (Aldridge 2012). This lab involves E. coli and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) that will glow green if the transformation works....   [tags: dna, bacterium, codes]

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A Experiment On The Enzyme

- Purpose: This lab gives the idea about the enzyme. We will do two different experiments. Enzyme is a protein that made of strings of amino acids and it is helping to produce chemical reactions in the quickest way. In the first experiment, we are testing water, sucrose solution, salt solution, and hydrogen peroxide to see which can increase the bubbles. So we can understand that enzyme producing chemical reactions in the speed. In the second experiment, we are using temperature of room, boiling water, refrigerator, and freezer to see what will effect the enzyme....   [tags: Water, Chemistry, Heat, PH]

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Molecular Biology And Expressing Gfp

- November 14, 2016 Abigail Lammers Molecular Biology Marion Kawar Introduction: This lab dealt with molecular biology and expressing GFP in bacterial cells. Most of the lab dealt with plasmids. Plasmids are short, circular pieces of DNA that can be used to transmit genetic information into a host cell (for example: adding a gene that will make the host cell glow). These DNA pieces are separate from the rest of the genome and are replicated separately as well. Plasmids join to a DNA sequence through bacterial transformation....   [tags: DNA, Bacteria, Gene, Molecular biology]

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Molecular Anatomy Project.

- I. Introduction An enzyme is a protein that functions as a catalyst, to speed up the reaction by diminishing energy needed for the reaction (Ophardt, 2013). They also, “increase the rate of (a) reaction” without using as much energy as if it would when the reaction occurs on its own (Mader, pg.104). The beaded-like structure of an enzyme consists of a gap known as the “active site” which allows a substance to bind to the enzyme. Generally, an enzyme “acts specifically with only one reactant to produce a product” (Ophardt, 2013)....   [tags: Environmental Factors, Lactase Function]

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Seawater Composition and Salinity

- Using the decanted supernatant solution from the precipitation experiment, a wire loop was dipped into the solution. This loop was stuck in the flame from a Bunsen Burner and heated until a flame appeared. The presence of a bright yellow flame confirmed that Na+ was in attendance. Using a cobalt glass as a filter, the loop was examined and a violet flame was present, showing that K+ was also in the supernatant solution. Testing for NH + This test was carried out using the original solution to avoid contamination of ammonium salts from the other procedures....   [tags: Tides and Salinity]

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Lactase Enzyme Lab Report

- ... Quickly add 1 mL of lactase to the 2 tubes labeled “Milk + Lactase” and “Sucrose + Lactase, “ and 1 mL of water to the 2 tubes labeled “Milk + Water” and “Sucrose + Water.” Once each tube has their proper solutions start the 2-minute timer. Once the 2-minute timer stops, place one glucose strip into each test tube to test for the glucose levels in each solution. The glucose strips were placed into the tubes only for a few seconds and then removed. Use the test strips indicator to test the levels of glucose and record the amount of glucose you see....   [tags: biochemistry in dairy products]

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Scientific Experiment: Bacterial Transformation

- Title: Research Question: Can modifying the genetic material of bacteria create new characteristics through gene transfer. Introduction: Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus and no internal membrane. Because of this, they can be classified as bacteria. Prokaryotic cells are similar in structure to Eukaryotic cells, however the DNA floats in a nucleoid. Transformed bacteria consist of a recombinant plasmid and a host cell or bacteria. If the plasmid in the bacteria has a gene that is useful it can be very beneficial to the bacteria....   [tags: Gene Transfer, DNA, Plasmid]

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The Effect Of Light Intensity, Nh4cl, And Dcmu On The Rate Of Electron Transport

- Investigating the effects of light intensity, NH4CL, and DCMU on the rate of electron transport in spinach thylakoid membranes was the purpose of this lab. Photosynthesis is the process that routinely drives electron transport across the thylakoid membrane but can be impacted when additional factors are added. Two phases known as Light reactions and the Calvin cycle makeup photosynthesis. Plastoquinone shuttle, water oxidation, and NADP+ reduction are the major factors of the light reactions. Photosynthesis creates a proton gradient when pigments in the thylakoid membrane absorbs light energy from the sun....   [tags: Photosynthesis, Cellular respiration]

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An Experiment On How It Is Isolated From The Turkey Broth That Was Made

- The main objective of these experiments was to find out what organism was isolated from the turkey broth that was made. This organism was then compared to the other experiments to see how accurate they were. Comparing the organism to the other experiments also will confirm that they were indeed accurate and that the same organism was in all the experiments. The first Eneropluri test done on isolate 3 did not come out as a enteric bacteria since it did not ferment glucose at all in the tube. This could have been due to contamination so isolate 3 was streaked three times onto a clean MacConkey plate and there was no contamination on the plate after incubation....   [tags: Escherichia coli, Bacteria]

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The Effect Of Ph And Temperature Amylase Activity From Fungal And Mammal

- pH and temperature amylase activity from fungal and mammal Introduction The first enzyme that was produced industrially is amylase from a fungal source in 1894, it was used to treat digestive disorders. Amylase are groups of enzyme that breaks down starch into sugar and starts the process of chemical digestion. Its primary function is to digest enzymes and its optimum pH is 7. Amylase is measured by mixing a substrate with a buffer and measuring the change of the mixture. The reason why we measure amylase is to assist in diagnosis of different diseases such as abdominal pain (Reynolds, 2009)....   [tags: Enzyme, PH, Enzymes, Starch]

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Finding Organic Compounds Like Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins And Nucleic Acid

- To uncover organic compounds like carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acid, by using tests like Benedict, Lugol, Biuret and Beta Carotene. Each test was used to determine the presents of different organic molecules in substances. The substances that were tested for in each unknown sample were sugars, starches, fats, and oils. Moreover, carbohydrates are divided into two categories, simple and complex sugars. Additionally, for nonreducing sugars, according to Stanley R. Benedict, the bond is broken only by high heat to make make the molecules have a free aldehydes (Benedict)....   [tags: Carbohydrate, Glucose, Nutrition, Protein]

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How Light Intensity Affects The Reaction Rate Of Photosynthesis

- In the light intensity experiment, tubes of buffer solution, chloroplast, water and DPIP were placed in different intensities of light to determine how light intensity affects the reaction rate of photosynthesis. The reaction rate was measured by absorbance values in five-minute increments for 30 minutes. The tubes were placed at 24 cm away, 30 cm away, 49 cm away, and completely dark. The tube that was closest to the light had the smallest absorbance value, while the dark tube had the highest value....   [tags: Photosynthesis, Light, Chlorophyll]

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An Investigation Of The Enzyme Succinate Dehydrogenase

- An investigation of the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase. Introduction Enzymes are a catalysts that speed up a chemical reaction inside of a cell without being consumed or changed by the reaction. (Wright, W. 2015) Enzymes catalyse reactions by lowering the activation energy that is required for the reaction to occur. (Nature, 2012) In this experiment we will be using Succinate dehydrogenase which is an enzyme that has been extracted from chicken hearts, succinate dehydrogenase is an enzyme of the TCA cycle (citric acid cycle) and involves the catalyses the oxidation of succinate, this means there is a loss of 2 hydrogen atoms....   [tags: Enzyme, PH, Chemical reaction, Buffer solution]

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Enzyme Lab Report

- ... The test tubes were labeled as follows: A. Milk and lactase, B. Milk and water, C. Sucrose and lactase, and D. Sucrose and water. We then label our four micropipettes using a sharpie as: milk, lactase, sucrose, and water. Paper towels to rest the micropipettes may be an efficient way to keep the area clean and the micropipettes, and a timer to keep track of time. The four glucose strips to determine the results at the end of the experiment are by far the most important, and of course a lab bench to place the test tubes on....   [tags: function under environmental factors]

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Arguing in Favor of Euthanasia

- “I have seen patients rocking in their bed, in terrible pain-it does not seem like something God would want. Medical technology can save a life, but the life is not always worth living out.” -Bioethicist teaching at St. Thomas University (Gay 36-37). Euthanasia is a Greek expression meaning, “good death” or “easy death.” Originally it was used for the elderly and was a way they could pass on in a peaceful and painless way in their own comfortable surroundings and without having to rely on artificial life support (Young)....   [tags: Artificial Living, Preventing Pain]

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Macromolecules And The Macromolecules Lab

- Macromolecules In the Macromolecules lab we tested for different thing such as reducing sugar, starch, and protein. In the reducing starch experiment we tested three different macromolecules. Each macromolecules was tested for sugar and how we indicated how much sugar was in each macromolecules was because the color would change. Some of the colors it would change to would be light blue (no sugar), light green (a trace of sugar), yellow (low sugar) Orange (moderate), red orange (high). Seven tubes were tested that had 10 drops of a different liquid such as onion juice, potato juice, sucrose, glucose, distilled water, reducing sugar, and starch solution....   [tags: Glucose, Carbohydrate, Nutrition, Starch]

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Why Penguins Huddle

- Why Penguins Huddle Why do penguins huddle. Do a group of penguins have a better chance of survival in the cold than a single penguin. Introduction The ability to withstand intense cold is one of the penguin’s greatest assets. Most penguins have rather small feet, wings and heads. The relatively small surface area in comparison to its volume results in excellent heat conservation. Many penguins, in addition have a think insulating layer of fat under the skin....   [tags: Papers]

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Hypothesis Of Zophobas Will Have A Higher Rate Of Oxygen Consumption

- Hypothesis Prior to conducting the lab, it was hypothesized that Zophobas morio will have a higher rate of oxygen consumption than Tenebrio molitor. The hypothesis was made on the basis of supporting evidence stating that oxygen consumption in an organism at rest increases with body mass (Bartholomew, 1977). Since the size of Zophobas morio is significantly bigger than the size of Tenebrio molitor, it was hypothesized that they will consume more oxygen in mL/hour. Results The graph in Figure 1 shows the rate of oxygen consumption of species Zophobas morio weighing 1.93g at a temperature of 20.5°C....   [tags: Statistics, Standard deviation, Arithmetic mean]

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The Effect Of Copper Metal On An Aqueous Nitric Acid

- Discussion: The reactions in the experiments where observed and then proven in the lab. The first reaction involved the combination of copper metal to an aqueous nitric acid. The nitric acid originated as a light blue color, then later changed to a turquoise after the addition of the copper. Then some of the solution turned into gas, which was observed by identifying a light brown gas trapped on the inside of the test tubes sidings. The oxygen combined with hydrogen to form water, while copper II nitrate and nitrogen dioxide....   [tags: Chemical reaction, Chemistry, Hydrogen, Ammonia]

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An Evaluation of the Construction of Britannia Bridge

- Completed in 1850 Brittania Bridge was the brainchild of Robert Stephenson and at the time was at the cutting edge of civil engineering, with all aspects of construction being on an unprecedented scale. Construction began in 1846 and was completed by 1850, it was intended that the bridge carry the Chester and Holyhead railway across the Menai Strait. Brittania Bridge had to be a tubular bridge to meet the criteria set by the board of admiralty, that the span of the bridge should be at least 100ft above the Menai Straits at all points....   [tags: Engineering ]

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The Pregnancy Of The Female Reproductive Sys Tem

- The ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina make up the female reproductive sys-tem. The ovaries produce hormones as well as release eggs for reproduction, estrogen and proges-terone are the hormones that help get the lining of the uterus ready for child bearing. When eggs are released they travel down the pear-shaped uterus through the fallopian tubes. In the event that fertilization doesn’t take place the eggs are released out the body during menstrual period, however if fertilization occurs the fetus stays in the uterus because it has the ability to increase in size....   [tags: Pregnancy, Ectopic pregnancy, Uterus]

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Material Selection Study On The Bike Frame

- Material Selection Study A report made to analyze and select the most relevant material that can be used in the industry of Bike frame. Introduction Bikes consists of a multiple well known parts, starting from the wheels, passing by the chair, the steering system, the pedals, and finally the frame of the bike. The frame of the bike is the part in the product that is responsible for carrying the loads exerted on the bike, in the latter sections of this paper we will discuss these loads and how do they apply, we will also discuss how the bike frame react to these loads and how we can carefully choose the material that can withstand these stresses and loads....   [tags: Tensile strength, Young's modulus]

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Description Of An Artery : Arterial Pulsation

- Hitting an artery: Arterial pulsation will be felt when palpating the vessel therefore this should not happen. Bright red blood will propel out under force if an artery is penetrated. In this circumstance you should release the tourniquet, take out the needle and apply pressure for five minutes to ensure the stoppage of blood flow (haemostasis). Make sure the site has stopped bleeding prior to the patient leaving. Recommend that they return to the surgery in order to make sure they are fine and checked - a physician should always check the patient before being released....   [tags: Blood, Artery, Vein, Hematology]

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The Relationship Between Food Concentration, And Respiratory Activity

- The Relationship Between Food Concentration, and Respiratory Activity In this experiment different concentrations of sucrose were tested to determine which leads to the most respiratory activity in yeast. Yeast is a heterotrophic anaerobic fungus which lacks chlorophyll. Yeast is used commercially to ferment the sugars of wheat, barley, and corn to produce alcohol, and in the baking industry to raise or expand dough. Yeast or alcoholic fermentation is the anaerobic process of respiration by which sugars, such as glucose and sucrose, are converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide (CO2 )....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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Micro Propulsion Attitude Control System Testing

- Each Micro Propulsion Attitude Control System (MPACS) tube underwent testing prior to assembly and launch. The first tests for MPACS occurred on 10 and 13 May 2004. These tests involve firing each tube and documenting how many pulses are observed. However, there are no details to exactly which PPT was fired, so from this point in the analysis, the most conservative (longest) duration will be assumed to be for the PPT that shorted on 2 Nov 07 (PPT Cluster 2, Tube 2). Additionally, since there are no time records available, a frequency of 1 Hz will be assumed....   [tags: Test Analysis]

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Various Kinds of Heat Exchangers Analysis

- This is another type of heat exchanger, which is vital during energy recovery systems and normally finds its application in HVAC systems. It has the general appearance of a plate-finned water coil although in this case, the tubes are never interconnected. A typical heat pipe is separated into two sections using a closed/sealed dividing wall. When placed in an air handling system, hot exhaust air stream passes through the evaporator and gets cooled, while the cool incoming air stream is passed through the condenser....   [tags: heat pipes, hvac systems, energy recovery]

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Respiratory Systems And The Respiratory System

- Respiratory System Have you ever felt like you were out of breath…. This all falls under the respiratory system. The respiratory system is divided into two different portions. The first is made up of the upper airway and the second portion is the lower airway. Muscles, respiratory distress, failure, hypoxic drive, extra. The upper air way consists of the nasal passage, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, epiglottis and trachea. The nasal cavity is a giant space located behind the nose; both nostrils connect to this cavity and bring air into our bodies....   [tags: Respiratory system, Pulmonology]

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Fuel of the Future: Biofuels

- Fuel of the Future: Biofuels Biomass can be used as an alternative fuel by combustion and direct burning for energy production. Fuels that have already been implemented include gasoline, diesel, and ethanol. All of these pose some sort of threat to the environment or human preference. Cellulosic ethanol is refined by using sugar extraction and can be used as a gasoline additive. This source of energy from plants has the potential to reduce the waste and pollution combustion-based energy poses....   [tags: energy source alternatives]

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Heat Conservation Advantages for Penguins When Huddling

- Heat Conservation Advantages for Penguins When Huddling Aim and Introduction My aim is to find out the heat conservation advantages are for penguins are when huddling. I will be huddling boiling tubes (to represent the penguins) containing hot water (to represent the penguins' blood) and measuring the temperature over a period of time. I also had a control boiling tube on its own to see how the temperature is affected by not huddling. ===================================================================== To keep themselves warm penguins use blubber as well as stiff tightly packed feathers (up to 70 per sq in)....   [tags: Papers]

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Investigating the Hardness of Water

- Investigating the Hardness of Water Planning Aim To investigate the hardness of water in 5 different water solutions Background knowledge about hard water The hardness of water is caused by the presence of Calcium 2+ and magnesium 2+ ions in the water. These minerals in water can cause some everyday problems. They react with soap and produce a deposit called "soap scum" that remains on the skin and clothes and, because it is insoluble and sticky, cannot be removed by rinsing....   [tags: Papers]

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Chlamydia Is A Common Sexually Transmitted Infection ( Sti ) That Can Affect Both Men And Women

- Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) that can affect both men and women. The World Health Organization (2016) has estimated that each year, 131 million people are infected by chlamydia. Adolescents and young adults are at substantial risk of becoming infected with chlamydia (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2001). Young women at the age of 15 to 19 years are the ones who usually carry the highest incidence of disease, followed by women at their 20’s – 20 to 24 years of age....   [tags: Chlamydia infection, Pelvic inflammatory disease]

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Why Do the Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Poorer?

- Financial independence is a destination for some, an idea, a journey, a place, or position in life that we're all hoping to attain one day. Why is it that in one of the richest country on earth that only 10 percent of the population holds 90 percent of its wealth. Is it our education system fault, our parents, or the government's fault. This question has been asked by various individuals and some societies as a whole for quite some time. In his book Rich Dad Poor Dad Robert Kiyosaki addresses the question of why do the rich get richer and the poor get poorer....   [tags: financial, independence, business, plan]

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Temperature And Ph Effect On The Enzymatic Activity Of A Amylase

- Temperature and pH effects on the enzymatic activity of a-amylase Introduction Enzymes are fundamental molecules within Organisms. They are the biological catalysts of the cells; enhancing the rate of biochemical reactions, ensuring metabolic needs are met. These molecules are identified as globular proteins with a three dimensional structure and are composed of one or more polypeptide chains. The polypeptide chain or chains within an enzyme are folded to form a specific active site. Each different structured active site and only catalyses a certain substrate that fits; this is known as the lock and key model (Cooper, 2000)....   [tags: Enzyme, Starch, Catalysis, Saliva]

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Rate Of Enzymatic Activity With Different Amounts Of Substrate Concentration

- Isobel Lu Goss Honors Biology 12/18/15 Rate of Enzymatic Activity With Different Amounts of Substrate Concentration Background: “Enzymes are very efficient catalysts for biochemical reactions. They speed up reactions by providing an alternative reaction pathway of lower activation energy.” ( Enzymes function by joining with substrate(s) on their active sites to form an enzyme-substrate complex, where they then break large molecules into smaller pieces or bind two molecules together....   [tags: Enzyme, Oxygen, Gas, Catalysis]

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Poiseuille’s Law Assists in Knowledge About the Human Body

- ... Capillaries in the lungs are extremely small, but have a vast amount of surface area they can cover. When a patient is exercising, blood vessels will become dilated and blood pressure will increase (Connexions). Patients who have a constantly high blood pressure will have a decrease in cardiac muscle tone and thin blood vessel walls. Capillaries tend to be extremely small, which causes them to have a decreased radius and an increase in airway resistance. Poiseuille’s law states that a decrease in half the radius will cause an increase of airway resistance by sixteen percent (Connexions)....   [tags: volume, resistence, pressure]

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A Short Note On The Rejection And Passage

- 2.6. Rejection and Passage 119 To easily go on study, β2-Microglobulin (β2-MG) and human serum albumin were replaced by 120 lysozyme (LZM) and Albumin from bovine serum (BSA). LZM and β2-MG have the similar molecular 121 weight as LZM is 14 KDa while β2-MG is 11.8 KDa. The molecules of them are both positive charge 122 and globulin. At the same time, isoelectric point of them is relatively similar (LZM was 4.6 and β2- 123 MG 5.7). The molecular weight of BSA is 67 KDa while human serum albumin is 69 KDa....   [tags: Blood, Coagulation, Scanning electron microscope]

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History of the Development of Computers

- ... In the other hand, another perspective would be how user friendly were the computers over a period of time. In the 1950s the computers were almost impossible to use except by very patient geniuses. Next in the 1960s and 1970s, it could only be programmable by highly trained people. Lastly, from the 1980s till present time the computers are now smaller cheaper and useable by just about anyone. From the hardware development perspective, the first generation of computer was the Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC)....   [tags: apple, microsoft, toshiba, dell]

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Digestion Of Carbohydrates By Salivary Amylase

- In the experiment “Digestion of Carbohydrates by Salivary Amylase” this dealt with a test where amylase was observed from a saliva sample and starch mix. Salivary amylase is a digestive enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch of starch into simpler compounds (Saunders 1). The main function for salivary amylase is to break down starch. When it comes to starches, they are known to be complex carbohydrates. In order to see whether or not the amylase broke down the starch, you can add iodine to the saliva sample and starch mix....   [tags: Digestion, Enzyme, Starch, Amylase]

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Investigation of the Movement of Pigment through Cell Membranes

- Investigation of the Movement of Pigment through Cell Membranes Aim The aim of the investigation is to identify the effect of temperature of the movement of pigment through cell membrane of beetroot cells. Prediction and Reasoning [IMAGE]I predict that the temperature will effect the movement of the beetroot pigment through the cell membrane. I believe an increase in temperature would result in an increase in the amount of pigment being released out of the cell. I base my prediction on the fact that an increase in temperature would provide the pigment molecules with more kinetic energy and therefore the rate of diffusion will increase....   [tags: Papers]

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Electrical Amplification

- Electrical Amplification The creation and advancement of the electric amplifier began in 1906 with the invention of the triode, a form of electric amplification containing three active electrodes of which vacuum tubes are a variety, by De Forest (Leach, 1995). This invention became the primary focus of the amplification industry, resulting in the discovery of stable operating vacuum tubes by Langmuir of General Electric in 1913. Consequently, the Japanese established a vacuum tube laboratory in 1914 and created a prototype high-quality vacuum tube in 1916....   [tags: Technology]

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Lab Report Identifying Unknown Substances by Characteristic Properties

- Lab Report Identifying Unknown Substances by Characteristic Properties Purpose: To identify the unknown substance by characteristic properties. Materials: * 30g white substance * thermometer * 40mL water * 4 evaporating dishes * stirring rod * balance * bunsen burner * graph paper * ring stand * pencil * safety goggles * 10mL graduated cylinder * beaker * 4 test tubes Procedure: 1.) Obtain your materials. 2.) Seperate your 40mL of water into 4 different test tubes, 10mL in each....   [tags: Papers]

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The First Generation of Computers

- ... On October 1955, the ENIAC has finally shutdown and retired from the world of computing. The second generation computer uses transistor as a CPU components. In the year 1948, the invention of the transistor has greatly changed the computer’s development and progress. The thousands of vacuum tubes has been replaced by the transistor. As a result, the electronic machinery or the computer itself, has greatly reduced in size. Thus makes it more economical. Compared to the first generation computers, the second generation computers is much more reliable due to the size, power consumption and time taken to programmed it has been significantly reduced to cope up with the advanced technology du...   [tags: technology, history, eniac]

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Techniques for the Investigation of Lac Operons

- The micro-organism used in this lab was E.coli, which is a prokaryote. In general, prokaryotes are small, compact genomes that have a single, round DNA molecule. The genes are tightly packed, with almost no space between them. In the case of E.coli, it has thrA, 1 nucleotide, thrB, thr C. Enzymes of a single biochemical pathway are coded by the operon: introns are absent, so all genes are not interrupted and the sequence is non-repetitive. An operon is a group of adjacent genes which are transcribed as a unit into a single polycistronic mRNA molecule....   [tags: genes, e. coli, cultures]

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Pathology 1321.001 Christopher Hall 11-19-15 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, also known as COPD, is defined as a progressive, chronic lung disease that makes it difficult to breathe by limiting airflow and it is characterized by chronic inflammation of the airway and shortness of breath and wheezing. Progressive meaning that the disease gets worse over time. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is one of many diseases that leads to restrictions, some type of disability, and also an increase in the mortality in the elderly population....   [tags: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Asthma]

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Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions

- Introduction In todays laboratory exercise, one of the factors that affect the enzyme activity will be examined. All enzymes are proteins. The function of enzymes are to accelerate defined chemical reactions by alternating the rate of the reaction. They will not trigger a reaction to take place that would not occur naturally. Having a particular enzyme to catalyze each of the chemical reactions that take place in a living cell, total control of metabolism can be sustained by an organism. Catalase is an enzyme found in cellular organelles called peroxisomes....   [tags: temperature, substrate, proteins]

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Investigating the Concentration of Water in Potato Cells Through Osmosis

- Investigating the Concentration of Water in Potato Cells Through Osmosis Introduction Osmosis is defined as the movement of water molecules from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration, across a semi-permeable membrane. I will be experimenting to find the concentration of water in potato cells through Osmosis. Aim The aim of this investigation is to analyze and experiment in order to study the concentration of water in potato cells through Osmosis....   [tags: Biology Lab Report]

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Investigation of Factors Affect Osmosis in Potatoes

- Investigation of Factors Affect Osmosis in Potatoes Aim The aim of the following experiment was to investigate the effect of varying the concentration of sucrose solution on osmosis in a potato. Preliminary Experiments One preliminary experiment was done before the main experiment. From the preliminary, we were trying to find out how osmosis actually occurred in potatoes, and gave us a vague idea on what the main experiment would be like. This preliminary will aid my prediction, which is stated below....   [tags: Papers]

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Fertility Drugs: Are they worth it?

- Fertility Drugs: Are they worth it. Over the past few years there seems to have been an increase in the amount of couples that have used fertility drugs and ended up having nine or more children. The couples' stories have been aired on the news, and when interviewed, many of the couples stated that they only wanted one child, but because one of the spouses was infertile, they were unable to get pregnant. At the advice of their doctor, the couple took fertility drugs, and the result was the rapid expansion of their family....   [tags: Pregnancy Reproduction Medical Essays]

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Juicy Fruit Investigation

- Juicy Fruit Investigation Aim: To find out if temperature affects the amount of juice the enzyme pectinase releases from an apple. Prediction ========== I predict that the temperature the pectinase will work best in is 30° - 40°, I think this will be the temperature the pectinase will be able to break down the most fruit into fruit juice. I do not believe the enzyme will work above 45° as it would become denatured. This is because I know most enzymes (similar to proteins) stop working/get destroyed above this temperature, as they are made up of protein....   [tags: Papers]

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Chloroplast Fractionation : Nucleic Acid And Protein Analysis Via Gel Electrophoresis

- Chloroplast fractionation: Nucleic acid and protein analysis via gel electrophoresis ABSTRACT: Chloroplasts carry out photosynthetic processes to meet the metabolic demands of plant cells (Alberts, 2008). They consist of an inner thylakoid membrane and a stroma. (Parent et. al, 2008).In this experiment we demonstrate the unique protein compositions of isolated thylakoid and stromal fractions from broken and whole spinach chloroplasts. Because these compartments carry out different metabolic processes, we confirm our hypothesis that performing SDS-PAGE on these fractions will result in distinct patterns on the gels....   [tags: DNA, Molecular biology, Polymerase chain reaction]

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Escherichia Coli : A Model Bacterium For Genetic Transformation

- In this experiment, the most studied bacterium, Escherichia Coli, is utilized as a model bacterium for genetic transformation. E. Coli is a model bacterium since it can extensively be studied to understand a specific phenomenon. The benefits of E. Coli refer back to the observation that it can survive varied conditions; is a single-celled bacterium; is able to rapidly reproduce and grow; most E Coli strains are harmless; E Coli can easily be genetically transformed. Diving more in depth in this experiment, genetic transformation can occur through projectile bombardment, electroporation or heat shock....   [tags: Bacteria, Plasmid, Escherichia coli, Genetics]

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Material And Methods Of The Colony Morphology

- Materials and Methods All methods were performed following the constructed flowchart (above). Nutrient Agar To observe the colony morphology, the original unknown culture was streaked for isolation on nutrient agar using the quadrant streaking technique, inverted, and incubated at 37° C for 48 hours. This allowed for observation of the colony morphology. Separation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative The original unknown culture was streaked for isolation on Columbia CNA agar and MacConkey agar using a quadrant streak, inverted, and placed in a 37° C incubator for 48 hours....   [tags: Staining, Gram staining, Enzyme, Agar plate]

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Vitamin C Content in Fruit Juices

- Aim: To investigate the vitamin C content of fruit juice. Introduction In this experiment I will be finding out which fruit juice contains the most vitamin C. I will be using a method similar to titration but I will be using a syringe instead of a burette. Vitamin C Vitamin C also known as ascorbic acid is needed for growth and maintenance of healthy tissues, especially skin, blood vessels, bones, gums, teeth. Vitamin C aids in resistance against infection and healing of wounds. It also helps the body absorb iron from food....   [tags: science experiments, ]

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The Human Respiratory System and Smoking

- ... It is predominant in the lower half of the lungs and destroys the entire alveolus uniformly. Panacinar emphysema “generally is observed in patients with homozygous alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. In people who smoke, focal panacinar emphysema at the lung bases may accompany centriacinar emphysema” (Demirjian 1). The third type of emphysema is called paraseptal emphysema, also known as distal acinar emphysema. This type involves the distal airway structures, alveolar ducts, and alveolar sacs....   [tags: emphysema, air sacs]

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Enzyme Reactions and Temperature

- Enzyme Reactions and Temperature Purpose Aim - To determine the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction of rennin when it reacts with milk to cause coagulation. Hypothesis - As rennin is naturally found in the human stomach I believe that the optimal temperature for reaction will be approximately 37°C as this is the regular human body temperature. This is shown by the graph below. [IMAGE][1] Background Research Rennin is "an enzyme that catalyses the coagulation of milk, found in the gastric juice of the fourth stomach of young ruminants and used in making cheeses and junkets....   [tags: Papers]

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Osmosis in Potato Cylinders

- Osmosis in Potato Cylinders Aim: Trying to find the average sugar concentration in the potato cylinder cells. I will use potatoes for my experiment because they are convenient and shows fast results in osmosis. [IMAGE]The diagram to the right shows a basic plant cell, however, the difference between this diagram and the potato cells I will be using is that the potato will not be green as it does not need chlorophyll. The cell membranes in a potato cylinder are partially permeable; this means that only particles that are the right size can diffuse through, basically if the particle is too big it will not fit....   [tags: Papers]

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