Your search returned over 400 essays for "rats"
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Rats and Rationality by Joel Marks

- Rats and Rationality by Joel Marks As the scientists Jonathan Crystal and Allison Foote have found that rats have “high mental power,” the report of the research suggests that rats can be used in future neuroscience experiments. As a result, the usage of rats in the neuroscience experiments will be increased. The author of the article, Rats and Rationality, Joel Marks argues against this proposal and emphasizes that the usage of rats in the experiments should be decreased. Mark argues that the conclusion of the research to use rats in neuroscience experiment is illogical....   [tags: Article Review]

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Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men

- Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men Edward Chance Tolman made many significant findings to the studies of learning , memory and motivation. By today's standards he would be considered a behaviorist. “He is best remembered for being a pioneer in cognitive psychology during a time when behaviorists dominated the field. Tolman made several significant contributions to the field of psychology. At Berkeley University he created a cognitive theory of learning, which became his trademark to the field. He thought of learning as developing from bits of knowledge and cognition about the environment and how the organism relates to it “(Kimble et al, 1991)....   [tags: Psychology]

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Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men

- Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men Edward Chance Tolman made many significant findings to the studies of learning, memory and motivation. Today Tolman would be considered a Cognitive Behaviorist, he developed his own brand of behaviorism which emphasized the purposeful nature behind an organism's actions, taking into account it's goals and motivations. “He is best remembered for being a pioneer in cognitive psychology during a time when behaviorists dominated the field. Tolman made several significant contributions to the field of psychology....   [tags: Psychology]

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Black Rats : A Bad Reputation

- Black Rats have a bad reputation then and now, to many others, rats were the main reason why people were killed in the bubonic plague in Europe. It was believed that rats spread infected diseases by biting into human skin. Rats have contributed to many endangered species like seabirds, but are rats really that vicious. Introduction to black rats The black rat is nocturnal, notwithstanding, it may become more active in the day in undisturbed areas. It is an omnivore, but haves a tendency to prefer plant matter such as fruits and seeds, although they will feed on insects, carrion, refuse and feces....   [tags: Black Death, Bubonic plague, Plague]

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Mrs. Frisby And The Rats Of N.i

- There are definitely themes and idea that the author portrayed through not only the title of the text but as well as most of the characters. Robert C. O’Brien named the novel, Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of N.I.M.H. He purposely chose to put her name first in the title because I believe that it shows how important she is as a character and to the plot of the story. Throughout the entire novel, Mrs. Frisby shows the readers that she is the mother that would do anything for her family, a widower willing to put her life on the line for them....   [tags: Mother, Character, Rat, Family]

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A Study On Potato Rats

- Whole grape-based diet increased cardiac GSH and GSR activity in hypertensive rats (183). Grape-derived phytochemicals, resveratrol and pterostilbene, were both protective against azoxymethane -induced colon carcinoma by inhibiting NFκB activation and subsequent iNOS and COX-2 expression, concomitant with increased ARE-responsive HO-1 and GSR (184). Grape seed proanthocyanindin extract, a poly-phenol compound derived from grape seeds, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, and it mediates resistance to free radicals and has protection from CVD (185,186)....   [tags: Omega-3 fatty acid, Nutrition]

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The Black Of Black Rats

- The Black Rat Black Rats have a bad reputation then and now, to many others, rats were the main reason why people were killed in the bubonic plague in Europe. It was believed that rats spread infected diseases by biting into human skin. Rats have contributed to many endangered species like seabirds, but are rats really that vicious. Introduction to black rats The black rat is nocturnal, although it may become more active in the day in undisturbed areas (4). It is an omnivore, but tends to prefer plant matter (4) such as fruits and seeds, although it will also feed on insects, carrion, refuse and feces (2)....   [tags: Black Death, Bubonic plague, Brown rat, Plague]

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Growing Human Kidneys Of Rats

- Growing Human Kidneys in Rats In most aspects of life we face the need to make decisions and choose right from wrong, or use personal judgement and morals to decide. These are all aspects of what we refer to as ethics and ethical principles. Within different communities there are diverse core values and ethical principles that can become individualized and bases on personal integrity and beliefs. In the medical world we have medical ethics, which then consist of a code of ethics based on your discipline that sets a standard of behavior within your job....   [tags: Ethics, Morality, Abortion, Organ transplant]

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War of the Rats

- War of the Rats War of the Rats, written by David L. Robbins, and the movie Stalingrad, directed by Joseph Vilsmaier, are two excellent sources to be used in furthering one’s understanding of the second world war and specifically the battle of Stalingrad. Both of these sources cover generally the same material. They both are dramas about the battle of Stalingrad, yet each has their own unique perspective upon the war. These two sources can be used together to increase one’s knowledge on the subject at hand....   [tags: David L. Robbins Literature Essays]

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Traps and Poisons for Eradicating Rats in the Home

- Domesticated brown rats, also known as fancy rats, make wonderful pets. These types of rats are referred to as “the low maintenance pets”. However, wild brown rats that run loose all over your house are anything but cute and wonderful—truth be told, these rats are very destructive. Wild brown rats may introduce disease-carrying parasites such as ticks and fleas into your home. In addition to leaving urine and foul droppings everywhere, which transmits various diseases like salmonella and leptospirosis, rats also eat fabrics, rubber and wood; hence, wreaking havoc to your properties....   [tags: Euthanize, Rodents]

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Animal Experiment: Male Wistar Rats

- MATERIALS AND METHODS Animals 4-6 weeks old male Wistar rats weighing 80-120 g at study initiation, were obtained/purchased from the Animal House of Ahvaz Jondishapour University of Medical Sciences (AJUMS), Ahvaz, Iran. The rats were housed in an animal room maintained at 23 ± 3 °C and a relative humidity of 30-70 % with the altering light/dark cycle of 12h during the experiment and for at least, one week prior to sensitization period (for acclimatization purposes). The animals were housed in stainless-steel wire cages in groups of 5 and had free access to PN-free standard laboratory rodent chow and water....   [tags: cholera toxin, peanut allergy]

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The Effect of Prenatal Stress on Sexual Behavior of Male Rats

- Sex differences, while primarily based on genetics, can be influenced by the interaction of genes with the environment. Stressful environments, or environments that have elements that deviate from the normal conditions in a negative way, causing physical or mental pressure, can have negative effects on individual development. There are two periods of intense individual development during life: the organizational period and the activational period. The organizational period occurs in the womb prior to being born, while the activational period occurs during puberty....   [tags: sex differences, genetics, gene interaction]

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Is Animal Experimenting (Rats, in Particular) Right or Wrong?

- When it comes the issue of killing a living being for a greater good, there are so many possible justifications for either side of the argument. If I were to take a look at this subject from a morality standpoint, I would have to approach this question differently for different types of living creatures. This could mean that the answer to the matter could change pending what creature is in question. An example of such an issue is the question to whether or not I can plausibly justify the practice of subjecting rats to these painful research experiments in a way that does not imply that it would also be permissible to subject human beings to the same painful experiments without their consent....   [tags: Research, Ethics, Babies]

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Efficacy of Echinacea on the Action of Cyproterone Acetate in Male Rats

- ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the effect Echinacea extract (E) on the testicular antioxidants function in normal rats or that subjected to anti-androgenic compound, cyproterone acetate (CA). Rats were divided into 5 groups treated daily via an oral tube for two intervals 2 and 4 weeks, 1st control, 2nd E (63mg/kg), 3rd CA (25mg/kg), 4th E+CA and 5th E as prophylactic one week before E+CA treatment. So CA used as a positive control compound with antiandrogenic activity with proposed testicular oxidant....   [tags: Research Analysis]

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Fixed Ratio Schedule Training with Lab Rats

- Abstract The purpose of this paper is to explore the examined effects of the subjects' behavior change as a function of a schedule. Rat participants were placed in an operant chamber for sessions of habituation, magazine training, and shaping on a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement. These rats did not have any previous exposure to the operant conditioning chamber, or any training. These rats were to press a lever for reinforcement on a fixed ratio schedule of four presses by the end of the experiment....   [tags: Research Analysis]

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Adolescent Male And Female Sprague Dawley Rats

- 2. Methods and Results 2.1. Subjects Adolescent male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 - 8 animals per group), bred in our colony at Binghamton University, were used in these experiments. On the day following birth, litters were culled to 8-10 male and female pups and housed with their dams until weaning on postnatal day (P) 21. At weaning, all animals were pair-housed with a same-sex, same-age partner from a different litter to allow cage mates to be placed in the same intake condition without assigning more than one animal per sex to a test condition....   [tags: Sex, Male, Female, Gender]

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George G. Toudouze´ Three Skeleton Key - Literary Analysis

- Three lighthouse keepers, Itchoua, LeGleo, and the narrator, must fight for their lives against hordes of vicious rats, written by George G. Toudouze, Three Skeleton Key is suspenseful, telling of rats that will make your feet crawl. This literary analysis will deconstruct the story made popular in early 1950’s. The Story begins on Three Skeleton Key, where three men, Itchoua, LeGleo, and the narrator are employed at a lighthouse on a small island called Three Skeleton Key. An abandoned ship plagued with sea-faring rats slammed into the rocks of the island....   [tags: Rats, Horror]

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The Effects of Social Interaction and Odor Exposure on Food Preferences in Sprague Dawley Rats

- Rat’s habitats are diverse; as a result rats have become adept omnivores. Due to the diversity of the environments and the subsequent diversity of potential foods and poisons in such environments, rats must be selective and cautious of which foods to consume. In addition, rats cannot expel ingested poisons by vomiting, due to anatomical restrictions. Therefore it is imperative that rats develop social and behavioral adaptations in order to reduce the potential dangers of poisons in the environment....   [tags: adept omnivores, field research]

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Correlation Between Gonadal Hormones And Androgen Receptors Between Male And Female Rats

- Sex differences are an integral part of many variations between males and females. Many cortical functions of the prefrontal areas exhibit the differences when it comes to development, adult capacity and dysfunction in certain disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Observations have been that any interference with prefrontal signaling can induce behavioral changes. There is not a lot of information that is known on how hormone sensitivity and sex differences could affect the mesocortical systems but the correlations between gonadal hormones and cortical processes show some connection to the mesocortical dopamine system....   [tags: Gender, Sex, Dopamine, Male]

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John B. Watson & Behavioral Psychology Part 1

- Many of the theories in present day psychology are derived from the preexisting theories of psychology. Branches of current psychology have roots dating back to the philosophy of ancient Greek times. To understand these current theories, and ways of thinking, it is important to understand the history of psychology. Many historical figures have contributed to the current field of psychology, specifically, to psychology as a science. John B. Watson was a well-known behavioral psychologist who contributed to psychology by introducing behaviorism to the field, and pushing for psychology to be known as a science of observable behavior....   [tags: zeitgeist, experiments with rats]

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Using a ‘Human Model’ to Examine the Vision of Albino Rats

- Using a ‘Human Model’ to Examine the Vision of Albino Rats Unless a question is directed towards vision, the thought of the underlying processes in which the eyes and brain perform together is never considered. So, if we were to analyze the underpinnings of vision what would we find. Would there be a simple network of interconnected neurons which simply convey information from the periphery to the brain. The art of seeing is very complex and is sensitive to conformational changes occurring in the eye....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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The Different Theories of Easter Island’s Collapse

- The Different Theories of Easter Island’s Collapse Easter Island, or as some would call it “Rapa Nui,” was one of the most isolated islands in the world that was inhabited by humans. The island does not have a lot of wood and other resources and yet, when the first travelers discovered the island, it was full of huge carved stones statues. Around the twentieth century they discovered that when the first settlers came to the island, it was rich with resources and bountiful land. The first settlers also had a complex society with a hierarchy and sophisticated religious rituals....   [tags: Resources, Rats, Polynesians]

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Research on Anethum Graveolans L as a Treatment for Diabetus

- ... Liver sections were prepared by using a rotary microtome and stained with haematoxylin and eosin dye, which was mounted in a neutral deparaffinated xylene medium for microscopic observations. The results showed the hydro-ethanolic extract of Anethum graveolans L. decreased serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, C-LDL, urea, uric acid, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase (AP), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) enzymes levels, while increased C-HDL level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats compared to saline control diabetic rats....   [tags: rats, dill, medicinal]

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When the Killing´s Done by T.C. Boyle

- The problem we know. Who has a garden in which feels a mole , immediately thinks about how he poisoned him best, ausräuchert , captures in traps , to then kill him , or equal to ignite gasoline in the aisles . Finally, there's the peaceable neighbors , sitting for hours on the terrace to impale at the slightest movement in a mound of dirt , with a brand -tipped lobe , the mole . How did the world ever managed to survive before humans felt chosen , regulatory action , asks TC Boyle in his new novel ....   [tags: human race, rats, garden]

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Effects of Ability on Depression

- Does Administering Abilify Decrease Depression in Rats. Depression, for the purpose of this paper, is defined as the lethargy and immobility a rat experiences when put into a tank full of water during a forced swim test (Wee, Wang, Woolverton, Pulvirenti, & Koob, 2007). It is measured by the inability of the rat to swim, climb or keep their heads above the water over a short span of time (Arunrut, Alhandre, Chen, Cha, & Russo-Neustadt, 2009). Typically, in a forced swim test, the rat will swim hard for approximately 10 minutes, then give up and float until the experimenters take them out....   [tags: animal testing, rats, saline]

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Death in Masque of the Red Death by Edgar Allan Poe

- Masque of the Red Death by Edgar Allan Poe In the short story “Masque of the Red Death” By: Edgar Allen Poe he delivers the theme of age old inevitability of death and futility of trying to escape death, the setting of his story is based during a time when the bubonic “black” plague took over Europe. The black plague was a bacterium that survived in rats and rodents, human beings became infected when they got bitten by the fleas that lived on these rodents and rats; you knew you had gotten infected by several symptoms such as bleeding in the lungs, high fever and delirium but the most outstanding symptom was bubos....   [tags: black plague, rats, rodents]

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The Study of Pigments

- ... In the Nineteen fifties and 1960s, rabbit cover shade genes became increasingly used as a test program for learning induced and natural mutation. Due to the tremendous application of pigments phenotypes, a significant record of inherited loci with well-characterized phenotypes in rats has been gathered . The first pigments gene to be duplicated, tyrosinase-related-protein-1(Tyrp1), was initially thought to be the gene accountable for the albino rabbit mutant, but albinism was later mapped, duplicated, sequenced and correctly attributed to the tyrosinase locus Together, these loci offer outstanding applicants for learning flexible difference in organic communities of vertebrates....   [tags: marker, rats, gene, inherit]

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Keeping Pests Out of Your Home in Winter

- The brisk weather of fall and winter is approaching, and it's time for everyone to prepare for the harsh months ahead. Humans aren't the only ones who prepare for the cold wind and snow. Animals also prepare food and warm shelter to survive through fall and winter. However, there are animals that decide to take shelter in your house during fall and winter to take advantage of the warmth and strong protection from the elements. While it may be paradise for them, it can be a nightmare for the homeowner....   [tags: practical tips, snakes, rats, squirrels]

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Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Interaction of aqueous extract of Cassia auriculata L. leaves and Metformin in rats.

- 1. Introduction Cassia auriculata L. (CA) is profoundly used as a tonic, astringent, anti-diabetic, conjunctivitis and opthalmia in Ayurvedic medicine (Subhadradevi et al., 2011). It is one of the principle constituent of Avaarai panchaga chooranam; an Indian herbal formulation used in the treatment of diabetes to control the blood sugar level (Berman et al., 2001). Cassia species, are rich sources of polyphenols, anthraquinone derviatives, flavanoids, polysaccrides, saponins, tannins and steroids (Singh et al., 1980; Yen et al., 1998; Ayo et al., 2004), flavanoids, sterols/terpenoids and phenolic acids are known to be antidiabetic bioactive principles....   [tags: diabetes, cassia auriculata, health]

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Research on The Black Death

- ... Usually, people back then tried to avoid the infected by sometimes walking around with flowers in or around the nose area so as to “ward off the evil that is infecting people”. Sometimes, like most explanations back then, it was the work of God and punishment afflicted upon Europe for whatever reasons of the time. For these people, the only cure was to be somehow forgiven by God. This was usually done by people carving or painting the symbol of the cross on the front doors of their house with the words “Lord have mercy on us” either near it or on it....   [tags: silk road, black rats, punishment]

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The Effects of the Plague

- During the Middle Ages, trade flourished across Europe. Thousands of people would gather at various ports to wait for ships to return from foreign places carrying an assortment of exotic foods and goods. “In October 1347, trading ships docked at the Sicilian port of Messina after a long journey through the Black Sea” (Roos, 41). Greeters and spectators, who were waiting anxiously for exotic goods, discovered something horrid instead. A majority of the sailors on board were deceased and the small remainder who had survived the trip were quickly dying as well....   [tags: black death, bubonic plague, rats]

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Comparison Of The Amazing Maurice And His Educated Rats vs The Lion The Witch And The Wardrobe

- Though there are many generations of writing; whether it is classic or contemporary, all authors bring several similarities to the different works that they create. The Amazing Maurice and His Educated Rats, written by Terry Pratchett, can be compared to The Lion the Witch and the Wardrobe; which is written by C.W.Lewis, due to the similarities that both authors use in their writing styles. Not only can the differences be seen through the authors writing style, but differences can be seen through the different literary elements that the authors choose to use throughout their works....   [tags: Comparative Literature]

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My Desire for Rats

- I always hate when you’re invites to parties where you’re the only kid or individual under the age of thirty and over the age of ten. Why, do people invite kids, knowing full well they’ll be bored stiff. Occasionally, they provide some form of lackluster entertainment, but these folks are far and few in between. Stacy Mossbrucker invited us to a summer party of some kind in August of 2004. The party was all ladies and children under the age of four. The usual scenario played out: with nothing to do I shadowed the ladies and was told to go away and find something to do....   [tags: childhood, pets,]

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IUGR in Model Rats

- Knowing the functions of the liver helps us gather a lot of information about liver but next we need to see how the liver works and functions with other receptors, enzymes and proteins and if these enzymes have a higher efficiency in the IUGR or the control mice. The main enzymes, proteins and receptors are the three types of PPAR, PEPCK, CPT-1, SREBP-1, and FAS. All of these expression studies will yield data on the effects of fetal programming in the IUGR female, a decreased fetal nutrition model....   [tags: health, liver enzymes]

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1135 words | (3.2 pages) | Preview

A Race for Rats in The Winter of Our Discontent

- A Race for Rats in The Winter of Our Discontent Some runners look only to the finish line, choosing to ignore what they step on or who they pass along the way. In The Winter of Our Discontent, Steinbeck portrays the dawning of a selfish American society concerned solely with winning personal races. Set in a small New England town during the early sixties, the story focuses on the life of Ethan Allen Hawley, an intelligent man with prestigious family history who is employed as a grocer to the dismay of members of his family and the community....   [tags: Winter of Our Discontent Essays]

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Short and Long Term Regulation of “Leptin” Through Feeding

- One of a substance that product by the fat cell in our body is called Leptin, if we have more fat cells, we are able to produce more leptin, and it plays a key role in regulating energy intake and expenditure, including appetite, hunger, metabolism, and behavior. When the levels of Leptin are high, animals act as if they have plenty of nutrition, they will eat less and become more active, and increase the activity of their immune system. On the other hand, the levels of Leptin are low; animals will eat more, and rest more because they have to conserve energy that affords to devote energy to their immune system....   [tags: starving, appetite, motivation]

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The Relationship Between Stress, Depression, and Cognitive Functioning

- Stress is known to be one of the major causal factors of depression (Kendler, Karkowski, & Prescott, 1999). Large stressors in life, such as divorce or death in the family, are all known to be related to the development of depression in people (Kendler et al., 1999). Such traumatic, sudden events can place acute stress on a person that can lead to problems such as depression. However, equally as stressful to people is chronic stress - not as stressful as major stressors, but still pervasive enough day-to-day to contribute to an overall drop in positive affect....   [tags: Stress]

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The Drug Effects Of Morphine With The Presence Of The Environmental Stimuli

- Extra Credit- Article Summary Previous studies have shown that lab rats developed tolerance to the drug effects of morphine with the presence of the environmental stimuli because of Pavlovian conditioning. The environmental stimuli contributed as a conditioned stimulus to the conditioned response, and the morphine drug stimulation was the unconditional stimuli. Also, theoretically as the relationship between the environmental stimuli and the unconditional response stimuli grows stronger, the weaker the drug effect will be....   [tags: Classical conditioning, Ivan Pavlov]

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How the Black Plague Effected Society

- ... This infected and killed the rats on a massive scale. Due to the climate change a lot of rats started searching for new food sources. Many of these rats found the Mongol camps. The Mongols controlled a large amount of territory in the Asian area. The Mongol supply caravans carried the infected rats and fleas to many parts of Asia. With a lot of the rats dying the fleas started to become attracted to the other warm blooded mammals in the area like horse, cows, cats, and people. This is when the plague started infecting humans....   [tags: art, economy, politics, culture, religion]

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Investigating The Ability Of Conditioned Stimulus

- Holland and Hsu (2014) were interested first in investigating the ability of Conditioned stimulus (CSs) and Interruption of stimulus (ISs) to modulated both eating food and working for it. Secondly, the researchers were examining the role of the amygdala central nucleus (CeA) in these modulatory functions FOS expression after a test of CS- or IS-potentiated eating (Experiment 1) and by examining the effects of CeA lesions on the modulation of both feeding and instrumental behavior by CSs or ISs (Experiment 2)....   [tags: Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning]

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The Australia Brushtail Possum

- Introduction: The Australia Brushtail Possum (Trichosurus vulpecula Kerr) is an introduced pest to New Zealand. Devices are set up to detect the presence of possums in certain areas. This information is used to determine where possum control is necessary and how effective it has been. Other than trapping, the most common detection devices are wax tags, and chew-track cards. The latter of the two being a rectangular piece of core flute/corrugated plastic, into which a bait (usually peanut butter) is forced down the flutes and then nailed onto a tree....   [tags: Biology]

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The Great Plague Of Europe

- The plague is a dangerous and deadly disease. The plague is one of the oldest diseases known to the human race. Back when Europe was still in the Middle Ages all the people including serfs, royalty, Jews, and church members were devastated by disease that was unknown to them. The disease spread rapidly through Europe through a variety of means. The plague possesses many names like the Black Death or the black plague. No matter what the people referred to it as it greatly affected the society in Europe including art, the economy, politics, culture, and religion....   [tags: Serfdom, Yersinia Pestis]

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Could Aloe Vera Cause Cancer?

- ... Yuji Ikeno et al. reported that the lifelong ingestion of aloe vera gel does increase the average life span of Fischer rats. The animals used in this study were male specific pathogen free Fischer 344 rats (F344 rats). The study used 360 rats and divided them into 4 groups with 60 rats in each test group. The control group 1 received a semi-synthetic diet without aloe vera. Group 2 received a diet with 1% freeze-dried aloe filet; Group 3 received a diet with 1% charcoal-processed, freeze-dried aloe filet; and Group 4 received whole leaf charcoal-processed aloe vera (0.02%) in the drinking water....   [tags: food aditive, carcinogenic, acemannan ]

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The Effects Of Hormones On The Body 's Natural Hormones

- Oxytocin is a drug commonly used to induce labor however research has shown that the possibility of oxytocin being used to induce weight loss has also become a possibility. In this preclinical trial of oxytocin, researchers attempt to use diet-induced obese (DIO) animals to determine and gain a thoughtful response to how oxytocin regulates the body to lose weight (Morgan et al., 2011). As one of the growing diseases and current problems in America, obesity can lead to physical health problems that stretch further than just a unhealthy lifestyle, for example heart diseases and diabetes....   [tags: Obesity, Nutrition, Drug addiction, Cancer]

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Animal Testing And Changing The Animal Welfare Act

- Did you know, different pharmaceutical and medical companies can avoid animal rights laws if they use rats or mice in their studies and experiments. The Animal Welfare Act is an act that has been around since 1966 and has been molded and changed throughout the years as research has surfaced about different species of animals. Though, even with all these changes, it still fails to protect the rights of some types of rats, mice, and birds. One of the main things that has to be understood to fully ponder this issue of animal rights is a concept called the 3Rs....   [tags: Animal testing, Animal rights, In vivo]

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The Black Death: Bubonic Plague’s Worst Disaster

- The Black Death: Bubonic Plague’s Worst Disaster It has been called “the greatest catastrophe ever.” That statement was made in reference to the Black Death which was one of many bubonic plague epidemics. Throughout history, the bubonic plague proved itself to be an extremely lethal disease. Outbreaks of the bubonic plague were devastating because of the stunning number of deaths in each of the populations it reached. The Black Death was the worst epidemic and disaster of the bubonic plague in all of history....   [tags: plague, bacteria, victims]

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Understanding Stress During Puberty

- In this experiment, the author’s focused on understanding stress during puberty and the sex-specific differences of the effects on humans through rat models. As we go through puberty, both male and females have increased levels of sex steroid hormones. In females this causes levels of cortisol to increase, as well as the probability of developing a mood disorder relating to stress. Past studies have shown that this is because of the plasticity of the hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal axis (HPA) axis and the areas of the brain the regulate mood, such as the amygdala....   [tags: amygdala, sex steroid hormones,crf receptor ]

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The Technological Progress Of The Roman Empire

- The Imminence of Technological Progress Human beings always want more than they have. This greed guides them to search for new resources of happiness, so what is happiness, and how do we achieve it. All people ask this question, no matter how old they are and how much surplus in welfare they have. Happiness, for many of us, is, by a terrible mistake, associated with a desires’ fulfillment. Because of the dissatisfaction and a small portion of curiosity, we find ways to improve our day to day living....   [tags: Roman Empire, Ancient Rome]

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Development of a Rat Model for Studying Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

- This study conducted by Cheng et al endeavored to develop an accurate model for blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, 96 rats were placed under conditions where they were subjected to shock waves produced by an electric detonator with an equivalent force of 400mg of TNT. While some subjects survived the traumatic trauma, all the rats in each subgroup were later eventually killed so that a craniotomy could be carried out. All procedures of this experiment were approved by the Institution Animal Care and Used Committee of the Sichuan University....   [tags: Research Ethics]

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How animal research has advanced the understanding of depression

- Animal models have made numerous progresses in the last century. This type of research has made a difference in the way we look at psychological issues such as depression. This paper is a review of the literature on animal models of depression. The issue of what advances have been made will be explored. The effects of serotonin on many issues have been studied. In this paper stress, learning, memory, brain derived neurotrophic factor, ovarian hormone withdrawal, and effects of certain drugs will be looked at....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Taste Aversion through Classical Conditioning

- Taste Aversion through Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning states that learning is a gradual process, that it is not possible for a subject to be classically condition in only one trial. However, if you eat something and become sick from it, there is a very good probability that you will develop a strong distaste for that food. This effect is known as taste aversion, which has brought up many questions about classical conditioning. It was Garcia and Koelling (1966) who studied the level of conditioning in rats using two conditioned stimulus (CS), an audiovisual stimulus and a salty flavor added to drinking water....   [tags: Papers]

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A Critique Of ' The Red Sky On Friday : Does Irrational Superstition On The Great Lakes Make A

- This is a critique of an article written by a freshman at Bowling Green State University, Firelands campus, titled “Albatross in the Red Sky on Friday: Does Irrational Superstition on the Great Lakes Make a Difference?” The purpose of this article is to evaluate rather irrational superstitions on the Great Lakes makes a difference on the success or failure of a ship and its crew’s fate. Sara Cordle effectively uses evidence and objectivity, but on the other hand she does not effectively use relevance which ultimately affects the value of this article....   [tags: Superstition, Luck, Cat, Rat]

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Use of Media to Expose the Dangers of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

- What does a soybean, canola, cotton seed and corn all have in common. They are the most common genetically modified foods sold on the market today. The process of genetically modified foods starts by using one organism and inserting or modifying the DNA of another organism. Genetically altered foods need to be removed from everyday agriculture because of the threat of health implications that they cause. A You Tube documentary piece called Hidden dangers of GMO (Genetically Modified Organisms) is an Iconographic genre that touches on the controversial issues that the dangers GMO’s can have on our health and the health of animals....   [tags: Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs]

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Animal Testing : Is It Worth It?

- Animal Testing: Is It worth it. Over 100 million animals are burned, crippled, poisoned, and ambushed in the US labs every year. Animal testing is a very bad issue. It has gone for a long time, and it’s not right for animals. Cosmetics and scientists shouldn’t be tested on animals, but medicine is a whole different story. This issue has been going for too long, and it should be taken care of. This presentation should help you chose are you for or against animal testing.(Animal Testing). It’s important to be aware on what labs scientists do to crucial animals, it’s our job to stop them before it’s too late....   [tags: Animal testing, Animal rights, Acute toxicity]

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The Correlation Between Stress And Addiction

- Addiction is a growing problem in the United States, over 23.5 million Americans are addicted to just alcohol and drugs alone (“New Data,” 2010). However, there are many other addictions not accounted for such as internet and smart phone, shopping, gambling and food addictions. Stress also impacts many, 1 in every 5 Americans experience extreme stress, which includes shaking heart palpitations, and depression, each year (“Stress,” n.d.). So what is the correlation between stress and addiction. In order to find that out, we must first look into addiction and examine the differences between regular drug use and addictions....   [tags: Addiction, Drug addiction, Alcoholism]

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Short-term in vitro Inhibition of Glycogen

- Introduction: Overt type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most prevalent form of diabetes, accounting for approximately 90% of the 20.8 million cases in the United States. Unlike type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus is most commonly caused by a defect in insulin action on cells rather than by a defect in the insulin itself1. It has recently been shown that overactivity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) may be implicated in the impaired insulin action2. Although GSK-3 is a distal element of the insulin signaling pathway (which includes insulin receptor substrate 1 or IRS-1), when it is overactive, this affects both insulin signaling and the removal of glucose from the blood st...   [tags: Biology Diabetes]

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The Drug Of Anabolic Steroids

- During today’s time there are many controversial drugs such as Marijuana, Birth Control, Adderall, Actos, Bextra, and Zofran. One if the most talked about controversial drugs is Anabolic Steroids. There are many drugs that are referred to as “steroids” that can be categorized as corticosteroids and anabolic. Corticosteroids are drugs that the Dr. usually prescribes for controlling inflammation in the human body. These drugs are mostly to help specific conditions like lupas and asthma. They are not similar to Anabolic Steroids....   [tags: Anabolic steroid, Testosterone, Androgen, Puberty]

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Environmental Enrichment And Protective Influence Against Functional Deficits Caused By Traumatic Brain Injuries

- A Critical Review of Johnson, M. E., Traver, L. K., Hoffman, S. W., Harrison, C. R. & Herman, J. P. (2013) Environmental enrichment protects against functional deficits caused by traumatic brain injury. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 7 (44), 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.3389/fnbeh.2013.00044 In May 21st, 2013, “Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience” published an article that shares the findings of a research on environmental enrichment’s protective influence against functional deficits that are caused by traumatic brain injuries....   [tags: Traumatic brain injury, Brain, Psychology]

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The Effect Of Dexamethasone On Vascular Endothelial Growth

- In the present study, we looked at the effect of dexamethasone on vascular endothelial growth factor production by macrophages within rat ovaries. Immunohistochemistry of ovarian tissue sections from rats revealed that the number of ovarian macrophages was similar between CTL and DEX-treated rats. Our result differs, from those of Keyes and coworkers [27], who observed a direct effect of corticosteroid on ovarian macrophages. In their study, Keys and coworkers found that a corticosteroid (methylprednisolone) reduced the number of T-lymphocytes and macrophages within rabbit ovaries....   [tags: Immune system, White blood cell, Ovary, Puberty]

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The Non Gmo Project : Genetically Modified Organisms

- The Non-GMO Project is a project against the use of genetically modified organisms’ ingredients in the food we eat. As every hero story goes, there will always be a villain. The villain playing the role is the Monsanto company. The Monsanto company has been around since 1901, creating genetically modified crops. Monsanto has performed a new way to help farmers harvest through any weather without their crops dying. Like mentioned before, organic farmers cannot use genetically modified seeds on their fields....   [tags: Genetically modified food]

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The Black Plague And Bubonic Plague

- In the new health guide website, doctors believe the black plague or death was a mixture of Yersinia pestis and bubonic plague. This deadly disease caused over two hundred million deaths in the past (Stenseth NC, Atshabar BB, Begon M, Belmain SR, Bertherat E, Carniel E, 2008). The plague was caused by black rats that carried fleas who carried the bacteria that will later evolve into a deadly virus. The black plague did not just affect humans it killed rodents as well. It was not just the black rats that carried the fleas that brought the black plague....   [tags: Black Death, Bubonic plague, Yersinia pestis]

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Supplementing Camel's Milk

- GC analysis The Gas Chromatography GC was used a Agilent Technologies (7890A) interfaced with a mass-selective detector (MSD, Agilent 7000 Triple Quad) equipped with a polar Agilent HP-5ms (5%-phenyl methyl poly siloxane) (J&W Scientific, Folsom, CA, USA) equipped with a capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm i. d. and 0.25 μm film thickness) and FID detector. Medium (Country) used for fractionations the date fruits, Echinacea extracts and camel according to methods performed by Dionex 22. GC-MS analysis Ethanol extracts of Echinacea arial part or date pulp fruits were performed separately using a Perkin-Elmer GC Clarus 500 system comprising an AOC-20i auto-sampler and a Gas Chromatograph interf...   [tags: Dates, Echinacea, Gas Chromatography]

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Fast Food is Killing Americans

- America is one of the largest countries in the world, and the population is one of the largest also; but not in numbers, unless those numbers are on a scale and coincide with the amount of excess fat that is on the average American. In asking why Americans are so overweight, the fast food industry is not to blame entirely. Although Americans consume more fast food than any other nation and the mass of the population reflects this fact, no one is forcing anyone to eat fast food. Americans eat so much fast food because they are lazy, hurried, addicted, and financially downtrodden....   [tags: Obesity and Fast Food]

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The Field Of Cognitive Psychology

- Edward C. Tolman shaped the field of cognitive psychology by presenting a theory of the cognitive map. The cognitive map is an organism’s mental picture of a specific area. Therefore, the cognitive map aids in memorization of one’s environment. The cognitive map can be broken down into how a person’s spatial memory records the location of their surroundings. Hence, a cognitive map is not a physical place, but rather how an organism perceives their environment. Tolman discovered a way to intertwine observing a behavior with setting a definitive objective....   [tags: Psychology, Behaviorism, Edward C. Tolman]

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1079 words | (3.1 pages) | Preview

Rem Sleep And Sleep Deprivation

- During REM sleep heteromodal function seems to be a trend. Studying of REM sleep using fMRI can help researchers to better understand how the brain performs tasks that require the use of more than one brain network at a time. If these parts of the brain are linked with REM sleep then sleep deprivation should show a decrease in learning and/or memory (Chow et al. , 2013). Another study looked at fear extinction and was conducted by Pace-Schott, Germain, and Milad. In their 2015 study the researchers were interested in using REM sleep to lessen the effects of fear related disorders such as anxiety and more specifically PTSD....   [tags: Sleep, Hippocampus, Electroencephalography]

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1027 words | (2.9 pages) | Preview

Genetically Modified Food And Cancer

- Genetically Modified foods or GM foods are foods produced from organisms that have been changed on their DNA by genetic engineering. Genetically Modified Food and cancer is a topic being argued from a long period of time. People often question the relationship between the two of them. Through different long term researches, scientists still cannot provide enough evidences to proof the Genetically Modified products are safe to eat. Based on the current research on the health risks of Genetically Modified food, the result is still inconclusive since the evidence for and against the safety of GMOs in the food is confusing and is difficult for the public to understand....   [tags: Genetically modified food]

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The And The Generalization Gradient

- 1. In this graph it is showing discrimination and the generalization gradient. Line B represents the subject receiving food which is also known as the reinforcement when ever it pressed the lever with a continous tone. Line A represents the subject only receiving food it they press the lever when the tone is sounded not during silence periods. That is why you see a sudden increase in response when 1000hz tone is signaled. Line A is displaying considerable discrimination. The subject is able to discriminate when it will receive reinforcement for its lever pressing and when it won’t....   [tags: Reinforcement, Psychology, Operant conditioning]

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Relationship between Stress and Violence

- In the article “Stress and Aggression reinforce Each Other at the Biological Level, Creating a Vicious Cycle”, by Menno Kruk, the author demonstrates how there is a direct correlation between stress and violence not only in rats but humans as well. IN an attempt to break the cycle of violence in humans they began with rats and it was discovered that the answer may lie within the nervous system. There appears to be a fast, mutual, positive feedback loop between stress hormones and a brain-based aggression-control center in rats, whose neurophysiology is similar to ours (Kruk 1)....   [tags: essays research papers]

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The Orign of Bones

- ... The fracture was created in the cranial vault as cartilage is rare in this site and there minimal mechanical factors are involved. By examining the rats at different intervals during the repair phase Girigs & Pritchard (1958) were able to support the study of Pritchard (1948) that in a healing fracture cartilage is produced due to reduced blood supply. They found that since cartilage is less demanding of oxygen it acts as a temporary bridge between the fracture gap until blood supply is restored Thiymidine was used on forty two, five week old female rats to conduct an autradiographic study the cellular response in fracture repair....   [tags: cardiovascular system, mineral elements]

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The Controversy Of Testing On Animals For Pharmaceutical Purpose For Curing Diseases

- This Critical Analysis will discuss the controversy of testing on animals for pharmaceutical purpose for curing diseases. In the article “Animal Experimentation Is Necessary” (Cohen, C., and Regan, T, 2005) Carl Cohen and Tom Regan. Philosophers from the University of Michigan, discuss why it is necessary and, how and why it benefits us humans that they experiment on animals. In the article it states that in order for diseases like Malaria and Polio to have less of an infection rate than it did back in 1948, we have to study the disease and the possible outcomes of what can happen when not treated; That is why Carl Cohen conducted experiments on animals that show why animal testing is necess...   [tags: Animal testing, Animal rights]

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Recriuiting the Most Suitable Laboratory Animals for Food Allergy Modeling

- During the last few years, most of the societies, all over the world, have been facing a progressive increase of adverse reactions to food. Accordingly, as many as 20-30% of the general population, in the gross, report some two adverse reactions to food components, of which, for the most part, allergic disorders are of considerable concerns owing to their epidemic increase in prevalence and morbidity. Our understanding of these diseases has enabled the search of therapeutic approaches that can either modulate the sensitization process or impact on allergic mediators and hereby, helping manage allergic symptoms/signs....   [tags: wistar model of peanut allergy]

Term Papers
2176 words | (6.2 pages) | Preview

Treatment of Diabetis Type 2: Classical Oral Antihyperglycaemic Agents

- ... Blood samples were collected at the times indicated in the Figure 1 for biochemical analysis as described previously (Cobbaert et al, 1997, Hannan et al (2012). Pancreas and liver were excised for determination of insulin content by ELISA (Vander, 1954). 2.4. Sucrose absorption in the gut Normal and type 2 diabetic rats were administered sucrose solution (2.5 g/kg body weight) alone or in combination with O. sanctum extract (2.5 g/kg body weight) after an overnight fast. Blood samples were collected by tail vein puncture at prior to sucrose administration and at times indicated in Figures 1G and 1H for blood glucose measurement....   [tags: Extracts of O. sanctum leave, ethanol]

Research Papers
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The Experimental Design Of Animals Were Divided Into

- 2.4. Experimental design Animals were divided into: 1. Control group: maintained on normal pellet diet (3.15 kcal/g), and intraperitoneally received single dose of citrate buffer (0.1 M, pH 4.5). 2. Diabetic rats were divided into four groups as follows: (i) Diabetes: in which diabetes was induced as previously mentioned. (ii) Diabetes + ω -3: diabetic rats received ω-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) (10% of dietary intake of rats) (Devarshi et al., 2013). (iii) Diabetes + pio: diabetic rats treated with pioglitazone (20 mg/kg body weight) (Ding et al., 2005)....   [tags: Blood sugar, Insulin, Liver, Diabetes mellitus]

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Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

- Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) much threatening problem in worldwide. This is fifth most common malignant neoplasm in the all over country and it remains an important cause of death in Asian and western countries. Around one million people were died due to HCC in world wide. Internal malignancy is most common form in some part of the world [1]. It is third most common form among all the cancer in India. Many risk factors are reason for hepatocellular carcinoma include hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), aflatoxins, alcohol and oral contraceptives....   [tags: cancer, liver, rat testing]

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The Black Rat

- The black rat is nocturnal, notwithstanding, it may become more active in the day in undisturbed areas. It is an omnivore, but haves a tendency to prefer plant matter such as fruits and seeds, although they will feed on insects, carrion, refuse and feces. On Lundy Island these rats feed on crabs along the shore. This rat lives in groups called 'packs ', consisting of several males and two or more dominant females. They’re skilled in climbing and can also swim very well. Nests are constructed from grass and twigs, often in roof spaces, a habit which earned the species the further common name of 'roof rat '....   [tags: Black Death, Bubonic plague, Brown rat, Plague]

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Should Animals be Used for Scientific Research?

- Every year, millions of animals experience painful, suffering and death due to results of scientific research as the effects of drugs, medical procedures, food additives, cosmetics and other chemical products. Basically, animal experimentation has played a dominant role in leading with new findings and human advantages. Animal research has had a main function in many scientific and medical advances in the past decade and is helping in the understanding of several diseases. While most people believe than animal testing is necessary, others are worried about the excessive suffering of this innocent’s creatures....   [tags: Animal Rights ]

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1711 words | (4.9 pages) | Preview

Computer Of Memory, By Frances A. Yales

- Introduction: Memory is often defined as the mental capability to encode, store, and retrieve information. This ability ranges from remembering one’s first name to remembering the capital city of one’s respective country. While memory is fair much more than simply recalling information. (e.g. Flash bulb memories, episodic memory) It does beg the question that if memory is an ability can it be improved. While many would cite the technic of memory palace (a.k.a. memory loci) at this point. Or maybe they might site Ars memoriae (“The Art of Memory”) by Frances A....   [tags: Memory, Hippocampus, Method of loci]

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1264 words | (3.6 pages) | Preview

Genetically Modified Food : Safe Or Not?

- Genetically Modified Food: Safe or Not. Since 1994, when the Flavr Savr tomato commercially hit the shelves, the use of Genetically Modified Food/Organisms, or GMOs has been a hot topic. Especially in recent years, there has been a strong push for use of GMOs to stop. Many people aren’t comfortable with the idea that their food is being tampered with on a molecular level. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration claims that GMOs are safe to consume and likely have no effect on human health. In addition there has also been no health risks shown as the result of GMOs in the countries where they are approved....   [tags: Genetically modified food]

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1260 words | (3.6 pages) | Preview

A New And Improved Way Of Addiction

- A New and Improved Way that Could Possibly Help Addicts This video shows a new procedure that could possibly cure addiction. This video was reviewed from “Everything you think you know about addiction is wrong” by Johann Hari. The three criteria’s which were chosen for this paper would be: how difficult it is to treat an addict, showing new ways to help addicts, and Hari talking about his situation with the addicts in his family. This video did not meet my expectation based on my three criteria’s I had chosen prior to this video....   [tags: Addiction, Drug addiction, Morphine, Drug]

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1126 words | (3.2 pages) | Preview

Animal Experimentation Is Cruel, Unfair And Pointless

- Animal experimentation has been credited for the medicines made to assist diabetes, vaccines for smallpox, deep brain stimulation for parkinson’s disease, and many more along with millions of dollars spent on failed experiments, millions of animal deaths a year, misleading data and an overall bigger loss than gain. The main point of animal testing is to benefit the safety and overall health of humans, but testing on non humans to learn about humans doesn’t contribute to the cause. Humans have the voice protective of their own lives and demand rights, though every living creature deserves the right to life and to safety....   [tags: Animal testing, Animal rights]

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1060 words | (3 pages) | Preview

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