Your search returned over 400 essays for "philosophical thought"
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Fulfillment is Gained Through Philosophical Thought

- Fulfillment is Gained Through Philosophical Thought The ability to think philosophical is the ability to truly understand and know ones surroundings and everything that influences those surroundings to the degree that knowledge becomes the ultimate understanding and appreciation of the surroundings without question. With this ultimate understanding, a philosopher is able to appreciate life and live life to a fuller degree than the average person. Unfortunately, becoming a philosopher or even recognizing a philosopher can be difficult....   [tags: philosophy]

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Re-interpretation of the Philosophical Thought of Benjamin Constant

- Re-interpretation of the Philosophical Thought of Benjamin Constant ABSTRACT: The liberal French thinker Benjamin Constant develops a conception of human nature which shows the triplicity of being human. Such triplicity manifests itself in the close connection between emotion, rationality, and animality. He also develops an idea of liberty which treats it only as a real, historically conditioned minimalization of external limitations. Liberty thus understood enjoys metaphysical rootedness in human nature....   [tags: Philosophy Psychological Psychology Essays]

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Singer, Bentham and Utilitarianism

- Utilitarianism was initially a school of thought brought about by Jeremey Bentham throughout the late Eighteenth and early Nineteenth Centuries. John Stuart Mill would later go on to shape it closer to the form we know today. On the surface the Utilitarian way of thinking seems simple: every action must be done for the sake of the greater good. However, as one digs deeper into this notion it is clear that this cannot be achieved by relying solely on a common sense approach to life. In the following paragraphs we will explore the history of Utilitarianism and those who formed it, how it is meant to guide life, and how it is relevant to life in the Twenty-first Century....   [tags: philosophical schools of thought]

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After The Dark Philosophical Analysis

- After The Dark Philosophical Analysis The film After the Dark poses many different philosophical scenarios that aren’t so easily solved. The film starts off with Mr. Zimit essentially creating an end of the world scenario in which limited numbers of students will be able to survive. This hypothetical scenario is very unique because of how complex it is. The students have to decide which ten of group will be most beneficial to staying in a bunker to help repopulate and save the human race based on their individual characteristics and skillsets....   [tags: Thought, Mind, Human, Critical thinking]

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The Conflict of Paideias in Gadamer's Thought

- The Conflict of Paideias in Gadamer's Thought (1) ABSTRACT: Although Gadamer's study of Greek paideia has been virtually ignored in the scholarly literature, I argue that it is central to his philosophy of education. Gadamer singles out three kinds of paideia: traditional, sophistic and philosophic. Traditional paideia, grounded in an unaware habit or disposition of the soul, was vulnerable when sophistic paideia brought reasoned argument against it. This 'new' paideia originally supported traditional notions of the just and the good with its conscious art of argumentation and pragmatic enhancement of success....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]

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The Role Of Psychology And Christianity : An Article On Worldview Issues, Philosophical Foundations, And Models Of Integration

- 4Mat Review of Entwistle Willie Ross Liberty University Summary The book Integrative approaches to psychology and Christianity: An introduction to Worldview Issues, philosophical foundations, and models of integration, written by David N. Entwistle, was very detailed specific on how the relationship between psychology and Christianity can work together. Although, Entwistle was bringing light to how the two can work together, there are still debates were people with psychology degrees believe that everything should be done on the physical side but “Christianity embodies the true revelation of God to humankind about the human condition and God’s plan of salvation” (Entwistle, 201...   [tags: Theology, God, Islam, Thought]

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Philosophical Aspects of Literary Objectiveness

- Philosophical Aspects of Literary Objectiveness ABSTRACT: Gadamer’s hermeneutic philosophy avoids the problem of literary objectiveness altogether. His approach witnesses the general fact that an indifference towards literary objectiveness in particular, leads to a peculiar neglect of par excellence literariness as such. It seems obvious, however, that the constitutive aspects of the crisis of literary objectiveness cannot be shown to contain the underlying intention of bringing about this situation....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]

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Radhakrishnan's Thought and Existentialism

- Radhakrishnan's Thought and Existentialism ABSTRACT: I attempt to show the similarities between the viewpoints of Radhakrishnan and the existentialist thinkers. The philosophy of Radhakrishnan is an attempt to reinterpret and reconstruct the Advaita Vedanta of Sankara in the light of scientific knowledge and techniques of modern time. Existentialism is an attitude and outlook that emphasizes human existence. For Radhakrishnan, the human is essentially subject, not object. The existentialists assert that the human is not an object to be known, but a subject....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]

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Skepticism and the Philosophy of Language in Early Modern Thought

- Skepticism and the Philosophy of Language in Early Modern Thought ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the importance of skeptical arguments for the philosophy of language in early modern thought. It contrasts the rationalist conception of language and knowledge with that of philosophers who adopt some sort of skeptical position, maintaining that these philosophers end up by giving language a greater importance than rationalists. The criticism of the rationalists' appeal to natural light is examined, as well as skeptical arguments limiting knowledge such as the so-called 'maker's knowledge' argument....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]

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How Aristotle Thought that the Life of Moral Virtue Is Part of the Best Human Life and How He Is Wrong in His Account

- This paper will demonstrate how Aristotle thought that the life of moral virtue is part of the best human life and how he is incorrect in his account. I will do so by, first outlining what Aristotle defines as the life of moral virtue, next I will describe what he thinks to be the best human life, then I will prove how Aristotle does think that the life of moral virtue fits with the best human life and I will conclude by establishing why Aristotle's premise is incorrect. Aristotle's theory of moral virtue is that one's main purpose in life is to reach eudaimonia, the state of being happy....   [tags: philosophical analysis]

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Philosophical Anthropology, Human Nature and the Digital Culture

- Philosophical Anthropology, Human Nature and the Digital Culture ABSTRACT: Within contemporary Western philosophy, the issues of human nature and our place in the cosmos have largely been ignored. In the resulting vacuum, the various subcultures that have grown up around the digital computer (the so-called "digital culture") have been actively defining and shaping popular conceptions of what it means to be human and the place of humanity in the digital era. Here one finds an implicit view of human nature that includes recurrent themes such as: an emphasis on mind as information independent of the physical body, the obsolescence of the human body, the elimination of human particularity, the...   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]

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Understanding of Intersubjectivity and Life in Theodors Celm's Philosophical Works

- Understanding of Intersubjectivity and Life in Theodors Celm's Philosophical Works ABSTRACT: Theodors Celms (1893-1989), a prominent Latvian philosopher, was one of Husserl's best students. Intersubjectivity was an important theme in the "psychological" reading of phenomenology when Celm turned to the problem of the transcendental "I" and to a living-rather than logically defined-subject. Celms concluded that Husserl's phenomenology could not address the question of intersubjectivity because in the course of its development it merely substituted pluralistic solipsism for monistic solipsism....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]

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Philosophical And Ideological Perspectives In Education

- ... The book begins with a description of major philosophical positions, including Idealism, Realism, Thomism, Naturalism, Pragmatism, Existentialism, and Philosophical Analysis. In addition to providing a brief history of these perspectives, the author offers a comparison of them. Next, the book surveys major political ideologies, including nationalism, liberalism, conservatism, utopianism, Marxism, and totalitarianism. In addition to the historical overviews, the philosophical roots of each of the ideologies are explored....   [tags: conservatism, utopianism,disciplines]

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Philosophical Pluralism in the Service of Humane Governance

- Philosophical Pluralism in the Service of Humane Governance ABSTRACT: In recent times, the American Philosophical Association has been exposed in a serious way to the issue of pluralism in philosophy curriculums in the departments of philosophy of American universities and colleges. This conversation brings to the fore the fact that what is at issue in the prospect of pluralizing American philosophy departments is not merely the matter of deciding the discipline's boundaries of intellectual formation relative to the current generation of students, but the unforeseeen consequences of pluralism which challenge both 'the American canon' and the profession's self-understanding vis-à-vis a 'Wes...   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]

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Spinoza's Philosophical Psychotherapy

- Spinoza's Philosophical Psychotherapy missing works cited ABSTRACT: Spinoza's philosophy has a practical aim. The Ethics can be interpreted as a guide to a happy, intellectually flourishing life. Spinoza gives us principles about how to guard against the power of passions which prevent the mind from attaining understanding. In what follows, I consider Spinoza's techniques for guarding against the passions by turning to Jonathan Bennett's criticisms of Spinozistic psychotherapy. Bennett finds three central techniques for freeing oneself from the passions: (i) reflecting on determinism; (ii) separating and joining; and (iii) turning passions into actions....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]

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The Historical, Philosophical, and Empirical Foundations of Psychology

- The field of psychology is a discipline, originated from many branches of science. It has applications from within a complete scope of avenues, from psychotherapy to professional decision-making. The flexibility and versatility of this field reflects its importance and demands in-depth analysis. Psychology was a division of philosophy until it developed independent scientific disciplines. The history of psychology was a scholarly study of the mind and behavior that dates back to the beginning of civilization....   [tags: Psychology]

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The Philosophical Adventure Involving All Angles

- For an individual trying to become an philosopher, to deliver a philosophical statement applying one’s own school of thought, one needs to understand that philosophy is a mission to find and answer questions based on applied logic and argumentative reasoning leading to a presentation of an concise and believable message. To take on this sort of journey, there are many different steps of the philosophical adventure involving everything from writing to speaking. Still, the first of many steps is to find a question that needs to be answered all while looking at the question from all angles, not limiting the view from any one perspective; this question is what one’s personal philosophy of life i...   [tags: Religion, Philosophy, God, Metaphysics]

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The Characteristics Of Existentialist Thought

- III. The aim of this essay is to clearly distinguish the characteristics of existentialist thought and demonstrate whether belief in God amounts to inauthentic escapism. Existentialist thought comes from the philosophical concept of existentialism. Notably, Existentialism is a philosophical approach that emphasizes mostly on individual existence, choices and freedom. The viewpoint of this philosophy is that humans describe their own purpose in life while trying to make rational decisions even though we live in an irrational world....   [tags: Ethics, Virtue, Nicomachean Ethics, Existentialism]

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Cartesian and Platonic Philosophical Themes in The Matrix

- This essay will examine the philosophical questions raised in the movie The Matrix. It will step through how the questions from the movie directly relate to both skepticism and the mind-body problem, and further how similarly those problems look to concepts raised by both Descartes’ and Plato’s philosophies. It will attempt to show that many of the questions raised in the movie are metaphor for concepts from each philosopher’s works, and why those concepts are important in relation to how they are presented in the film....   [tags: Cartesian Dualism, Descartes, Plato]

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The Relationship Between Art and Philosophical Ethics

- The relationship between art and philosophical ethics can be divided into a dichotomy of two, radical understandings: aestheticism and moralism. Aestheticism prioritizes, if not entirely isolates, the artistic and technical value of an artwork over its moral implications. The aesthetic tradition asserts that art ought to be composed solely “for art’s sake,” hinging this position upon the assumption that only the essential component of an artwork—the sense to which the artwork is intended to appeal—is relevant in its critique (Peek, “Ethical Criticism of Art”)....   [tags: aestheticism, moralism]

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Justice in the Mythic and Philosophical Traditions of Ancient Greece and India

- Justice in the Mythic and Philosophical Traditions of Ancient Greece and India ABSTRACT: I examine the role of Justice as it emerges in the early mythic and philosophical traditions of ancient Greece and India. Specifically, I focus on the Goddess Justice and her relationship to the Great Mother as the divine creator and final judge of all reality. I begin by tracing out the historical parallels in the development of ancient Greek and Indian conceptions of Justice and end by working out their philosophical similarities....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]

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The Concept of 'Metaphysical Liberalism': On the Philosophical Source of 'Liberal Democracy'

- The Concept of 'Metaphysical Liberalism': On the Philosophical Source of 'Liberal Democracy' ABSTRACT: There have been many discussions about ‘Liberalism’ in modern political philosophy. In this paper, I want to discuss the liberal principles of political philosophy on the metaphysical level. This includes the liberal mind, the liberal consciousness, and the liberal ethos, all of which are presupposed in our liberal behaviors, and in turn serve as fundamental principles in any multicultural society....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]

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Why Does Being A Philosopher Help In Philosophical Practice?

- Why Does Being A Philosopher Help In Philosophical Practice. I think of personal consulting and much of what others call therapy as like dancing with another person. Sometimes you lead, sometimes you follow and sometimes the hardest part to learn is how to stay out of your partners way. You must understand your partners way of moving very well indeed if you are to follow it, move with it and know what will embellish and accentuate and what will interrupt. The 'dance' of personal consulting requires the kind of intellectual ability we should expect a well trained philosopher to have even if it also calls for traits and skills philosophers are not likely to have....   [tags: Philosophers Philosophy Philosophical Papers]

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Thought Experiments

- To understand thought experiments the various ideas surrounding the philosophical method must be understood. The connection between the related concepts of logical possibility, causal possibility and conceivability are among the basics which create the foundation for determining the creation and interpretation of a hypothesis that is being analyzed within a thought experiment. Logical possibility is an occurrence that can be present itself so long as the event does not infringe upon the laws of logic....   [tags: Related Concepts, Steps, Hypothesis]

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Philosophical Analysis of a Non-Philosophical Stimulus

- The non-philosophical stimulus chosen is the somewhat infamous picture of The Falling Man. Taken on the morning of September 11th, 2001 following the terrorist attacks on the United States, The Falling Man captures the headlong fall of one of the individuals trapped at the top of the World Trade Centre after he chose to, rather than await being burnt alive by the flames, take his own life by jumping from the top of one of the towers. Similar actions were taken by as many as two hundred other people....   [tags: Philosophy]

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Personal Statement : Dr. Leaf Uses The Ask, Answer And Discuss For Each Thought

- Dr. Leaf uses the ask, answer and discuss for each thought.1 Sometimes you may have to stop and think and sometimes it is automatically done in a split second. Ask: is what I’m about to do add or subtract from my well-being, including spiritual, mental, emotional, and physical. This may open up a can of worms if you have not defined your spiritual, mental, emotional, and physical goals, dreams, and plans. Answer: use your free will to make a choice. Do not defer or refuse to answer because it may later expose itself in the most inopportune time....   [tags: Psychology, Thought, Sense, Perception]

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A Philosophical Examination of Language

- A Philosophical Examination of Language "Philosophy is language idling." —Ludwig Wittgenstein   Language and philosophy have an intimate connection to one another; without a philosophical examination of the meanings and structure of language, we cannot easily ascertain the objective truth of the statements we make, nor can we usefully discuss abstract concepts. The philosophy of language seeks to understand the concepts expressed by language and to find a system by which it can effectively and accurately do so....   [tags: Phylosophy]

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Nietzsche’s Perspectivism and Philosophical Skepticism: A Comparison

- Since the idea of truth came to being by the previous thought of ancient times, many philosophers have developed their ideas on this notion. They ask themselves questions such as: “What is truth. Does a universal truth exist. Are their countless truths. Is it possible to know?” This is a major debate amongst philosophers and it really separates them within their belief systems. Many names have been given to the different thoughts: Relativism, Skepticism, Dogmatism, and Perspectivism. These thoughts are just a few major classifications from some of the great thinkers on truth....   [tags: what is truth, perspectivism, relativism]

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The Evolution of Calvinist Thought and Practice

- The Evolution of Calvinist Thought and Practice The spirit of Zwinglianism reached its fullest development in the theology, political theories, and ecclesiastic thought of John Calvin (1509-1564). Perhaps even more so than Martin Luther, Calvin created the patterns and thought that would dominate Western culture throughout the modern period....   [tags: Papers]

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John Locke : A Philosophical Doctrine

- John Locke (1683-1704) is known and recognized for many things. One of which being the establishment of natural human rights. However, generically speaking John Locke is named an empiricist. Which by definition is a philosophical doctrine: claiming that all knowledge is only derived from physical sensory experiences. John Locke believed that all that can be humanly learned and understood can only be sought through experience. Consequently Locke believed that concentrating on the exterior realms of reality to by fruitless....   [tags: Philosophy, Immanuel Kant, Karl Marx, David Hume]

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Exploration Of The Philosophical Part Of Life

- Exploration of the philosophical part of life has been a very common thing for poets in the past. They love to play mind tricks through their poems that have a deeper meaning of life. They always try to play it off in some simple word play, but there is actually an insanely deeper meaning to the poem. Nine times out of ten it deals with life in some way. It usually will try to teach a lesson of some sort, or maybe even give some insight to how you should treat life. The author William Wordsworth is a lyrical genius when it comes to his poetry....   [tags: Meaning of life, Mind, William Wordsworth, Life]

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The Philosophical Question of Suicide

- The more a question is argued the better that question becomes it is often said. That question begins to grow and the side effect of this is the more people it reaches. Whether that question can be put into a category of right or wrong it begs to be answered. Knowledge is something that people instinctively need to function when faced with a problem, an answer must be found or it begins to form eminent possibility in any direction. The problem is a question that no one can truly answer for anyone other than the person faced with it, which is one's own self....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]

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Philosophical Understanding and a New View

- Philosophical understanding Philosophy is the study of legitimacy, existence, and the manner in which things exist. Philosophy incorporates an immense range of topics and every person, place, thing, and idea has its roots implanted in it. Everybody has their own beliefs in life whether it’s from religion, morals, or in essence everything in general. Philosophers try to answer the unknown questions in life that everyone is wanting to examine and have the answers to. I never even thought twice about the world we live in, I thought that it was just life and that’s all to it; we live and we die....   [tags: metaphysical, epistemological, ethic, belief]

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Confucianism : A Philosophical Life Style

- Confucianism is a philosophical life style of the people in ancient China. It is a tradition, a way of life, as well as an expression of a moral nature. Confucianism expresses the behaviors of life to the corresponding laws of heaven, which resolves around the pursuit of unity and heaven, to become one with the heaven. Confucianism is followed by many people in ancient China as well as modern day China. People such as farmers, merchants, or even everyday people can follow Confucianism, it teaches the followers to worship the Gods and ancestors and teaches the good life styles, so the followers can become one with the heaven....   [tags: Confucianism, Confucius, Han Dynasty, Education]

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The Religious And Philosophical Traditions

- Jan Peter Balkenende said that “Our society is the product of several great religious and philosophical traditions. The ideas of the Greeks and Romans, Christianity, Judaism, humanism and the Enlightenment have made us who we are.” Religion has been very important in society, and in the human’s life as a belief in a god or in many gods. For Romans, the religion was the belief of many things as gods, sects, taboos, superstitions, rituals, and traditions, which were created by themselves that means that Roman religion was polytheistic....   [tags: Roman Empire, Christianity, Ancient Rome]

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Epistemology And The Philosophical Perspective

- “The wisest of all humans is he or she who knows that they know nothing.”-Socrates Epistemology, simply put is the study of knowledge. It looks at how we know, what we know, and do we really know anything at all. Knowledge is the foundation of any sound argument, and is used to get at the “truth” of things. In this paper, I will discuss epistemology and further explain it by relating it to something that I use to believe to be true that I no longer do. As defined in the Oxford Dictionary, epistemology is “The theory of knowledge, especially with regard to its methods, validity, and scope....   [tags: Epistemology, Knowledge, Theory of justification]

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Philosophical Thinking: Humans and Animals

-  Philosophical thinking is diverse on the subject of whether human beings should grant moral status to animals and moreover, what place animals should be given in an acceptable moral system. The proper treatment and direct moral concern of animals is viewed by some philosophers as being unwarranted, as the use of animals by human beings is considered part of the natural process of life. In contrast, other philosophers view animals in a similar light as human beings. These philosophers believe that animals have the capacity to feel both positive and negative emotions or sensations and can suffer in the same manners as human beings, and are therefore deserving of moral status....   [tags: moral system, aristotle]

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Arguments against Philosophical Skepticism

- ‘Skepticism’ refers the theory that we do not possess any knowledge; skepticism denies any existence of justified belief. This paper discusses the varieties of philosophical skepticism and explains the various skeptical arguments and responses to philosophical skepticism, along with both Hume, and Descartes take on skepticism. This paper will also describe the various arguments against skepticism along with their justification. While the arguments for skepticism and its various forms seem valid and theoretically proven to be justified, my stance is against skepticism....   [tags: Hume, Descartes]

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William Yeats' Philosophical View

- Having a view of something that is different from what is traditional can often be frowned upon. During the Romantic period, the writers were swaying away from what was considered normal writing at that time. The church was a big influence on everyone during the Renaissance and if any one so much as “stepped out of line” the church made sure they were punished. Going against them was seen as going against God. A man named William Butler Yeats created a unique philosophical system woven from his own insights and the ideas of many thinkers....   [tags: church, renasisance, romantic]

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Philosophical Foundations and Assumptions

- PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS AND ASSUMPTIONS The main research paradigms on how study should be conducted come from two broad schools of thought. Both represent different set of strategies that helps people learn about the real-world around us. These distinctive approaches of research are commonly categorised into two types: qualitative and quantitative. Earlier article (University of Paisley 1997) defined approaches to research primitively using these two simplest words helped presenting a good contrast between differing schools of thought....   [tags: Research Analysis ]

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George Kelly's Philosophical Theory

- 1. George Kelly’s theory is a scientific alternative to personality theory. He developed an organized set of constructs to explain human phenomenon. Describe how Kelly’s philosophical theory has clinical application to Jane’s personality structure. How might Kelly’s concept of pathological anxiety apply to your understanding of Jane. George Kelly’s theory of personality was predicated upon one thought – “Man is a scientist” meaning each of us tries to make sense of the world we live in by forming hypothesis....   [tags: Philosophy ]

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Philosophical Concepts of Value

- Introduction Value has been a fundamental issue in philosophy from the time of Plato, although the common usage of the term "value" in philosophy extends only back to the nineteenth century. Before that time, value were discussed in terms of the good, the right, beauty, virtue, truth, obligation, moral judgement, aesthetic judgement etc. The recognition that all these separate concepts are based on the same underlying structure led to the development of "value theory" through the works of such eminent philosophers as Lotze, Meinong, von Ehrenfels, and later Scheler, Nicolai Hartman, Perry, Dewey and Pepper....   [tags: Comparison, Normative Theories, Cognitivism]

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Contemporary Russian Thought

- Trends of Contemporary Russian Thought (1) ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the most recent period in the development of Russian thought (1960s-1990s). Proceeding from the cyclical patterns of Russian intellectual history, I propose to name it 'the third philosophical awakening.' I define the main tendency of this period as 'the struggle of thought against ideocracy.' I then suggest a classification of main trends in Russian thought of this period: (1) Dialectical materialism in its evolution from late Stalinism to neo-communist mysticism; (2) Neorationalism and Structuralism; (3) Neo-Slavophilism, or the Philosophy of National Spirit; (4) Personalism and Liberalism; (5) Religious Philosoph...   [tags: Russian Culture Essays]

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The True Father Of Western Thought

- Socrates,the philosopher from ancient Athens and arguably the true father of western thought. He is the son of a stonemason, born around 469BC. Socrates was famously odd. In a city that made a cult of physical beauty the philosopher was disturbingly ugly. Socrates taught that beauty and goodness should be determined by usefulness and fitness of function, rather than by mere appearance or personal feelings of delight. Socrates had a pot-belly, a weird walk, swivelling eyes and hairy hands. why should we care about this curious, clever, condemned Greek....   [tags: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Philosophy]

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The Evolution of Western Thought

- Throughout modern history no other period of human evolution has had a greater effect on the way people think than the enlightenment. The philosophers and great thinkers of the enlightenment changed the logic of the human mind for the better and propelled a period of mass advancement in all aspects of society. Western thought progressed over time to help build a more intellectual society. Modern philosophers such as Max Horkheimer and Immanuel Kant incorporated their views of Western Thought into their political writings....   [tags: Philosophy]

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The Philosophical Study Of The Nature Of Truth And Knowledge

- Ultimate Source of Knowledge Epistemology is the philosophical study of the nature of truth and knowledge. This branch of philosophical inquiry attempts to discover what truth and knowledge are, the process of how we obtain truth and knowledge, and the distinguishing differences between truth and falsity and knowledge and belief. The two opposing schools of thought of epistemology are rationalism and empiricism. Rationalism is the epistemological theory which claims that truth and knowledge stems from reasoning alone....   [tags: Immanuel Kant, Philosophy, Epistemology]

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The Philosophical And Popular Culture Of All Time

- Thought, while never homogenous, has nevertheless constantly evolved. Philosophy, from Socrates and onward, has developed and built upon itself, and grow outward into more and more varied schools of thought. These schools have and continue to divide, change, and transform into new ideas, some of which have come to describe entire periods of human history and dominate the philosophical and popular culture of those times. Romanticism came about as a reaction to the Enlightenment, which itself was a reaction the ideas before it (though no borders are clearly defined between any movements)....   [tags: Law, Human rights, Karl Marx, Marxism]

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The Mind Body Problem Is The Philosophical Debate

- The concept of self is something everyone in their question throughout their life time. Trying to understand yourself as an individual to better understand your role in society and what you want to accomplish in your life. Starting from an infant by developing a sense of self-awareness, understanding the difference between you and the person standing in front of you. Then understanding yourself as a human being; learning about your body and how your body functions. To learning functional skills, skills needed in day to day life, feeding yourself, dressing, learning how to cook....   [tags: Philosophy of mind, Mind, Psychology, Brain]

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Kant And Kant 's Philosophical Ideas

- During the 17th century there were 2 great philosophers who achieved great fame from their philosophical ideas. The two great philosophers during the 17th century are Scot David Hume and Immanuel Kant. David Hume was a British empiricists while Kant’s goal was to bridge the gap between rationalism and Empiricism. Kant was also influenced by Hume’s ideas of empiricism and he wanted add more ideas to it. In this paper I will be comparing and contrasting David Hume and Immanuel Kant’s philosophical ideas....   [tags: Immanuel Kant, Philosophy, Empiricism, John Locke]

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Frida, The Unchanging Philosophical Essence Of The Mexican

- To many of her biographers and admirers she is simply referred to as Frida, an artist who self-consciously chose the practice of art as a means of survival and self-expression, while always referencing the political and cultural complexities that surrounded her life. Many of Kahlo’s paintings correspond to her passion for nationalism and the search for la ‘mexicanidad’ (Mexicanness; the unchanging philosophical essence of the Mexican). (Devouring Frida-94) As Kahlo’s life and work are studied under various cultural lenses, it is always apparent that her art and specific political views are based on the assertion that she embraced her Hispanic heritage and culture....   [tags: Mexico, Mexico City, Frida Kahlo]

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The Pitfalls of Philosophical Absolutes in Voltaire's Candide

- As a novel which ingeniously skewers the fashionable misinterpretation of doctrinal optimism, Candide succeeds in disgusting, amusing and surprising its audience. With unending bounds of irony and sarcasm, Candide thrusts us into a world where we meet numerous characters that endure rather exaggerated misfortune. As a result, we see several doctrinal beliefs, such as that of Pangloss and Martin. Pangloss, Candide’s mentor and philosopher, is a man of optimistic sentiment. Maintaining the belief that all is for the best in this “best of all possible worlds” (1.4), Pangloss is later found to be rather fool headed in his complacency....   [tags: literary analysis, philosophy, analytical]

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The Philosophical Point Of View Proving God

- Over the course of history, philosophers and scientist have debated the existence of God. Humans have a limited knowledge regarding this issue. People hear and read about how the Judeo-Christian God came to be known and how the word spread across the world. The paper addresses the philosophical point of view proving God exists. Points will be addressed on the opposing view and making vivid points for pointing out God does exist. Humans are always viewing different objectives and natural aspects....   [tags: Ontology, Existence, Mind, Existence of God]

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The Western Philosophical Tradition On Death And Dying

- The Western philosophical tradition has developed numerous viewpoints on, and fostered various attitudes toward, our mortal nature. There was once a situation where people regarded death as a theme and we shall die. In Western Attitudes Toward Death and Dying (1974) Aries proposes that death itself has, from the early medieval period onward, undergone a series of gradual yet discernible changes, which he titles “tame death,” “one 's own death,” “thy death,” and “forbidden or wild death.” This fourfold division centers directly on how people experience and understand death....   [tags: Death, Life, Afterlife, Demography]

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Candide 's Philosophy Of Philosophical Optimism

- In Voltaire’s Candide, he discredits the thinkings of the other Enlightenment thinkers, mocking their ideas through his portrayal of characters. Throughout the novel, he comments on the ideologies of different philosophies by depicting the travels, and subsequent changes in ways of thinking of Candide, the novel’s main character. Although Candide initially subscribes to Pangloss’s philosophy of Philosophical Optimism, throughout the novel, Candide is exposed to the ways of thinking of Cacambo, who believes that no one philosophy is able to encapsule the world, and Martin, who asserts, contrary to Pangloss, that nothing in the world is right or reasonable....   [tags: Candide, Voltaire, Bildungsroman, Zadig]

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Race: A Philosophical Introduction by Paul Taylor

- Race-thinking: what is it. Isn’t the world past the issue of race. Do races even exist and if so, what does it mean to have a racial identity. Is colorblindness possible and how important is it. These are the questions Paul Taylor addresses in the book “Race: A Philosophical Introduction”. Paul Taylor is a self-proclaimed “radical constructionist” who will maintain that race is very real in our world and in the United States as a whole (p. 80). Taylor takes care to ensure he addresses the real needs concerning racial dynamics in the U.S., referencing historical events, prevailing policy affairs, and even pop culture to explain that everyone capable of forming opinions ought to have some sort...   [tags: race theory, class, ethnicity]

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Descartes: A Paradigm Shift in Philosophical Thinking

- Descartes, often referred to as the “father of modern philosophy,” solidified his foundational role in abstract thinking with his work “Meditations on First Philosophy.” This piece sought to prove the existence of God, as well as provide a criticism of our epistemic standards and values. By undergoing a thought experiment that involved a form of methodological skepticism, Descartes attempted to analyze his beliefs from a clean surface, to see how many of his typical thoughts and beliefs he would be able to keep....   [tags: Meditations on First Philosophy]

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Philosophical Insight On My Life Philosophy

- Throughout Honors Philosophical Explorations, many of the readings and class discussions have transformed the way in which I think of philosophy as a subject, but more importantly how I apply it to my own life. At the onset of this course, I recognized that one’s life philosophy is in a constant state of tension. There are two factors that seem to be at odds with one another that play integral roles in shaping one’s life philosophy. These two factors are commitment to a stance and openness to new ideas....   [tags: Existentialism, Jean-Paul Sartre]

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Literary and Philosophical Movement: THe Transcendental Movement

- With the early decades of the nineteenth century came the transcendental movement. This both literary, and philosophical movement was, and still is, closely linked with the work of both Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. These men were both extremely learned thinkers of their time and are now the poster children of transcendentalism. Transcendentalists, such as Emerson and Thoreau, believed that for an individual to establish what they believe to be the true reality of God, the universe, and themselves....   [tags: Emerson and Thoreau]

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Baruch Spinoza: The Beginning of Freedom of Religious Thought within Judaism

- Modern day Judaism is split into several different fractions whose looks and values are very different. Though this has become the accepted standard in Judaism, it was not always that way. Freedom of religious thought in Judaism was looked at as an evil, and preaching these ideas could lead to excommunication from the community. This was the fate of one of the most relevant 17th century philosophers in today’s world, Baruch Spinoza. Though it is impossible to say if Spinoza would have been in support of one of the more liberal and free thinking sects of modern Judaism, this paper will argue that Spinoza changed the course of Jewish theology with his preachings and creation of the idea of the...   [tags: Religion]

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Atheism as an Evolution of Thought and its Place Among the Religious Multitude

- Atheism is defined by the Merriam-Webster dictionary as (a) a disbelief in the existence of a deity or (b) a doctrine that there is no deity and by The Oxford Dictionary as the disbelief or lack of belief in the existence of God or gods. The Supreme Court proceedings of Schempp vs. Curlett defined atheism in eloquent humanist terms: An atheist loves his fellow man instead of a god. An atheist believes that heaven is something for which we should work now – here on earth for all men together to enjoy....   [tags: Religion ]

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America the Philosophical

- America the Philosophical Although convention dictates that America is an unphilosophical sort of country, fonder of Super Bowls than supervenience, the development of philosophy away from Socratic strategies that presume eternal right answers to the classical philosophical problems suggests a second look is in order. This is particularly true if one accepts many of the notions currently in the air about "post-modern" or "post-analytic" philosophy — that its roots lie in classical rhetoric and pragmatism, or that its notion of truth holds the latter to be what issues from the most wide-open sort of informed deliberation possible....   [tags: Philosophy Science Papers]

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Fodor’s Misconstrual of Wittgenstein in the Language of Thought

- Fodor’s Misconstrual of Wittgenstein in the Language of Thought In his book, The Language of Thought, Jerry Fodor claims that i) Wittgenstein’s private language argument is not in fact against Fodor’s theory, and ii) Wittgenstein’s private language argument “isn’t really any good” (70). In this paper I hope to show that Fodor’s second claim is patently false. In aid of this I will consider Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations (243-363), Jerry Fodor's The Language of Thought (55-97), as well as Anthony Kenny’s Wittgenstein (178-202)....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]

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Struggle between Romantic and Enlightened Thought

- We are often presented with potential explanations or answers to current philosophical dilemmas through temporally relevant works of literature. The late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, or the Romantic Era, is characterized as a time in history in which aristocratic social and political norms of the Enlightened Era were radically questioned and investigated. For Enlightened thinkers, the idea of “being” was composed of three essential parts, the true, the beautiful, and the good. Isaac Newton’s contributions to scientific method were fascinating in the respect that they seemed to provide truths regarding quantitative matter....   [tags: Enlightened Thinkers, Romanticism]

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A Philosophical Criticism of Augustine and Aquinas

- A Philosophical Criticism of Augustine and Aquinas: The Relationship of Soul and Body     The relationship of the human soul and physical body is a topic that has mystified philosophers, scholars, scientists, and mankind as a whole for centuries. Human beings, who are always concerned about their place as individuals in this world, have attempted to determine the precise nature or state of the physical form. They are concerned for their well-being in this earthly environment, as well as their spiritual well-being; and most have been perturbed by the suggestion that they cannot escape the wrongs they have committed while in their physical bodies....   [tags: Philosophy essays]

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Philosophical Works and The Meaning of Reality

- Philosophical Works and The Meaning of Reality I would put the texts in the following order: William James - Some Problems of Philosophy Rene Descartes - Meditations on First Philosophy Non-Cartesian Soums Luckmann & Berger -- The Social Construction of Reality George Orwell -- 1984 Hannah Arendt -- Eichmann in Jerusalem Lem -- The Futurological Congress Ong -- Orality & Literacy Jean-Paul Sartre -- Nausea Abram -- The Spells of the Sensuous Along with a cohesiveness of thought, the order in which they are presented allows for a build, a sort of piling-on effect of knowledge, such that we could travel from the beginning and nature of existence, through the tools we use to exist,...   [tags: American History Philosophy Essays]

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A Philosophical View of Animal Rights

- A Philosophical View of Animal Rights Should animals be harmed to benefit mankind. This pressing question has been around for at least the past two centuries. During the early nineteenth century, animal experiments emerged as an important method of science and, in fact, marked the birth of experimental physiology and neuroscience as we currently know it. There were, however, guidelines that existed even back then which restricted the conditions of experimentation. These early rules protected the animals, in the sense that all procedures performed were done so with as little pain as possible and solely to investigate new truths....   [tags: Philosophy Animal Rights Equality Essays]

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Computer Linguistics and Philosophical Interpretation

- Computer Linguistics and Philosophical Interpretation ABSTRACT: This paper reports a procedure which I employed with two computational research instruments, the Index Thomisticus and its companion St. Thomas CD-ROM, in order to research the Thomistic axiom, ‘whatever is received is received according to the mode of the receiver.’ My procedure extends to the lexicological methods developed by the pioneering creator of the Index, Roberto Busa, from single terms to a proposition. More importantly, the paper shows how the emerging results of the lexicological searches guided my formation of a philosophical thesis about the axiom’s import for Aquinas’s existential metaphysics....   [tags: Technology Philosophy Essays]

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The Influence of Voltaire’s Philosophical Works on the French Revolution

- The Influence of Voltaire’s Philosophical Works on the French Revolution The philosophical works of Voltaire, such as Candide, influenced the beginning of the French Revolution, promoting new ideas and concepts. Voltaire used both wit and sarcasm to prove his points against injustice and cruelty. Voltaire was exiled to England for many years, and while there, he became influenced by the English government systems, associated himself with Sir Isaac Newton, John Locke, and Sir Francis Bacon. Voltaire wrote many well known works, but Candide is the most widely read and considered to have the most profound impact on the French Revolution....   [tags: Philsophy]

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The God Of Dogmatic Theism As The Final Goal Of Philosophical Inquiry

- In this respect, as Francesco Tomatis meticulously notices, it is important to remark how for Schelling it is not enough to individuate the God of dogmatic theism as the final goal of philosophical inquiry. In turn, the goal and perpetual object of philosophy lies in investigating the conditions of possibility of the “living system in which all others coexist”. In other words, we cannot stop to the dogmatic understanding of God as opposed to other divinities. Instead, we have to analyze the monotheistic dogma in order to develop a metaphysical understanding of how God can be known as including in his reality everything else, those deities included....   [tags: God, Trinity, Monotheism, Religion]

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My Philosophical Approach To Counseling

- My Philosophical Approach to Counseling Definition of Existential Therapy One survey taken by Corey suggests a definition of Existential Therapy include two key elements: Existential Therapy is essentially an approach to counseling and therapy rather than a firm theoretical model, it stresses core human conditions. Normally, personality development is based on the uniqueness of each individual. Sense of self develops from infancy. Self determination and a tendency toward growth are control ideas....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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Philosophical Foundation of Ecological Ethics

- Philosophical Foundation of Ecological Ethics ABSTRACT: Principles of Buddhist philosophy central to the formation of an ecological paradigm of mentality include a dynamic vision of the world, a system of relative truth apart from dogmas, a moral foundation for scientific knowledge, an emphasis on nonviolence and the absence of repressive scientific methods, and the progressive movement of the intellect to Universal Consciousness which postulates the unity of microcosm and macrocosm. The comparative analysis of laws and principles of modern ecological science and basic Buddhist thought points to their common intentional direction....   [tags: Ecology Ecological Philosophy Papers]

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A Change in Philosophical Thinking Presented in The Flies by Sartre

- In the play The Flies, Sartre adapts the myth of Electra, which has been used in the writings of the Ancient Greek tragedy writers Euripides, Aeschylus and Sophocles. Sartre’s play is different from the ancient Greek tragedy writers and reveals some important shifts in the thinking about human life and the provision of philosophy for the transcendence of the suffering of human life. In Aeschylus’s play, The Eumenides, the conversation between Athena, Orestes, the Furies and the people of Athens reveals the Ancient Greek’s views about the life of man and how he should carry himself in order to avoid the troubles and tumults of his life....   [tags: greek, nature, god]

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The Philosophical Movement Of Hamlet From Shakespeare 's Tragedy

- What is mankind. Who am I. What is the meaning of life. These are multifaceted existential questions that ancient and modern philosophies have yet to adequately answer. Countless philosophers have spent their lifetimes in search of answers to these questions but died before finding a suitable answer. Certainly, the philosophy of existentialism is an interesting phenomenon. The dictionary defines existentialism as a "philosophical movement . . . centering on analysis of individual existence in an unfathomable universe and the plight of the individual who must assume ultimate responsibility for acts of free will" ("Existentialism")....   [tags: Hamlet, Existentialism, Characters in Hamlet]

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Ralph Waldo Emerson : The Philosophical Development For Transcendentalism

- Ralph Waldo Emerson might have been Truman a standout amongst our incredible geniuses despite the fact that he. Might have a short history. In any case likewise Emerson once said himself. “Great geniuses have the most brief biographies.” Emerson might have been likewise a significant. Pioneers for “the philosophical development for Transcendentalism”. Transcendentalism might have been faith for a higher actuality over that found ordinary an aggregation. That a mankind 's camwood accomplish. Anecdotal data Emerson might have been destined around May 25, 1803 done Boston, Massachusetts....   [tags: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Transcendentalism]

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Philosophical Ideas About The Nature Of Human Behavior

- Philosophical ideas about the nature of human behavior Friedrich Nietzsche was a critic and a German Philosopher from the 18th century. Nietzsche was the father of psychoanalysis and he formulated several philosophical concepts that have greatly contributed to the understanding of human nature. Nietzsche ideas had been misinterpreted by many people over time specifically, due to his style of writing. Nietzsche style of writing was adopted to strengthen his arguments on various controversial topics....   [tags: Morality, Religion, Friedrich Nietzsche, Human]

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The Transcendentalist Movement : An American Literary, Political, And Philosophical Movement

- As Steve Jobs once said, ?Your time is limited, so don?t waste it living someone else?s.. This quote1 is an accurate representation of one of the main ideas of the Transcendentalist movement, which is individuality. Although the Transcendentalist movement originated in the 1830?s, its effects can still be seen in many aspects of culture and society today. The Transcendentalists caused a revival in American culture because they established that imagination is better than reason, independence is better than dependence, and creativity is better than theory....   [tags: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Transcendentalism, Concord]

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The Apology : Socrates Pleads The Case For The Philosophical Life

- In the Apology, Socrates pleads the case for the philosophical life. He stands trial for corrupting the Athenian youth and for not believing in the Greek gods. In his defense for himself, he outlines the compositions of both philosophy and “lovers of wisdom.” In what follows, I will argue that Socrates defines philosophy as the examination of oneself and others. Furthermore, he argues that a “lover of wisdom” works to perfect his or her soul and seeks truth in lieu of facts. At his trial, Socrates establishes philosophy as the process of evaluating himself and those that he meets....   [tags: Plato, Knowledge, Fear, Mind]

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Is the Use of Philosophical Thinking, Teaching and Argumentation Useful?

- Is the use of philosophical thinking, teaching, and argumentation useful. Philosophy has been taught for millennia, and has been very influential over the course of human history. Because of its quasi perpetuity, it would not be a radical idea to assume that philosophy has its uses. I would agree with this conjecture; philosophy is useful in many different ways. Philosophy is useful because it helps us understand what we do and do not know; it draws a line between having actual knowledge and having ignorance, allowing us to recompose what we thought we knew into actual knowing....   [tags: perception of the world and one's self]

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The Effect of Rene Descartes and David Hume on the Philosophical World

- Rene Descartes and David Hume both have had a profound effect on the philosophical world. Both these philosophers are associated explicitly with two separate schools of philosophy which are Rationalism and Empiricism. It is this division between Rationalism and Empiricism that allows for Descartes and Hume to present differing accounts of the mind and mentality. Descartes is widely recognized as the father of modern philosophy, he is a rationalist, who considers knowledge of the metaphysical as existing separate from physical reality believing that truth cannot be acquired through the senses but through the intellect in the form of deductive reasoning....   [tags: rationalism, empirism]

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Apology Statement On The Philosophical Ideas Of Socrates ' Apology

- Plato’s Apology features Socrates’ apology statement in his trial which features the philosophical ideas of Socrates. One of these is the claim that nobody does wrong knowingly. He claims that all wrong deeds are the result of ignorance rather than deliberate acts because immoral acts cause people harm. However, there is fault with this claim as people do wrong, whether it be to themselves, others, or something else, intentionally. The problems with Socrates argument is that includes conflictions with his other views such as virtue and the virtuous life, his thoughts on ignorance, and his ideas on wrong doing and harm....   [tags: Ethics, Virtue, Plato, Morality]

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