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Protein : Essential For Plant Cell Growth

- STELLO proteins are essential for plant cell growth Golgi-bound STELLO proteins, ST1 and ST2, regulate the production of cellulose synthase, an important enzyme that helps build the cell wall of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, according to lead researcher YI Zhang and colleagues published Jun.9 2016 in Nature Communications. In fact, mutations in ST1 and ST2 leads to defects in the function of CesA (cellulose synthase) proteins, which are involved in plant cell wall synthesis. The mutation also affects CSC (cellulose-synthase complex) assembly, a key component of the in the formation of the plant cell wall....   [tags: Cell wall, Cell, Cellulose, Cell membrane]

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the plant cell

- The Plant Cell Cell Wall Size: Around 1µ Basic Function: * Hold the shape of the cell. * Strengthen the cell. Covering the cell membrane of the plant cell, there is the cell wall. The cell wall is composed of two layers of rigid, hard cellulose embedded in compounds like pectin and lignin. Pores in the cell wall allow molecules to pass through. The cell wall has two parts. The primary cell wall is formed during the growth of the cell. After the cell has stopped growing, a secondary cell wall forms....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Similarities between a Plant and Animal Cell

- What is a cell. According to Genetic Home Reference, “Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things.” There are two main branches in which a cell can be categorized. These branches are prokaryote and eukaryote. In the prokaryote category are bacteria; in the eukaryote category are plants and animals. Although plant and animal cells have a lot of differences, they also have their fair share of similarities. For instance, an animal cell has a centrosome, but so does a plant cell. An average animal cell is made up of centrioles, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER and rough ER), golgi complex, lyosomes, microtubules, mitochondria, nucleus, nucleolus, necleaopore, and ribosome...   [tags: biological analysis]

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The Planet Of The Earth

- Our planet, the Earth, is the third planet from the Sun, and usually is known as the Blue Planet. Its location in the Solar System and the particular characteristic of being the only planet with abundant water, have made possible the development of life here. Thousands of millions of years ago, the first living organisms evolved from a non-living matter, and since then the Earth has been inhabited by many different species. Those, who have dedicated their research to study and classify living organisms, best known as taxonomists, have divided them into categories, taking as a definition pattern the principal features of each species....   [tags: Bacteria, Eukaryote, Plant, Cell]

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Investigating the Concentration of Plant Cell Sap Using Potato Tuber Cells

- Investigating the Concentration of Plant Cell Sap Using Potato Tuber Cells An experiment to work out the concentration of plant cell sap using potato tuber cells First of all and the most important are the safety precautions we will take throughout this experiment · Wear safety glasses to protect eyes · Handling the acids carefully · Careful while using kitchen knife (And all the simple things such as not running etc.) Another important aspect before we start is making the experiment a fair test....   [tags: Papers]

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Water Potential Of A Potato Tissue

- Introduction Aims of experiment Conduct one experiment to determine the water potential of a potato tissue. Conduct another experiment to determine the osmotic potential of an onion cell. Water in plants Water plays a critical role in plants as it makes up 85% to 95% of the plants’ weight and 5% to 10% of the seeds’ weight which makes it the most abundant complex in plant cells(1995). Water is also involved in organic compounds synthesis, support the plant(95). Reactions occur in water, and solvents move in the water(95)....   [tags: Cell wall, Osmosis, Cell, Plant cell]

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Solute Potential of Cell Sap of Plant Epidermal Cells

- Solute Potential of Cell Sap of Plant Epidermal Cells Aim: To estimate the solute potential of a plant tissue. Results: Molarity of Solution Plasmolysed Cells Percentage of Cells That Were Plasmolysed .3M 1/70 .01% .4M 0/70 0% .5M 5/70 7% .6M 12/70 17% .7M 29/70 41% 1.0M 56/70 80% It must be taken into account, that the experiments procedure was changed. This could have had a great affect on the results....   [tags: Papers]

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Mycorrhizas Among Plant Species

- Figure. 1 - Abundance of various types of mycorrhizas among plant species, literature review from 128 publications (Brundrett, 2009) includes ca 8000 plant species, AM – arbuscular mycorrhiza, EcM – ectomycorrhiza, NM – nonmycorrhizal, Ericoid – ErM, Orchid – OrM. Arbuscular mycorrhiza The most common and abundant mycorrhiza is AM which belongs into the endomycorrhizas and inter alia associates with approximately 74% of all Angiosperm plant species, number of Gymnosperm species and some Cryptogamic species (Brundrett, 2009)....   [tags: photosynthesis, fungi, cell]

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Bacteria, Plant And Animal Cells

- Opposite of bacteria, plant and animal cells divide using a process called mitosis. Mitosis begins after the same basics steps in plants and animals, but there are some exceptions. Also, mitochondria divide and are pass out to both daughter cells. In photosynthetic plant cells, chloroplasts must also divide and be given away to both daughter cells. Plant cells lack the structures found in animal cells that are called centrosomes, so the spindle fibers in plant cell mitosis proceed from a structure called the microtubule organizing center....   [tags: Mitosis, Meiosis, Chromosome, Cell cycle]

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Animal Cells Vs. Plant Cells

- Animal Cells vs. Plant Cells Introduction Cells are the basic units of life, and they can be found everywhere that you look and go. Most cells cannot be viewed without the aid of a microscope. Plant and animal cells are very different not only in their structure shape but in their functions as well. The diagrams found in the book on pages 65-66 are described as generalized cells that are used for study purposes (Mader & Windelspecht, 2016). According to Carl Woese, a professor of microbiology at the University of Illinois, eukaryote cells are more structurally complex than those of their prokaryotic counterparts....   [tags: Eukaryote, Cell, Organelle, Bacteria]

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Reduction Of Cell Turgor Pressure

- stress, thereby inhibiting leaf expansion after the loss of cell turgor pressure (Iqbal and Ashraf, 2005). Principally, reduction of cell turgor pressure leads to stomatal closure and limits CO2 assimilation and reduced photosynthetic rate resulting lessening of chlorophyll content, which ultimately responsible for lowering of plant biomass because of low production of photosynthetic assimilates (Netondo et al., 2003). However, some researchers discovered that the roots are less affected by salinity and increase of root-shoot ratio will enhance absorption of water and nutrient, and strengthen the capacity of the plant in saline resistance and in poor soils, which was helpful for the plant to...   [tags: Photosynthesis, Chlorophyll, Plant]

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Salt Stress Affects The Growth Of The Plant

- The obtained results proved that salt stress can affect overall growth of the plant, either weight or length. The shoot as well as root weight decreased under salinity. In this cultivar, root fresh and also dry weights were more affected than those of the shoot. These findings were in agreement of some previous studies, (for example, Khan et al 2013, Munns 2002; Maas and Grattan 1999). The result of these studies showed that a decrease in plants overall growth due to decrement in weight of dry root and shoot, and stem elongation....   [tags: Plant, Photosynthesis, Sodium, Sodium chloride]

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Microbial Degradation Of Dietary Nutrients And Plant Polysaccharides

- Humans and all other multicellular organisms have lived and evolved alongside microorganisms for billions of years on Earth, forging a mutualistic relationship and driving a coevolution between host and microbiota. With a population density estimated at ten times the number of human cells, the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal microbiota vastly dominates our own cells (1014 compared to 1013), and when viruses are accounted for this figure probably increases by another order of magnitude (Savage, 1977)....   [tags: Immune system, Bacteria, White blood cell]

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Cell Membrane And Its Effect On Cell Membranes

- Transport across cell membrane involves molecules getting in and out of cell, water is one of the major components of cells, we can find water in cytoplasm and in cell sap, this water contains many breaks up substances and these substance plus water enter and leave the cell through the cell membranes. The development of a cell membrane could allow some materials to pass while blocking the passage of other molecules which is the major evolution of the cell. Transport across cell membranes also occurs by actively or passively....   [tags: Osmosis, Cell, Cell wall, Diffusion]

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Cells And The Cell Membrane

- Despite the fact that there is still plenty to ascertain about cells, what is known so far has had an extensive impression on a multitude of scientific fields. The analysis of cells has even assisted in the investigation to more effectively understand cancer. Cells are essentially the building blocks of life. As a matter of fact, all organisms varying from the minuscule and simple organisms to the gigantic and sophisticated organisms are made up of cells. Truly, something that is noteworthy about cells is that although they are so small they have even smaller organelles with many important functions within them....   [tags: Cell wall, Cell, Cell membrane, Bacteria]

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Organelles And The Cell Membrane

- Organelles Organelles are subunits that allow a cell to function correctly and efficiently. The name comes from organ as these subunits act like organs to cells in the same way that organs are for us. Most organelles in eukaryotic cells and some in prokaryotic cells are membrane bound and protected by a membrane or in some cases a wall. Universal organelles While most of the main organelles making up the nucleus grouping are present in all organelles, the ‘group’ is not membrane bound in prokaryotic (bacterial) cells and therefore are free to move about the cell....   [tags: Cell, Organelle, Bacteria, Eukaryote]

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The Evolution of the Cell Theory

- The Evolution of the Cell Theory Since the beginning of humanity, science has been a developing topic full of mystery and questions. These questions might be as small as why closet doors close easier during the winter compared to the summer, and as big as how the universe was made. There are numerous topics in science such as chemistry, biology, and physics each of which have their own questions to be answered. They each have their own theories which have been developing since they began; but what is a theory....   [tags: theory, cell, hypothesis, studies]

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Eukaryotic And The Eukaryotic Cell

- Properties of Life There are basic properties of life including, cellular organization, homeostasis, metabolism, responsiveness, reproduction, and growth and development. All these properties compound the proof needed to claim that an organism is alive. Cellular organization denotes the cellular nature of life where the cell is the basic unit of life. Organisms are either unicellular (made up of only one cell) or multicellular (made up of several cell) (Simpson and Beck, 1965). In terms of cells, eukaryotes and prokaryotes are basic terms....   [tags: Cell, Eukaryote, DNA, Bacteria]

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The Theory Of Cell Theory

- Cell Theory Origin The cell theory was not just created by one scientist at one point in time. The cell theory was discovered over the course over hundreds of years, by many scientists, some of whom have never been recorded. The three principles of the cell theory that are used today are: 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. 2. The cell is a basic unit of life. 3. New cells arise only from cells that already exist. The origin of the biological term cell came from Robert Hooke in 1662....   [tags: Cell, DNA, Eukaryote, Francis Crick]

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Functions Of A Eukaryotic Cell

- Organelle Function In the most general terms, the nucleus is the command center of a eukaryotic cell. Although the origin of the organelle is unclear, it is believed that it is derived from a symbiosis relationship between a bacterium and an archaea (Martin W. 2005). Being the main hub for the inner workings of a cell involves different functions overall. These nucleic functions are determined by the genes within the DNA of the cell. Functions of the cell are also regulate by soluble proteins that come in and out of the cell via the membranes and specific channels or the nuclear pore complexes....   [tags: DNA, Cell nucleus, RNA, Gene]

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A Cell Of An Adult Life As A Steady State System

- A cell in an adult life form often regarded as a steady state system. The DNA is a constant read out of an actual set of mRNAs that identify a particular set of proteins. As these proteins perform, and constantly abolished, fresh ones exchange them, and the system adequately adjusted, the cell does not minimize, grow, nor is there a variations in its function. This stationary view of the cell, however, lacks the important vibrant characteristics of cellular life. The underlying force of a cell normally comprehended best by observing the entire course of its lifetime....   [tags: Cell, Bacteria, Eukaryote, Cell division]

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Description and Analysis of the Cell Theory

- Prokaryotic cells have nucleus that contains genetic material, complex cytoskeleton, and endomembrane system. They lack distict nucleus and other membrane bound organelles. In traditional five kingdom classification system written by Robert Whittaker, prokaryotic organism belongs to kingdom Monera. Prokaryotic organism have been divided into groups Archaea and Bacteria. They are unicellular organism, but one single cell is capable of carrying out all the function necessary for the organism to live and reproduce....   [tags: cell membrane, cytoplasm, prokaryotic cell]

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Micropropagation Method For Tomato Plant

- As discussed by Taylor (1986), tomato is a type of plant from the family of Solanaceae. There are many tomato species around the world. The tomato is not easy to plant in Malaysia and it is also very important as a food for the citizen. This tomato plant is easy to cultivate in area which is in moderate temperature and firstly came from the place which is in dry west coast of tropical South America (Cooper, 1972). According to Picken, Stewart, and Klapwijk (1986), there are several techniques for growing tomato plant which is first plant the tomato into the ground or plant in the medium planting grow in the planting house....   [tags: Tomato, Solanceae, Tomato Species]

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Functions of Plasmodesmata on Plant Cells

- Introduction Cells communicate by transferring molecules from one to another. When a molecule is transferred it creates a reaction which then causes an effect. Within multicellular organisms there is cell-to-cell communication. Direct communication between cells can occur in two ways. One way is cell-cell recognition via interaction between surface proteins. When there is contact between cell surfaces, the proteins on the surface of the cell interact and create a signal. The other way is through cell junctions between adjacent cells....   [tags: molecules, cells, plasma membrane]

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What a Plant Needs to Grow

- Many people wonder what a plant needs to grow. Plants are almost like human beings, they have needs and wants. Plants require what humans need to grow such as to drink, to breathe and to eat. To gain a better understanding of a plants needs, soil, what is needed for growth, and their life cycles must be examined. There are many different types of soils a plant can grow in, but a soil must provide enough nutrients for growth and development. Soil must have a large water holding capacity to store enough water for a plant....   [tags: nutrients, hydrophonics, photosynthesis ]

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A Study On Plant Development

- Introduction Plant development is influenced by both genetics and evvirnoment and consitst of many components including; polarity, cell division, elongation, differentiation and the production of plant organs from apical meristems. A study by Nakagawa et al (2012) demonstrated that leaf development was disrupted in asymmetric leaves 1 (as1) and as2 mutant plants treated with berberine. Berberine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid that is naturally produced in some plants, is known to bind DNA with a preference towards triplex and quadruplex DNA....   [tags: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Base pair]

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Comparing Animal Cells to Plant Cells

- ... Most of the chemical reactions of the cell take place in the cytoplasm. The “powerhouse” or the “energy generators” of both plant and animal cells are the mitochondria. These substances convert the sugar and other organic molecules in the cell to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate) – required as a source of energy for the chemical reactions of a cell. Furthermore, both cells have a cell membrane. The cell membrane is like the guard to a cell and controls what enters and leaves it. It is responsible for the absorption of important nutrients (e.g....   [tags: structures, cells, powerhouse]

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Compariosn of Animal Cells and Plant Cells

- ... Plastids are also located in a plant cell. They are organelles that store and make compounds inside a plant cell. A chloroplast is the most important plastid inside a plant cell. The chloroplast makes light energy from the sun light and makes into sugars and oxygen. Chloroplasts helps make the food and oxygen that humans need everyday. Plant cells have a large central vacuole. The plant cells are able to push water into the vacuoles and then produces turgor preasure which reinforces the plant and makes it rigid....   [tags: nucleus, energym ribsomes, cells]

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Major Steps in Plant Tissue Culture

- ... Furthermore, auxin can induce the formation of root (Beyl, 2011) On the other hand, cytokinin is used for the shoot proliferation (Bhojwani and Razdan, 1983). Rapid multiplication can be done by transferring callus from the parent explants to the fresh medium of the same composition of elements to produce a reasonable amount of tissue (Bhojwani & Razdan, 1996). The last step in plant tissue culture is transplanting. After the plantlets undergoes the process of multiplication, transplanting take place when the plantlets are huge enough and can be removed from the culture vessel to the external environment....   [tags: genetic engineering and botany]

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The Impact of Chloroplast Movement in Plant Cells

- Plant growth and development are directly influenced by the movement and positioning of the chloroplasts. Chloroplast movement is stimulated by varying external stimuli; (Kadota, Sato and Wada, 1996) submergence, water stress, low temperature, etc. and among these light-induced chloroplast movement is the most researched and commonly established. Chloroplasts in photosynthesizing plant cells change their arrangement in response to irradiation from light. This is believed to maximize their photosynthetic activity and minimize photo damage....   [tags: horticulture, biology]

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Interaction between Plant Hosts and Pathogens

- The interaction between plant hosts and pathogens are complex systems that consist of a vast multitude of components. These components that contribute to these systems are from host as well as pathogenic origin and compete with one another in an attempt to be more successful than the other party. There are many different pathogens that infect plants from all five kingdoms of life and each has a different method of infecting the host. There are several traits that are universal requirements for infection such as gaining entry to the host, overcoming the host’s immune response, replicating effectively within the host and spreading to naïve hosts....   [tags: biochemistry, biological interaction]

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Plant Physiology: The Shockwave Petunia Series

- ... The xylem is found towards the inside of each vascular bundle (see the diagram below), and the phloem towards the outside. In between the xylem and the phloem vessels there is a layer of cambium (see appendix). (ASBiology101, 2013). In a leaf, however, the vascular bundles form the midrib and veins of the leaf. They form a network, which gradually gets smaller and thinner with distance from the midrib. Within each vein, the xylem can be seen on top of the phloem. (ASBiology101, 2013). Xylem tissue consists of the xylem vessels to transport water and dissolved minerals; fibres to help support the plant and cells....   [tags: flowers, transpiration, proliferation]

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Meiosis : The Process Of Cell Division With Reduction

- Meiosis is the process of cell division with reduction. Meiosis occurs in 9 stages. These stages include: meiosis I and meiosis II. These stages allow the original haploid cell to split into four daughter cells. Through Gregor Mendel’s two experiments with monohybrid and dihybrid crosses and Thomas Hunt Morgan’s experiment on recombination, there is a much closer look at meiosis and how it is affected by different circumstances and characteristics. Meiosis does not add new variation, also known as alleles....   [tags: Mitosis, Meiosis, Cell cycle, Chromosome]

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Why The Cell Is The Basic Structural And Functional Unit Of Life

- In the fourth lab completed in Biology 101, we discovered more about the cell. I learned that the cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. The cell theory states that are composed of cells and that all cells arise from preexisting cells. There are unicellular organisms such as E. coli and multicellular organisms that are composed of more than one cell. In this lab, we discussed the importance of the cytoplasm and the basis of DNA. We used microscopes to observe prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and compared them to each other....   [tags: Bacteria, Cell, Eukaryote, Photosynthesis]

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The Effect of Osmosis in Plant Cells

- The Effect of Osmosis in Plant Cells Introduction ============ Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane, from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. The partially permeable membrane contains a series of small holes, allowing only water molecules to pass through, as shown in the diagram below. The glucose molecules (represented by red circles) are too big to fit through the membrane. As there are a greater number of water molecules (represented by blue circles) on the left side, there is a steady net flow into the right side with fewer water molecules, i.e....   [tags: Papers]

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Testing the Strength of Plant Fibers

- Title: Testing the strength of plant fibers Objectives: To develop knowledge and understanding of the strength of plant fiber in a plant stem. To develop problem solving and experimental skills, for example, information is accurately processed, using calculations where appropriate, experimental procedures are planned, designed and evaluated properly, the use of microscopes, producing valid results and recording results. To develop techniques of measuring the size of plant fibers under microscope using stage micrometer and eyepiece graticule....   [tags: Biology]

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Etymology of Andrographis Paniculata

- ... It has an allelophatic property towards some plants as well as to attract pollinators. Examples of other secondary metabolites are alkaloids, flavonoids, etc (Forlag 2010). The major component found in the A. paniculata is andrographolide. It contains diterpenoid lactones like angrographolides, paniculides, farnesols, and flavonoids (Aronson 2009). Flavonoids can be isolated from the leaves, but it is mainly found in the roots (Akbar 2011). A. paniculata has shown a broad range of pharmacological effects....   [tags: plant, aerial plant]

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Investigation of Osmosis in Plant Cells

- Investigation of Osmosis in Plant Cells My aim is to investigate osmosis in plant cells. I will do this by carrying out an experiment to find out the percentage increase or decrease in mass (grams) of potato tube, placed in varying concentration of glucose. Background Information - The theory of Osmosis. Osmosis is a special case of diffusion that involves water. It is the movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a region of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration until equilibrium is reached....   [tags: Papers]

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Investigating Osmosis In Plant Cells

- Investigating Osmosis In Plant Cells Aim: I am going to investigate whether water moves into or out of cells by osmosis, depending on the concentration on the sugar solution that the cells are placed into. I will know if osmosis has occurred when we take the mass of the plant cell, if osmosis has occurred then the mass will have increased or decreased from the original mass. Background: Osmosis is the passage of water molecules from a weaker solution (a high concentration of water) to a stronger solution (a low concentration of water) through a partially permeable membrane....   [tags: Papers]

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The Cell

- The cell is the fundamental structural unit of all living organisms. Some cells are complete organisms, such as the unicellular bacteria and protozoa; others, such as nerve, liver, and muscle cells, are specialized components of multi-cellular organisms. Cells range in size from the smallest bacteria-like mycoplasmas, which are 0.1 micrometer in diameter, to the egg yolks of ostriches, which are about 8 cm (about 3 in) in diameter. Although they may differ widely in appearance and function, all cells have a surrounding membrane and an internal, water-rich substance called the cytoplasm, the composition of which differs significantly from the external environment of the cell....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Osmosis in Plant Cells

- Osmosis in Plant Cells Osmosis the diffusion of water molecules, during osmosis molecules move from a low sugar/salt concentration to a high sugar/salt concentration through a semi-permeable membrane. In this experiment, I am examining osmosis in plant cells. I am using potato chips because potatoes contain catalysts. My experiment involves soaking potato chips in different strengths of glucose solution to see if the mass of the potato chip changes. I predict that the mass will change according to the strength of the solution, as the strength of the solution increases the potatoes mass will decrease....   [tags: Papers]

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Water Relations in Two Plant Tissues

- Water Relations in Two Plant Tissues Results: Table 5 Table to show the sucrose concentration and water potential of each tissue. The sucrose solution was extrapolated from graph 1, which shows the percentage change of mass of the tissues when immersed in the different sucrose solutions. A line of best fit was drawn, where the line of best fit intercepts the x-axis (concentration of sucrose solution) is the sucrose concentration of the tissue because at this point there is no mass loss of gain (read off of y-axis)....   [tags: Lab Report]

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Eukaryotic and Prokatyotic Cell Structure

- Eukaryotic Cell Structure Plant cells are unique among the eukaryotes (Greek for “true kernel”) (Origins. 2009) organisms whose cells have membrane-enclosed nuclei and organelles, because they can manufacture their own nutrients. Like the fungi, another kingdom of eukaryotes, plant cells have retained the protective cell wall structure of their prokaryotic ancestors. The basic plant cell shares a similar construction with the typical eukaryote cell, but does not have centrioles, lysosomes, intermediate filaments, cilia, or flagella, as does the animal cell....   [tags: Biology, Microbiology]

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An Experiment to Investigate Osmosis in Plant Tissue

- An Experiment to Investigate Osmosis in Plant Tissue Aim: To conduct an investigation to compare the osmotic behavior of two types of plant tissue in varying concentrations of sucrose solution. To find the point at which there is no change in mass or length of a specific plant tissue in a certain sucrose solution, the point of equilibrium, where sucrose and water contents are both equal in the solution and the tissue. Introduction: When a plant cell is placed in a sucrose solution there may be a change in mass and length depending on the sucrose solution and tissue itself....   [tags: Papers]

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Structure of the Cell and Bio Molecules

- The cell, what is a cell means and what is the structure of it. Everyone knows that it’s the smallest particle in any living organism and it’s responsible for anything that happens in our bodies. As there’s no one know what it functions, what is the structure of the cell and what it is consisted from and what does every part in it functions. So, first of all the theory of a cell is that all organisms are formed from cells which is the structural unit of life and they are raised by division of pre-existing cells, as they can be cultured to produce more cells....   [tags: genetic blueprints]

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Comparing a Cell to a Submarine

- Intro- Submarines are a lot like cells in a multitude of ways. Both are organized into many parts and without them both would fall apart. Each has specific parts that do certain jobs. They both also have a way of functionality that depends on whether the other parts inside work or not. Within a cell and a submarine it’s easily seen that both are broken into almost exact structures placing key parts in areas close to each other allowing maximum functionality. Cell Wall-Shell of Sub.The cell wall is alike to the outer shell of the submarine....   [tags: building blocks of organisms]

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Taking a Look at Cell Functions

- Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Analysis Questions 1. During interphase, the cell is carrying out its function as a cell. It continues to grow. The DNA is replicated in preparation for the mitotic phase. During prophase, the chromatin condenses into chromosomes. The nuclear envelope and nucleoli disappear. The spindle apparatus appears. Then, in metaphase, the chromosomes line up along the metaphase plate. Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres. In anaphase, the sister chromatids are pulled toward opposite poles....   [tags: interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase]

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The Functions and Materials of a Fuel Cell

-   Introduction: A fuel cell can be descried as "a plant" because it uses fuel as input and produces electricity as an output. What makes a different between a fuel cell and a battery that fuel cells continue to produce electricity as long as fuel is supplied. Both of them depend greatly on electrochemistry in their function. Engines covert energy of a combustion reaction to a mechanical energy while fuel cells transfer the energy of a chemical reaction to an electrical energy. Fuel cells utilize the movement of electrons in the chemical reaction to create a current flow....   [tags: energy, mechanical, chemical reaction]

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The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties

- Studies done by Sirirugsa (1999) detailed that Zingiberaceae consists of 1,500 species around the world. In Malaysia there are 650 species growing well involving 25 genera. Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) is most popular among the species in this family. Malaysians are more familiar with this plant as 'lempoyang' by the Malays, 'Qiu Hong Jiang' by the Chinese and Indians as 'narkuchur'. Many researchers interested in reviewing this plant because its advantages. This plant is much use as a food, spices, dye, perfumes, toiletries, nutraceutical and cosmetics products....   [tags: Oil, Drying, Flora]

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Answers to Plant and Animal Questions

- – Plant and Animal Essay Questions 1. In general, respiration refers to the process by which organisms undergo gas exchange. More specifically, in order for an organism to complete the process of respiration, a continuous source of oxygen is required, and as such many different organisms have undergone various structural and physiologic alterations for the taking in of oxygen. One specific living organism, which has endured such adaptations for oxygen intake, is a fish. On the notion of structural adaptations, fish have developed gills, which are in effect respiratory organs, that enable fish to extract the dissolved oxygen found in their surrounding aquatic environments....   [tags: Structure, Cells, System]

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Microprogration Method for Tomato Plant

- As discussed by Taylor (1986), tomato is a type of plant that has many type and small genus. This plant is from the family of Solanaceae. This family has been found around 90 genera (D’Arcy, 1979). There are many tomato species around the world. At Malaysia, this plant is so important for the citizens even though it is not easy to cultivate tomatoes today (Fruits in Malaysia, 2010). This tomato came from the place which is in dry west coast of tropical south America, which have moderate temperature (minimum 15 degree Celsius during night and average 19 degree Celsius during maximum day) (Cooper, 1972)....   [tags: tomato crops, vegetables, auxin hormone]

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The Effect Of Different Concentrations On The Photosynthetic Activity Of Elodea Aquatic Plant

- The effect of different concentrations of NaHCO3 on the photosynthetic activity of Elodea aquatic plant 1 Priyadarshini Ray, 1Amal Sourour, 1 Charuga Ravundran, 1 Sayana Srithas, 1 Kaithlan Djayakarsana 1Dept. of Biological Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada UTSC BIOA01 Lab PRA14, BENCH4 PRA14 TA: Eshan Naik ________________________________________ Abstract: To determine the relationship between CO2 (g) availability and the photosynthetic activity, a study was conducted using a sample of Elodea aquatic plants....   [tags: Photosynthesis, Chloroplast, Calvin cycle]

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Cell Wall and Extracellular Membrane and Their Importance

- CELL WALL AND EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX The extracellular matrix is a network of non living tissues that support the structure of the cell, similar to the cell wall in plants. It is the extracellular matrix that form the framework that ultimately determines the architectural structure of plants and animals (textbook). Due to its dynamic nature, the ECM has multiple functions which include cell adhesion, communication between cell, and Plant and animal cells secrete macromolecules that form the extracellular matrices....   [tags: Tissue, Growth]

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Plant Material

- Plant material The seeds of A. precatorius were collected from the medicinal plant garden of Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. H. S. Gour University, Sagar, M.P., India. Seeds were sterilized and germinated by following the protocol described in our previous publication .[15] Initiation of A. precatorius cell cultures Different explants from aseptically germinated seeds viz. leaves, epicotyle and petiole were tested for culture initiation by variation in plant growth regulators (PGR) and Agrobacterium mediated transformation....   [tags: Plants, Seeds]

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Stem Cell Research

- There are many questions regarding stem cell research. What are they. Why are they important. Where do you get them. How can they be used. What ethical issues have they brought up among us. Stem cell research is a very controversial, yet promising study. “Stem cells are like little kids who, when they grow up, can enter a variety of professions. A child might become a fireman, a doctor, or a plumber, depending on the influences in their life- or environment. In the same way, these stem cells can become many tissues by making certain changes in their environment” (Parks 8)....   [tags: genetic engineering, embryonic cells]

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Biology- Cell Division

- A cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism. A cell is typically microscopic and consists of cytoplasm, a nucleus and enclosed in a membrane. For the information, a cell also has reproduction same like human, animal and plant. Due to Rudolf Virchow (1855), a German physician said that “Where a cell exists, there must have been a pre-existing cell, just as the animal arises only from an animal and the plant only from a plant”. He can be concluded that this concept with the Latin axiom “Omnis cellula e cellula,” that means “Every cell from a cell”....   [tags: Organism, Microscopic, Cytoplasm, Membrane]

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Biology: Arabidopsis Culture Cell and Transformation

- Arabidopsis Culture Cell and Transformation Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Columbia ecotype suspension- cultured T87 cells were maintained at 22°C in JPL3 medium with continuous illumination and shaking at 100g. Two-week-old cells were sieved through 500 μm stainless mesh and the remaining filtrate was transferred to a flask containing 20 ml of fresh JPL3 medium for subculture. Transformation of T87 cells was done by culturing the cells in B5 medium supplemented with 1 μM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 40 g L-1 sucrose....   [tags: gene expression analysis]

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Plant Growth: Nutriet Use Efficiency

- Nutrient Use Efficiency (NUE) Plants acquire mineral nutrients primarily from the soil in the form of inorganic ions. These minerals are cycled in all organisms and firstly enter in the biosphere by means of plant root system, while doing so plant act as the miners of Earth’s crust (Epstein, 1999). Large surface area of plant root system and their ability to absorb nutrients even those that are present at low concentration in soil solution makes process of mineral absorption very effective. Increase in agricultural yield depends upon availability of nutrients applied through fertilization and yield of most crops has been reported to increase linearly with the amount of absorb nutrients (Loo...   [tags: fertilizer, periodic table, nutrients]

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Carbon Dioxide Experiment in Photosynthesis

- Without carbon dioxide plants cannot photosynthesize. Through reading various books and web pages it was made clear that carbon dioxide is definitely one of the raw materials needed for photosynthesis, but I wanted to see whether this is actually true and if carbon dioxide is taken away completely will the plant photosynthesize at all. By taking a two plants of the exact same species, de-starching them both followed by putting plant one in conditions where carbon dioxide is taken away completely, and plant two will then be put in conditions where carbon dioxide is added, after a day or two in these conditions leaves from both plants will be tested for starch, if the leaf tests positive for...   [tags: plant, energy, oxygen]

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Photosynthesis Uses The Sun 's Energy

- Introduction: Photosynthesis uses the sun’s energy and uses it to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar. There were two plants that stayed outside in the sunlight and two plants that were inside only receiving sunlight from the window. If the plants stay outside then they will grow at a faster rate and will be the tallest with most leaves because they receive more sunlight from the sun and have a fresher environment. Methods: Both the plants inside and outside were exposed to sunlight and given water every day....   [tags: Photosynthesis, Chlorophyll, Chloroplast, Plant]

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Cell Division & Cell Cycle Study Guide

- CELL DIVISION Cell division involves 2 phases: 1- MITOSIS The process by which nuclear material is divided 2 identical daughter cells result 2- CYTOKINESIS the process by which the cytoplasm and its contents (organelles) separate into equal parts. cytokinesis begins before mitosis is complete cytokinesis differs in plant and animal cells ANIMAL CELLS the cell membrane pinches near the middle of the cell, dividing the cytoplasm into equal parts(2 new cells) PLANT CELLS a cell plate develops across the centre of the cell, creating a new cell wall between the 2 new cells Cells alternate between stages (phases) of dividing and not dividing....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Cranberries Help Prevent Cancer

- Potent, pucker-inducing, and attractive, cranberries have been around the holiday table for about 400 years. Native Americans used crushed cranberries to preserve pemmican, a dried meat blend that, thanks to the benzoic unpleasant in the little red berries, resided well maintained and palatable over the winter. Pilgrims served cranberries at the first Thanksgiving dinner, starting one of numerous customs that we still perform today. You may have endeavored cranberry juice and dressing, or snacked on the dehydrated fruits....   [tags: healthy food, plant chemicals]

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Electron Microscopy and the Study of the Cell

- Electron Microscopy and the Study of the Cell Electron Microscopes have revolutionised today’s understanding of the cell. In 1838 Scheleiden, a botanist theorised that the basic unit of a plant was a cell, the following year the scientist Schwann came up with a similar hypothesis this time related to animal cells, their combined ideas gave us the cell theory, the idea that all living things were made from similar building blocks, cells. It took 100 years before this idea was confirmed with the invention of the electron microscope....   [tags: Papers]

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Investigation of Osmosis in Plant Tissue

- Investigation of Osmosis in Plant Tissue Aim To investigate factors which affect the rate of osmosis. The main factors which affect osmosis are: Pressure Temperature Surface area Solute Concentration Plant Tissue We will be investigating solute concentration as this is the easiest factor to measure and will give us the most accurate results. We will mainly investigate the different rate of osmosis when potato cells are placed in solution with different solute concentrations....   [tags: Papers]

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How Does The Term Fluid Mosaic Describe The Structure Of The Plasma Membrane?

- Essay Quiz 1. How does the term fluid mosaic describe the structure of the plasma membrane. Let’s find out first what it is plasma membrane and its function. The plasma membrane is the boundary between the cell and its environment. It regulates what enters and exits the cell. Plasma membrane plays a vital role in protecting the integrity of the interior of the cell by allowing only selected substances into the cell and keeping other substances out. It also serves as a base of attachment for the cytoskeleton in some organisms and the cell wall in others....   [tags: Cell, Cell membrane, Protein, Cell wall]

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Cells And Cell Theory

- Cells and Cell Theory What advantages does small size give to a cell. Many cellular processes occur by diffusion, which is efficient over short distances, but less efficient over long distances. Since all materials going in and out of a cell must pass through the plasma membrane, the greater the surface area of this membrane, the faster a given quantity of molecules can pass through. Smaller cells have a much greater surface-to-volume ratio than larger cells and therefore can "feed" all areas of the cell in less time....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Plant Structure and Function

- Plant structure and function Aug. 4, 2005 Summary In the lab exercise regarding plant structure and function, we examined slides containing the different kinds of roots (monocot, dicot). We labeled the parts and pointed out the different roles of each in the plant structure. Also, we examined monocot stems and dicot stems in order to familiarize ourselves with its external and internal structures. We sketched and labeled the parts of the stem and looked closely at the positions of each part....   [tags: Biology]

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Comparing The Structure And Function Of Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Cells

- Title : With the aid of diagrams, compare the structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells All the living beings are made up of cells. They contain nucleus, which controls and performs their activities. The cells are divided into the two main categories depending on whether they contain nucleus or not. They are: Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell Simplest and ancient Complex and evolved from prokaryotes Single-cell Single - celled or multicellular Lacks nucleus Contains nucleus Contains cell wall (peptidoglycan) Contains cellulose cell wall only in plant cells Small ribosomes scattered throughout the cytoplasm....   [tags: Cell, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Eukaryote]

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Lab Report Testing the Effects of Changing Surcrose Concentration on Osmosis in Plant Cells

- Lab Report Testing the Effects of Changing Surcrose Concentration on Osmosis in Plant Cells Aim To investigate the effects of changing the sucrose concentration on osmosis in plant cells. Plan Water passes into cells through a special type of diffusion called osmosis. Water molecules diffuse through the membrane from a weak solution into a strong solution until the concentration is the same on both sides. A membrane that allows only certain molecules to pass through is called a semi-permeable membrane....   [tags: Papers]

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Plant And Animal Cells

- Plant and Animal Cells I. Introduction All organisms in life are composed of at least one or more cells. Cells are the basic units of life. There are three main features of a cell. First, all organisms consist of one or more cells. Second, cells are the smallest units of life and third, cells arise only from preexisting cells. These three facts are referred to as the cell theory. All cells can be categorized into two basic cell types. They are prokaryotic and eukaryotic. To distinguish where cells are placed in the two categories, what is inside the cell must first be looked at....   [tags: Biology Biological Cells Essays]

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Cell Organelles

- The studies of Robert Hooke 1665 into a plant material would allow the determination of a pore like regular structure surrounded by a wall of which he called ‘cells’ this in itself unbeknownst to him, was the discovery of the fundamental unit of all living things. In 1838 a botanist called Schleiden derived the theory ‘The basic unit of structure and function of all living organisms is the cell.’ Over 150 years later this can be regarded as one of the most familiar and important facts within the biological fields....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Cell Theory

- Historical Development – Cell Theory 1. Robert Hooke – In 1662, he observed tiny compartments in the cork of a mature tree and gave them the Latin name cellulae (meaning small rooms). This was the origin of the biological term cell. 2. Anton Von Leeuwenhoek - By the late 1600s, he had observed diverse protistans, sperm, even a bacterium – an organism so small it would not be seen again for another two centuries. 3. R.J.H. Dutrochet – French botanist who prepared plant cells and studied them between 1824 and 1830....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Plant hormones

- Plant hormones are specialized chemical substances produced by plants. They are the main internal factors controlling growth and development. Hormones are produced in one part of a plant and transported to others, where they are effective in very small amounts. Depending on the target tissue, a given hormone may have different effects. Plant hormones play an integral role in controlling the growth and development of plants. A plant hormone is generally described as an organic compound synthesized in one part of the plant and translocated to another part, where in low concentrations elicits a physiological response....   [tags: essays research papers]

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How Different Temperatures And Different Concentrations Of Solution Affect Osmosis

- Through this lab, we will view how different temperatures and different concentrations of solution affect osmosis. Osmosis is the movement of water across a membrane from high concentration to low concentration. We will study two different plant tissues: S. tuberosum and E. canadensis. One way we will study osmosis is by experimenting with S. tuberosum. There has been little research on how S. tuberosum tolerates salt stress (Backhosen,et al., 2005). As an important crop that is affected by the elements of nature, it is interesting to explore how S....   [tags: Cell, Eukaryote, Bacteria, Cell wall]

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Anatomy And Physiology Of Human Respiratory System

- Explain Anatomy and Physiology of Human Respiratory System Introduction Our respiratory system is fundamental to our living. Without the use of our respiratory system and oxygen reaching all parts of our body we would not be able to function and parts of our body would start to die. It is so important that we maintain this system and keep it healthy. In this report we shall look into how the respiratory system is made up of cells and tissues, how it functions and the effects smoking can bring....   [tags: Cell, Organelle, Eukaryote, Cell nucleus]

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Analysis of Biology of Aloe Vera Plant

- Aloe Vera is a member of the Liliaceae family. Also known as Aloe barbadensis, Barbados aloe, and medicinal aloe. (Quattrocchi, 2000) There are nearly five hundred species of aloe, found throughout the world today. These low or stem-less plants that originated from Africa, have prickly margined, pointed leaves that produce a yellowish, “gel” or medicinal sap, when cut. Taonomic Affiliation: The species Aloe Vera is more scientifically known as Aloe barbadenis. It is a member of the Asphodelacea (Liliaceae) family, which has many other similar plants, but A....   [tags: Papers]

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The Effect of Light on the Organic Plant Elodea

- The Effect of Light on the Organic Plant Elodea Aim: To calculate the rate of photosynthesis from the number of oxygen bubbles produced by the plant. Photosynthesis: The process by which green plants use the sun's energy to build up carbohydrate reserves. Plants make their own organic food such as starch. Plants need Carbon dioxide, water, light and chlorophyll in order to make food; and starch and oxygen are produced. Carbon dioxide and water are the raw materials of photosynthesis....   [tags: Papers]

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Evolution Of The Nucleus Of A Cell

- Eukaryotic cells contain membrane bound organelles that contain a cells genetic material, known more commonly as the nucleus of a cell. Theories on the development of the nucleus takes us back to finding out the domain Bacteria needed to be split into another category, Archaea (Pennisi 2004). Although it was originally perceived that Archaea and Bacteria were closely related, studies showed that it was Archaea and Eukaryotic organisms that are more alike (Woese 1970). Once this was established, it became clear that Eukaryotes were more of a combination of Bacteria and Archaea; the Archaea portion contained the DNA/RNA to run the cell and the Bacteria portion maintained homeostasis in the cel...   [tags: Bacteria, Organism, Eukaryote, Organelle]

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Presentation on Lead in Cell Phones

- Slide 1: This is my presentation on lead in cell phones. Slide 2: Smart phones have dramatically changed the way we communicate. I know for certain that after seeing my friends during the day that when I get home I can immediately text them or snap chatting or any of the ways we communicate. I can’t imagine living in a world without being able to communicate with my friends across the room or across the globe at the click of a button. Sitting in my room I can check the news, play a game and talk to my friend in America all at the same time....   [tags: Power Point Presentation]

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Non-GMO Plant Breeding Techniques

- Non-GMO Plant Breeding Techniques Works Cited Missing Introduction In 1997 genetically modified foods were introduced to commercial agriculture in the form of herbicide resistant soybean seed (Farnham, Wang, and Wisner 2000). The seven years since have marked a major change in the way people worldwide look at food and its production. It has become an important issue for farmers, consumers, the government and world economies, as the safety and ethics of GMOs are debated. In response to the use of GMOs, and the overall distrust many consumers have toward them, there has been an explosion in the marketing of organic foods....   [tags: Food Agriculture Science Papers]

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