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Methodological Individualism

- In the social sciences, an endless debate is ongoing involving fundamental issues pertaining between methodological individualism and methodological holism. The reason this is such a deep rooted heated debate amongst researchers is the fact that it touches upon our most 'deeply-seated' beliefs about the nature of the individual and of society, our knowledge about these, and the idea of a good society (Udehn, 2002). According to Parsons (1937) methodological individualism is a claim in social phenomena which must be explained by showing how these results from individual actions, which in turn must be explained through reference to the intentional states that motivate the individual actors....   [tags: social sciences, holism]

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Types Of Triangulation, Data And Methodological Triangulation

- "To gain a broader or more complete understanding of the issues" (Veal, 2011, p. 143) and to come to as most specific and valid conclusion as possible, this research project was carried out through two types of triangulation, data and methodological triangulation. Methodological triangulation was used during the research process with the combination of traditional quantitative collection of data which comprises statistical and numerical records and the more modern qualitative collection of data which deals more with the soft social records that appear when doing research with people involved (Robson, 2011)....   [tags: Research, Scientific method, Interview]

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The Debate Between Methodological Individualism and Holism

- Explain and evaluate the debate between methodological individualism and holism. Introduction The explanatory variants of MI and holism are likely to be interdependent; both individualists and holists contribute meaningfully to the nature of social explanations. MI states that social phenomena are fully explained only when there is reference to the behaviour and action of individuals. Holism states that it is the study of collective forces, groups, and organisations that dictates the explanation of social phenomena ....   [tags: Social Issues, Holism]

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The And Methodological Approaches Regarding Field Research

- Over the course of this class, we have read various ethnographies and methodological approaches regarding field research. Some have been very helpful, providing new theoretical insight relevant to my own field work whereas others, while undoubtedly interesting, seem less relevant to my own circumstances. In this essay, I present what I thought was useful or not useful from these five assigned ethnographies. First, what I enjoyed about Eduardo Kohn’s How Forests Think is the legitimacy he seeks to give non-human beings....   [tags: Human, Thought, United States, Ethnography]

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General Methodological Issues Of Clinical Diagnosis

- General methodological issues In this research area, inconsistent measures may account for some discrepancies in the literature. For example, Lawton, Gasquoine & Weimer (2015) found that significant results less likely to be found in studies that measured age at dementia onset by clinical diagnosis, compared to retrospective reports of individuals’ first signs of dementia. Most studies rely on retrospective self-reports (e.g. Bialystok et al., 2007; Craik et al., 2010; Sanders et al., 2012) or reports made by family members (Alladi et al., 2013; Schweizer et al., 2012)....   [tags: Linguistics, Language]

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The Methodological Role of the Concept

- The Methodological Role of the Concept "Physical Vacuum" Science is entering the post-non-classical period characterized by evolutionary-synergistic types of rationality, the central moment of which is research of complex nonlinear systems. During the last few decades, physics has made a revolutionary turn toward new representations of the nature of elementary particles and has revealed unexpected features of the physical vacuum, with the evolving Universe having become the basic subject of study in physics....   [tags: Science Physics Research Papers]

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Exploring Methodological Individualism

- Exploring Methodological Individualism ABSTRACT: I defend the truth of the principle of methodological individualism in the social sciences. I do so by criticizing mistaken ideas about the relation between individual people and social entities held by earlier defenders of the principle. I argue, first, that social science is committed to the intentional stance; the domain of social science, therefore, coincides with the domain of intentionally described human action. Second, I argue that social entitites are theoretical terms, but quite different from the entities used in the natural sciences to explain our empirical evidence....   [tags: Psychology]

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Descartes and the Mind

- The topic of the mind and how do we know has been around since the beginning of time. It is one of those questions that will most likely never be answered. I mean, the mind itself is so perplexing that we are still learning stuff about it daily. One question that Descartes proposed was “how do we know?” we still are pondering this one today. We ask it almost every day, maybe not in that way but in some form or another. So honestly, how do we know. Whenever Descartes started studying about the mind he denounced all of his previous opinions and started fresh....   [tags: Methodological Doubt, Perfection]

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In Search of a Methodological Foundation for Applied Ethics

- In Search of a Methodological Foundation for Applied Ethics ABSTRACT: The problems that face contemporary applied ethics are indissolubly related to some characteristics of postmodern civil society. In this paper I will try to take a stand in the discussion between a proponent of a particularistic approach and one who favors a universalistic approach to the present difficulties that accompany human action. Karl-Otto Apel combines in his ethics of discourse a focus upon universal and normative structures of communication with a Kantian transcendental method of thought....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]

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Behaviorism - A Methodological Proposal of Explaining the Behavior

- Behaviorism must be seen as a methodological proposal of explaining the behavior of organisms from the lowest to the highest. Explaining human and nonhuman behavior by reference to scientific laws and the theories expressed of physical states, events, and entities. Because modern psychology emerged roughly in the mid-19th century, information of behaviorism was gathered in its early stages by introspection (looking at your own inner states of being; your own desires, feelings, and intentions) then linking them to the outside observable state....   [tags: Behaviorism Behavior]

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Theoretical and Methodological Problems Associated With Viewing Media in Terms of Effects

- What different kinds of “effects” can the media have, and what are the theoretical and methodological problems associated with viewing media in terms of effects. Discuss in relevance to research. ‘One of the first and most important assumptions of the study of mass communication has been the presumption that media and their content have significant and substantial effects’ (Perse, E.M. 2001: 3). The topical debate and concerns of ‘media effects’ has had a long history. ‘Mass communication could become the basis for people’s view of the world’ (Lippman, 1922)4....   [tags: Media]

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Examining Conceptions Of Place And Community Development Efforts Requires Robust Methodological Design

- Examining conceptions of place and community development efforts requires robust methodological design due to the complex social and physical processes involved. The case study method offers ways to analyze these complex processes using various subunits of analysis. This paper will discuss the case study as a method and discuss how this can be applied to my own research. The second part of the paper will discuss survey methods, an important tool in the case study approach. Case Studies The case study as a method is defined as “an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon (the “case”) in depth and within a real world context, especially when the boundaries between phen...   [tags: Scientific method, Case study, Research, Validity]

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Comparing Weber's and Durkheim's Methodological Contributions to Sociology

- Comparing Weber's and Durkheim's Methodological Contributions to Sociology This essay will be examining the methodological contributions both Durkheim and Weber have provided to sociology. It will briefly observe what Positivists are and how their methodologies influence and affect their research. It will also consider what interpretative sociology is, and why their type of methodology is used when carrying out research. It will analyse both Durkheim's study of Suicide and also Webers study of The Protestant work ethic, and hopefully establish how each methodology was used for each particular piece of research, and why....   [tags: Sociology Essays]

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Methodological Eclecticism in Teaching English as a Foreign Language

- Methodological Eclecticism in Teaching English as a Foreign Language "Eclectic", remarks Atkinson (1988, p. 42), "is one of the buzz words in TEFL at present, in part due to the realization that for the foreseeable future good language teaching is likely to continue to be based more on common sense, insights drawn from classroom experience, informed discussion among teachers, etc., than on any monolithic model of second language acquisition or all-embracing theory of learning . . . ". One problem with this position is that your "common sense" and your "insights" are apt to be different from mine....   [tags: Foreign Languages Communication Essays TEFL]

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A Critical Review of Qualitative Methodological Approaches

- Introduction According to Markham, “The world might be said to be made up of that which is relatively measurable and that which is relatively unmeasurable. Different schools of thinking place different levels of emphasis on the very measurable and the very unmeasurable”. Qualitative research methodology unlike quantitative research is used to find out about people’s feelings, opinions, behaviours, reasons for behaviours, attitudes & beliefs. This paper aims to review and compare three of the qualitative research methodologies: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), Discourse Analysis (DA) and Grounded Theory (GT), and identify how they can be applied in coaching research....   [tags: Research Analysis ]

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A Methodological Critique of Foreign Direct Investment in Development Countries

- Many writers have tried to figure out if there is a direct link between Foreign direct investment (FDI) and economic growth of an economy in terms of Gross domestic product (GDP) but a reliable procedure hasn’t been found yet. Sharma (2008) tends to assume that if more investments take place in developing Countries then there will be an augmenting effect on the economy and likewise if there is little or no FDI then there will be a growth retarding effect. The first part of the paper tries to see what other authors have to say though we have limited articles regarding Foreign direct investment and economic growth if it has a positive or negative effect, the second part tries to see the metho...   [tags: Foreign Direct Investment, government,]

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Overlapping Methods or Developing a New Approach? Understanding Methodological Commonalities

- Grounded Theory (GT) and Content Analysis (CA) are widely known methodologies applied within multiple scientific communities, sharing a close background with social sciences. Each of these approaches has been developed and tested throughout distinct historical pathways, both shaped by different aims, results and theoretical constructions. Whereas GT belongs to what could be described as “inductive science”, CA is tagged under the motto of “deductive sciences”, assuming essentially different epistemological positions (Bernard & Ryan, 2009)....   [tags: content analysis,grounded theory,data exploration]

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The Kenya Meteorological Society

- WELCOME TO KENYA METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY The Kenya Meteorological Society (KMS) was registered in 1987, as a non-profit making professional/scientific society, in a bid to promote the understanding of meteorology and its applications, among other functions, in Kenya and beyond. During its short span of existence, the Society has undertaken its duties with dedication. The Society is set to attain its goals by facilitating communication of important findings, which contribute towards the advancement of meteorological knowledge to Kenyans and the global community at large....   [tags: Mission, Values, Members]

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Meteorological Drought And Its Effects On Soil Moisture Conditions

- Meteorological drought is referred as a precipitation deficiency, in comparison to normal or base line condition. We use Standardized Precipitation index (SPI-n, where n = 3, 6, 9 and 12 months accumulation period) as an index of meteorological drought. SPI represents a statistical z-score or the number of standard deviations (following a probability distribution, usually Gamma and back transformed to standard normal distribution) above or below that an event is from the mean (McKee et al. 1993; Sims et al., 2002)....   [tags: Normal distribution, Standard deviation]

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Relationship Between Ambient Airborne Fungal Levels and Meteorological Data

- Total Spore Trap Sampling Method The spore trap method is used due to the ability to immediately identify a large spectrum of the majority of fungal spores within the air. This method is able to identify species that are unable to culture well or those that are no longer viable, but present. Alternatively within the industry there is not a consensus on the method. Downfalls include the difficulty of identifying some mold spores and there is no differentiation between non-viable and viable spores....   [tags: Meteorology]

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United Nations Environment Programme ( Unep ) And The World Meteorological Organization

- I came to Howard University to become a Chemical Engineer. To me, that means obtaining the skill to be able to solve the world’s problems. One of the biggest problems the world faces at the moment is climate change, and finding renewable energy sources that do not hurt our planet. The articles I have chosen all address climate change and more specifically the renewable energy choices we have, their feasibility, and which ones are best for the world. The first paper is a report by a United Nations (UN) group, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), about renewable energy and what affects it would have on climate change....   [tags: Wind power, Renewable energy, Energy development]

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Southern Asian Monsoons: A Meteorological Study

- Why Is South Asian Monsoon Important Monsoons occur every year in many countries around the world, so why is it that we almost always hear the Indian or South Asian monsoon mentioned and the others omitted. It is true, that the Indian monsoon is the largest of the phenomena, but that is no reason to nullify the others. What is, is what the monsoon means to the people who live in affected regions. In India, people’s lives are balanced on a knife-edge. More than 40% of the total population (which was more than one billion and a hundred and fifty million people by the 2009 census) falls below the international poverty line of earning 1.25 US$ per day....   [tags: climate change, global warming, weather]

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Taking a Closer Look at Behaviorists

- ... Then he attended the University of Chicago for his Ph.D. Watson continued his life teaching at Johns Hopkins University. While teaching there, Watson decided to do his own private study. This is when he conducted his “Little Albert” experiment. Although John B. Watson's Methodological Behaviorism was an excellent beginning to Behaviorism, Clark Hull's Neobehaviorism also was important in the school of Behaviorism. Clark Hull was determined to create a theory for learning. Hull wanted to create a law in Psychology that learning was continuous....   [tags: the study of behavioral psychology]

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Social and Political Philosophy

- Social philosophy concentrates on social behavior and social issues. As Scott Hughes mentions in “Social Philosophy,” individualism, social interaction, motives for behavior, society as a whole, and many other social sciences make up the entity of social philosophy. Social philosophy also correlates to other philosophical domains such as epistemology, metaphysics, morality, and political philosophy. The analysis of human behavior concentrates on elements that influence social philosophy such as the study of cognitive skills, psychology, and sociology....   [tags: Schools of Thought, Connections]

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The Perspectives on Mindsets of Individualism

- Individualism is a school of ethic that can be defined by various perspectives of intelligent mindsets. Nathaniel Brenden (1994) defined individualism as two different concepts: 1) ethical-psychological and 2) ethical-political. Under ethical-psychological concept, he stated that a human being should be able to judge independently and think, while respecting the jurisdiction of his or her mind. In addition, Brenden stated that individuals should uphold its command of individual rights under ethical-political concept (Brenden, 1994)....   [tags: Ethics ]

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The Nexus Between The Dragon Head Enterprises And The Torch Programs And Determinates Of Developmental Policy

- The nexus between the Dragon Head Enterprises and the Torch Programs and determinates of developmental policy is quite complex. To quantify and test the amount of variables and their interactions would be beyond the scope of this analysis. As a case study method avoids the task of distilling complex phenomena into “standard regression formats necessary for a cross case econometric approach” it was chosen for the methodological approach of this work. In this context John Gerring’s delineation of a case study as: “an intensive study of a single unit for the purpose of understanding a larger class of (similar) units,” where a unit (case) is taken to be “a spatially bounded phenomenon ....   [tags: Scientific method, Case study]

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Difference Between Positivism And Interpretivism

- From the second-half of the nineteenth century, two major approaches to the study of reality have become predominant and part of an ideological conflict still lasting nowadays. The qualitative-quantitative divide plays at different levels, from the epistemological debate between positivism and interpretivism, to the ontological (constructionism vs objectivism) passing through the more methodological issues. The quantitative approach implicitly assumes the existence of an objective world, independently from our thought, a “res extensa” standing autonomously from the human reasoning (res cogitans)....   [tags: Scientific method, Quantitative research, Science]

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Feminism and how it enriches our IR theory

- The contribution of the feminist standpoint in IR theory definitely sparks discussion and debate bringing forth new perspectives which demand to be heard and considered from the more ‘orthodox’ IR theories, previously privileged assumptions and preconceived ideas. This grand entry for the feminists was towards the denouement of the Cold War in the 1980’s , Kirkpatrick; influential US ambassador of the UN during that period was noted to have said that she felt like a “mouse in a man’s world”. Is this still the case with women worldwide and particularly in the West....   [tags: Military Contribution, Masculinist Bias]

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Constituent Policies : Structure That Makeup The Government

- Constituent policies – involves the structure that makeup the government. Constituent policies are concerned with the establishment of government structure, establishment of rules or procedures for the conduct of government, rules that distribute or divide power and jurisdiction within the present and future government policies might be made. A structural example of constituent policy is the creation of Department of Homeland Security. In 2002, President George Bush did not see the need of a department to manage terrorism, however, he changed his mind and called on Congress to create a Department of Homeland Security....   [tags: Policy, Government, Goods, Policy analysis]

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The Turkish Foreign Policy Under the AKP

- Question: How has the AKP’s foreign policy set it apart from earlier political parties and how has it changed Turkey’s role in the region. You must discuss “zero problems with neighbors”. Since the beginning of the modern Turkey, its foreign policies have had some certain specific features, which were affected by not only the international environment, such as the Cold War, the alliances and the European Union, but also domestic issues, such as the political coalitions, terrorism, etc. For example, following the emergence, between 1923 and 1930, Turkey focused on economic, social and political reforms to modernize and Westernize, while its foreign policy was based on the problems, which were...   [tags: AKP, Security, Strategy]

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Japanese Hip Hop Performance By Ian Condry

- Ian Condry’s engaging and intimate ethnography of Japanese hip-hop performance is both a vivid portrait of a local scene and a subtle analysis of how media forms circulate among such locales in the process of cultural globalization. With a focus on place and performativity, Condry’s take on hip-hop’s globalization in performative genba (Japanese for “actual places”) is an attempt at a new methodological approach to this process. Throughout the book, the author’s conceptual development is enlivened and “kept real” by evocative fieldwork references and a wealth of translated lyrics....   [tags: Culture, Globalization, Popular culture, Hip hop]

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The Social Sciences On The Nation State

- The contemporary concept of the nation-state came into being as a result of the Treaty of Westphalia1, and it 's rise to become the dominant form of social organisation can arguably be viewed as a direct consequence of decolonisation.2 The focus of the social sciences on the nation-state as a primary unit or level of analysis can be seen to be drawn from the sociological perspective of positivism, which sought to base the social sciences on the quantifiable methodologies of the natural sciences3, and in the subsequent macrosociological developments.4 However, whilst it provides a useful unit of categorisation and compartmentalisation, in the modern era the focus on the nation-state “...has p...   [tags: Sociology, Social sciences, Nationalism]

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The Social Determinants Of Health And Hypertension

- Hypertension, also known as the “silent killer,” affects over 65 million people in the United States (Eagan, et. Al, 2010). In Healthy People 2010’s review, their goal was to achieve blood pressure control in 50% of the U.S. population (Healthy People 2010, 2012). This goal was achieved through increased awareness and research of the effects of the social determinants of health on hypertension. The social determinants of health include built environment, economic stability, education, social context, and its effects on hypertension have been continuously researched in order to achieve Healthy People 2020’s goal of reducing the proportion of adults with hypertension to 26.9% (Healthy People 2...   [tags: Epidemiology, Health, Sociology]

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Questions On English Language Teaching Context

- Review of teaching context Introduction This report will identify three important English language teaching context in Saudi Arabia pointing out potential implications that its feature may have for teachers. The three important English language teaching context this report will discuss are, approach to teaching English and methodological concerns, facilities and resources in the school and typical class size. These three context are important to focus because they are all interlinked, each contexts need the other context for it to be successful....   [tags: Teaching English as a foreign language, Education]

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Does A Multicomponent Discharge Planning Program?

- 1. Offer methodological/philosophical justification for the methods you have chosen (Why does this methodological perspective make sense given the question you have posed?) Answer: This empiricist methodology can answer the hypothesis question that is “Does a Multicomponent Discharge Planning Program (MDPP) improve patient and hospital outcomes in older adults undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA)?” The result of the study will show the cause-and-effect relationships as the differences in outcomes between the two groups (Experimental vs Control) will be caused by the MDPP....   [tags: Scientific method, Validity, Osteoarthritis]

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Psychology : Personality And Psychopathology

- It is accepted that personality partially determines the development, course, and treatment of a psychological disorder. As such, much attention has been paid to the etiological relationship between personality and psychopathology, which claims that personality causes or “sets the stage for” psychopathology. However, the reverse is also true, shedding light on a reciprocal relationship. The pathoplastic model of personality and psychopathology states that just as premorbid personality influences psychopathology, psychopathology can alter the expression of personality traits....   [tags: Borderline personality disorder]

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Language Development in Hearing-impaired Children

- This had to be the hardest paper that I have written here at Ashford. I think a lot had to do with finding four articles that I could really relate to. Well, then again finding the articles that interested me the most in one of the following areas: cognitive development, language development, social development, or memory and the brain in children and infants. Most students would say that this is easy, however, my situation is not like most students. I have a 6 year old little girl, named Racine, that is my true inspiration....   [tags: Linguistics, Child Development]

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Are There Things Which We Should Not Know?

- Are There Things Which We Should Not Know. It has been claimed that decisions concerning scientific research topics and the publication of research results are purely methodological, and that any moral considerations refer only to research methods and uses of acquired knowledge. The arguments advanced in favor of this view appeal to the moral neutrality of scientific knowledge and the intrinsic value of truth. I argue that neither is valid. Moreover, I show three cases where a scientist’s decision to begin research clearly bears moral relevance: (1) when starting an inquiry would create circumstances threatening some non-cognitive values; (2) when achieving a certain piece of knowledge would...   [tags: Science Argumentative Argument Papers]

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Port Keynesian Literature

- Authors contributing to Post Keynesian literature is not possible distinguish by first used of the term Post Keynesian (Eichner, Kregel, 1975) or by establishment of the Journal of Post Keynesian Economics in 1978. Post Keynesian authors could be simply called every economist after 1936, the date of Keynes's The General Theory following up Keynes legacy. Among numerous authors cannot be omitted names e.g. Robinson (1933, 1980), Kalecki, Kaldor (1967, 1982), Harcourt (1972), Sraffa (1960), Galbraiht (1967), Eichner (1978), these names can be consider as first generation of Post Keynesians....   [tags: economy, methodology, inflation]

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Political And Social Issues Created By Non State Armed Actors

- My research agenda focuses on political and social issues created by non-state armed actors. As a peacekeeper in Kosovo, I witnessed seemingly random acts of violence spark hate-filled reprisals and expose previously dormant feuds. My soldiers and I understood little about our adversaries who hid among an acquiescent population with shifting identities and loyalties. Furthermore, we were almost powerless to stop this kind of violence, both because of our legal mandate and because it appeared to be enabled by our presence....   [tags: Sociology, Social sciences, Society]

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Rules That Matter: Political Institutions and the Diversity-Conflict Nexus

- Introduction and Summary Many political studies on civil war have focused on the role that institutions play in ethnically divided societies. While 'constitutional engineers' have claimed that certain rules and institutional arrangements, like proportional representation or decentralization, help divided societies to maintain peace (Lijphart 1977, 1999; Fearon/Laitin 2003; Reynal-Querol 2005), political sociologists have argued that they only reflect the cleavage lines within such societies (Lipset/Rokkan 1967; Collier/Hoeffler 2004)....   [tags: Political Science]

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Clinical Psychologists Make Decisions And Judgments For Clients Regularly

- Clinical psychologists make decisions and judgments for clients regularly. These decisions and judgments can be correct or incorrect. Garb (2005) discusses topics related to the issues when making a psychological assessment/diagnosis. Some major points made in the article include: (a) methodological advances regarding the cognitive processes of the clinician along with the validity of descriptions of personality and psychopathology, and (b) the validity of judgments and utility of decisions regarding diagnosis, case formulation, behavioral prediction, and treatment decision....   [tags: Psychology, Psychiatry, Applied psychology]

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Crafting State Nations: India and Other Multinational Democracies

- I. Introduction It is rare for academic research to claim utility in avoiding violence, ethnic conflict, and even war. Crafting State-Nations: India and Other Multinational Democracies by Alfred Stepan, Juan J. Linz, Yogendra Yadav makes such an assertion, if only indirectly. The authors state their intention to “establish a normative standard to which multinational democracies can aspire” (p. 7) in order to peacefully manage diversity within their borders. Do they succeed. The book argues convincingly that multinational democracies—contrary to theoretical expectations—can elicit a high degree of trust, positive identification with the state, and support for democracy when they deploy a spe...   [tags: book review]

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Mexican American Mothers ' Perceptions Of Childhood Obesity

- Mexican American Mothers’ Perceptions of Childhood Obesity The purpose of this literature review is to characterize Mexican American parents’ perceptions regarding childhood obesity, current prevention efforts, and their role in prevention. The findings are categorized by a theory-guided approach. The aims regarding this Mexican American mothers’ perception and knowledge will critically evaluate the methodological quality of the research conducted, and how the purposes of preventative behavior construct is applied to prevention using specific criteria....   [tags: Scientific method, Perception, Mexican American]

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To What Extent is Psychological Debriefing Effective?

- Traumas happen throughout the world at any instant. One day a person could walk into their work office and the next thing they know if someone is open firing on everyone. In this case, some people may die and others live. But with this traumatic experience people will be upset and disturbed. People will have lost their loved ones, co-works, bosses, or friends. In a situation like this first responders will bring in trained psychologist. In which they will conduct different types of therapy to attempt to prevent a mental illness brought upon by trauma....   [tags: Psychology]

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The Influence of the Tea Party Movement

- 1. Introduction The United States of America are a classical example of a political two-party system . (cp. McDonald/Samples, 2006: 18). The Republican party and the Democrat party ... However, at the beginning of 2009, a new influential non-party player appeared in the political arena. The Tea Party Movement succeeded to considerably influence the 2010 elections to the House of Representatives and the Senate in the United States. Their main positions which can be found in their “Contract from America” (Tea Party Movement, 2010) played a major role in the election campaigns of both the Republican and the Democratic Party (...)....   [tags: Republican Party, USA]

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Lev Vygotsky and Social Development Theory

- Explain Lev Vygotsky(1896-1934) was a Russian psychologist who created the Social Development Theory/ Sociocultural Theory. Vygotsky believed that children's mental, language, and social development is supported and enhanced through social interaction. Vygotsky also believed that beginning at birth, children seek out adults for social interactions and that development occurs through these interactions. The belief that social development sets a precedent for development(appeals to the nurture side of development)....   [tags: social interaction, social-cultural theory]

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Designing Social Inquiry : Scientific Inference

- King, Keohane, and Verba (1994) in “Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research” attempt to unify political science under a single logic of inquiry based on quantitative regression analysis. While initially divisive even somewhat offensive to qualitative scholars, this debate culminated in greater scrutiny of qualitative methods and the delineation of the key advantages and limitations of both qualitative and quantitative methods. In the end, KKV’s attempt to unite the field provided an opportunity for advances and expansions in both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, greatly expanding and enhancing the comparativist’s methodological toolbox....   [tags: Qualitative research, Scientific method]

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Review of Three OT Perspectives

- This paper is part of the project required for Organization Theory (OT). The author of this paper will briefly review the three OT perspectives, identify and introduce a company to be studied, select two of three OT perspectives for analyzing the targeted company, discuss the methodological differences between the two selected perspectives, and reveal the major variables that contribute to the effectiveness of the targeted organization. This paper serves as a frame work for the final project (term paper) of OT course....   [tags: business, leadership]

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Community Power and Participatory Decision-Making

- At its first level of conception, the possibilities of a study focused on the community of Bautista appeared endless; it quickly became obvious that certain preferences would need to be supported over others. These preferences provided several points of reflection based on the limitations, details, and depth facilitated by methodological choices. It is no surprise that no researcher can do a thoroughly exhaustive study that can take into account all dimensions of a decision-making process. Indeed, many challenges were met over the course of evaluating the community within the current research....   [tags: Bautista Community]

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The Usefulness Of Survey Information

- The Usefulness of Survey Information Research scholars have long used surveys as in integral and efficient way of gathering data for research. Large amounts of population data are gathered imploring the use of surveys in every area of psychological science from social science to clinical science. Recently, with the booming technological advances of electronic communications, surveys conducted online have become the simplest most affordable way of gathering data. Sites such as Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) and CrowdFlower, make data collection simple and streamlined....   [tags: Quantitative research, Scientific method]

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The War on Terror

- Introduction Ten years ago, the German government decided about the involvement in the ‘war on terror’ and his Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and the intervention in Afghanistan as part of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). This decision based on the resolutions 1368, 1378, 1383 and 1386 of the Security Council of the United Nation from November and December 2001. These resolutions legitimated the general conditions for the intervention from the perspective of the international law....   [tags: Afganistan, Neo-Realism, Neo-Liberalism]

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Econmomics Affects Work Organizations

- Over the last three decades we have seen several major economic changes that have affected the work organization. These well-documented changes comprise the extensive adoption of information technologies, growing global competition for product and services, deregulation of product and labour markets, the rise of service industries and decline of the heavy manufacturing industries. In response to these economic changes as well as others brought by societal shifts, businesses are striving to increase their performance and there have been corresponding changes in the structure and activities of the workforce, with employers, policy makers and employees themselves concerned in safeguarding and p...   [tags: service innovative, management]

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Structural Sociologists vs Interpretive Sociologists

- Is it true that structural sociologists use only quantitative methods while interpretive sociologists use only qualitative methods. The methods that sociologists use to conduct their research vary and can depend on practical considerations such as suitability of the method, and theoretical considerations such as the sociologist’s theoretical position. Interpretive sociologists focus on the meanings and definitions which guide and direct behaviour, they claim that understanding human behaviour involves seeing the world through the eyes of those being studied....   [tags: Qualitative vs Quantitative Research]

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Qualitative Research Critique

- Article Citation Gilmartin, J. (2003). Day surgery: Patients’ perceptions of a nurse-led preadmission clinic. Journal of Clinical Nursing 13, 243-250. Initial Reaction This research article is from the UK and the writer questions if the findings from this study will have heuristic relevance and applicability to nursing and healthcare in the United States (U.S.). Primary healthcare in the UK is provided through the National Health Service (NHS); this writer has little knowledge as to how it works and its impact on patient care and nursing....   [tags: Advanced Nursing Research]

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music and its effects on life

- The effects that music has on life are unimagineable. Music has been widely recommended as a technique to enhance the psychophysical state of participants in sport and exercise. However, there is scant scientific evidence to clarify its proposed benefits The purpose of this paper was to present the conceptual framework underlying the psychophysical effects of music, to discuss published findings since the review of Lucaccini and Kreit (1972), and to consider limitations in previous research. Certain generalizations about the effects of music emerge....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Bruner and Wittgenstein: Language Learning

- Bruner and Wittgenstein: Language Learning A crucial phase in the child's development comes with its acquisition of language, but before we can engage in any pedagogical efforts to further infant development or to aid atypical cases, we need to understand methodologically what occurs during language learning. Jerome Bruner, in a methodological adaptation of Ludwig Wittgenstein's middle and later work in an extension of Noam Chomsky's LAD, has put forth one influential proposal (Bruner 1983). Ludwig Wittgenstein's own remarks on the topic also furnish an interesting story independent of Bruner's selective use of his corpus, especially insofar as his approach results in an irreducible riddle...   [tags: Psychology Children Communication Papers]

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Historical Types of Rationality

- ABSTRACT: In this paper we suggest that the contemporary global intellectual crisis of our (Western) civilization consists in the fundamental transformation of the classical (both Ancient and Modern) types of rationality towards the nonclassical one. We give a brief account of those classical types of rationality and focus on the more detailed description of the contemporary process of the formation of the new HTR which we label as nonclassical. We consider it to be one of the historical possibilities that might radically transform the fundamentals of our human world; in fact, this process has already begun....   [tags: Culture History Essays]

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Redefining Science

- Scientists and philosophers often times differ and debate on what the definition of science is. Therefore, science has come to hold different meanings for various philosophers including Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn. Karl Popper was a philosopher who made significant contributions to philosophy of science and has convinced a lot of scientists. He was decisive of the inductive techniques used by science and insisted that science is deductive. Popper was furthermore critical of the inexperienced empiricist analysis that we objectively scrutinize the world....   [tags: Karl Popper, Thomas Kuhn]

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Political Science

- There has been a serious debate within academia, as to the validity of Political Science being an actual science. Furthermore, there are opposing viewpoints between political science scholars as to the discipline being a social science or a synthesis of natural and social science. One such academic; Charles Merriam asserts that political science has the characteristics of both sciences, because it adapt the study of human behavior to provide an analysis of political institutions. Political scientists in theory espouse the notion that political science borrows elements from the hard sciences in terms of objectivity to scientific inquiry and how governmental institutions function....   [tags: Validity, Description, Categorization]

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Annotated Bibliography On The Coding Form As It Is Required By A Pre Stablished Code For The Narrative

- through this coding should be transferred to the In-Depth Coding Form as it is required by this procedure. Immediately after the reading aloud, the researcher will ask the participant to retell the story. When retelling, the reader will have the opportunity to provide her own interpretation of the text (Goodman, Watson, & Burke, 2005). The retelling stage will be also recorded and video-taped; the researcher should take notes of the reader 's retelling. The retelling will be transcribed, and coded....   [tags: Case study, Scientific method]

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Evaluation of Journal Article Involving Cross Cultural Perception of European Dutch and African Curaçaoans

- Evaluation of Journal Article I. Introduction The essay is about to evaluate the journal written by Coen Heijes and express my personal interpretation of the article. The essay was divided into five sections. First of all, I would briefly outline the topic of the article and introduce the findings made by the author. Secondly, I would analyze the theory and literature review by evaluating the main theoretical framework. Then research design and methods would be discussed, followed by the findings and conclusions given by the author....   [tags: culture, diversity]

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Crime Is Measured Using A Combination Of Both Police And Victim Reported Information

- In Canada, crime is measured using a combination of both police and victim-reported information. Statistics Canada presents surveys to criminologists to analyze the data of criminalization and victimization to determine understand criminal behaviour, how the public perceives it, and how to prevent it. Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR) intended to standardize the collection of police-reported crime statistics from across Canada. Figures generated by UCR are less than perfect, due to variations in the grey lines of recording and interpreting crime between different police....   [tags: Crime, Criminology, Police, Crime statistics]

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Influences of the Rationalist, Structuralist and Culturalist Theoretical Approaches on Comparative Politics

- ... Political theorist Antonio Gramsci pointed out that coherence between these two schools of thought can be found when considering the fact that whilst, according to Marxist teachings, capitalist societies are based on underlying structural conflict between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, the manifestation of such conflict is dependent on the cultural circumstances of the country concerned. Similarly to culturalists, structuralists adopt a form of methodological holism. Structuralists task themselves with identifying the underlying dynamics that govern social systems as a whole, and upon doing so are able to embark on comparison between larger groups of countries governed by similar s...   [tags: behavior, cost, society]

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The Role Of Power And Influence On The Field Of Organizational Behavior

- Introduction While leadership may be thought of as a positive term, influence and power tend to bring to mind more negative thoughts or experiences. These terms are all connected and can result in positive or negative feelings or actions in an organization. All pieces of organizational behavior are interrelated and require each other in order to function and for scholars to gain a clear understanding of how the pieces come together as a whole (Ott, Parkes, & Simpson, 2008). Power and influence have a significant role in the field of organizational behavior and a solid understanding is required in order for leaders to gain effectiveness....   [tags: Gender role, Gender, Organization]

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Conservatism and Innovation: A New Perspective on the Scientific Realism Debate

- In this thesis I propose a new philosophical framework for the philosophy of physics as an alternative to the existing scientific realism and antirealism debate. Such reconsideration of the debate is warranted by the widely shared perception of a disconnect between the philosophy and the practices it purports to describe. Specifically, I offer a shift in focus from analysis of the justificatory practices of physicists to an examination of the methodologies evident in the presentation of theories....   [tags: Physics]

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A Critical Review of Recent Developments in Qualitative Human Geography Methods

- “Qualitative research is used to gain insight into people’s attitudes, behaviour, value systems, concerns, motivation, aspirations, cultures or lifestyles.” (Ereaut G. 2007) Human Geographers continue to adopt backbone qualitative methods of qualitative research including the study of texts, the conduction of interviews, engagement in ethnography and the use of focus groups. Davies and Dwyer (2007) contend there are changes in the way they (qualitative research) are being conceived and carried out, and related to this there are transformations in the way these methods are being used to make claims to understanding and intervening in the world (Davies and Dwyer 2007)....   [tags: Geography ]

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Social Polarisation in Global Cities: Theory and Evidence by Chris Hamnet

- Introduction. Throughout Gerring’s (2006) description of case selection techniques, the emphasis is set in the methodological structures of each procedure. Each of these techniques relies on certain parameters in which cases look for different means to representativeness. A case study should always be representative of a larger population and this stands a decisive benchmark for its validity as a stand-alone case, either for testing or generating a hypothesis (Gerring, 2006). The crucial case study however is presented with a more careful insight, since its methodological approach distances from the other techniques....   [tags: polarisation, ]

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Crime Scene Examination : An Definition And Philosophical Aspect Of Science

- Introduction The aim of this essay is to prove that crime scene examination is widely dependent on scientific process, but it is not a science in its own, it is a combination of science, logic and law. To do this I will briefly explain what science is, what crime scene is and why forensic science plays a major part in crime scene examination. What is science. Definitions, methodological and philosophical aspect of it Science has a special place in our society. The word science means collecting a special kind of knowledge, and it is a method of study to “understand and describe the physical universe” (Doyle, 2001, p5)....   [tags: Scientific method, Science, Epistemology]

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The Historical And Critical Perspective Of Thinking And Reading About Jesus

- In this question I will discuss three insights I have acquired in this course. 1) Methodological: One methodological perspective that we discussed throughout the semester is the historical/critical perspective of thinking and reading about Jesus and the context in which he was living within. We discussed the political, economic and social contexts in which Jesus was going around and spreading the word about the coming of the Kingdom of God. This approach to studying whom Jesus of Nazareth was aiming to shine light on the “depoliticized Jesus” (Horsley)....   [tags: Jesus, Christianity, Roman Empire, Kingdom of God]

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1534 words | (4.4 pages) | Preview

Effect Of Speaker Accent On The Implicit Associations Formed By Listeners

- 2.0 – Prior Experiments Although the primary focus of this research was to utilise a Visual World Paradigm eyetracking experiment in order to investigate the effect of speaker accent on the implicit associations formed by listeners, as eyetracking experiments are extremely time consuming (requiring training on how to use the equipment and software, as well as requiring multiple stages of formatting and analysis of complex data), it was felt necessary to first conduct a preliminary ‘offline’ experiment, in which participant responses were recorded in the form of completed questionnaires....   [tags: Middle class, Social class, Working class]

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A Critical Review Of The Oxford Handbook Of Business And Government

- A Critical Review of The Oxford Handbook of Business and Government Introduction The Oxford Handbook of Business and Government, edited by David Coen, Wyn Grant and Graham Wilson analyzes the relationships between different types of businesses and how they interact with governments. It examines the connection that different types of firms hold with all levels of government, and their struggle between common goals like economic growth and higher levels of employment. The author presents his arguments in the form of multiple essays, broken up in to five parts and 32 chapters....   [tags: Economics, Political science]

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1156 words | (3.3 pages) | Preview

The Cold War Between The West Allies And The Communist Bloc

- - German nationalism was divided at the end of the Second World War as a result of the division of areas to be administrated and controlled by the British, French, Americans and Soviets. As a result of ideologies of the controlling countries, naturally the three areas controlled by Western Democracies would grow closer due to a shared ideological methodology. This further divided German nationalism as it created a pro-democratic Western Germany, and a Soviet controlled Communist Eastern Germany....   [tags: Soviet Union, Cold War, World War II]

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An Examination of Inclusive Practice for Those With Specific Needs

- 1.0 – Introduction The purpose of this report is to investigate, ascertain and explain the issues of inclusive practice within a specific needs provision of a mainstream primary school, whilst examining and applying theoretical issues of social science to specific needs and inclusion, and thus exploring and assessing the methodological issues applicable to the gathering of data and research regarding specific needs and inclusion. Throughout this report, when referring to 'specific needs', the definition should be regarded as any impairment, disability or specific need (including mental health.) 1.1 – Inclusion, Integration, Segregation, Exclusion and Inclusive Practice Ainscow (1995) cited...   [tags: disability, students, segregation]

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Analysis Of Posner 's ' Twilight Of Human Rights '

- Posner’s “Twilight of Human Rights” has a straightforward argument; human rights international law, has become a “regime” since World War II. However, is not a functional regime, since it has not been able to accomplish the main goals proposed in the major treaties. The aim of this brief is to provide a review of this central argument. For doing so, this paper will first tackle the theoretical and methodological strengths and weaknesses. The purpose of the above mentioned is to set a framework for doing an in-depth analysis of his theoretical and empirical arguments, which is hard not to agree with....   [tags: Human rights, Law, Rights, International law]

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1087 words | (3.1 pages) | Preview

Benefits of Providing Incentives to Telephone Technical Support Staff

- Improving telephone technical support staff’s performance in responding to customer queries via the use of incentive rewards Table of Contents Executive summary 3 1. Context and Industry Information 4 1.1 Context 4 1.2 Industry Information 4 2. Nature of the problem 5 2.1. The problem 5 2.2 Design of the research 5 2.3 Research approach 5 3. Review of the evidence 5 3.1. Source 6 3.2. Conceptual approach 6 3.3 Methodological approach 6 4. Findings and Implications 7 Intrinsic rewards 7 Extrinsic rewards 7 Social rewards 7 Organisational rewards 8 5....   [tags: Evidence-based Practice in HRM]

Research Papers
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The Role Of Gang Delinquency On A National Level

- Historically, it is difficult to document the extent and seriousness of gang delinquency on a national level. (Bookin-Weiner and Horowitz_1983 - The End of the Youth Gang.pdf), particular attention is required to the corner social groups (Whyte, 1943) First, to adress my proposal to study, the most important will be to identify on what we are looking for ( the goal) and to develop the methods ( the steps) toward it 's achivement. In my case of study, the principal goal is related to the Environemental theory of crime and will be designating the most dangerous gangs ' infected area on the map of the city....   [tags: Gang, Sociology, Crime, Mara Salvatrucha]

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1361 words | (3.9 pages) | Preview

Is Particulate Matter Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity/Mortality?

- Background There is considerable literature indicating a link between particulate matter and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly individuals (Koken, et al, 2003). Particulate matter defined as any particle that measures less than or equal to ten micrometers (< 10µm PM10) or two point five micrometers(< 2.5µm PM2.5) that form from solid particles and liquid droplets. Most particulate matter forms due to vehicle admissions, industrials processes or wood burnings. Additionally, it has also been suggested that ultra fine particulate matter measuring less than or equal to 2.5 µm is considered more harmful to health than are larger particles in aerodynamic diameter becau...   [tags: Medical Research]

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Use of Qualitative Methodology in Public Health Research

- Research in multidisciplinary public health can be challenging. There can be serious tension generated among the participants in the research process concerning which approaches are best suitable for the research. Also, the choice of methods to be considered from a compendium of methods that best suits a study could be a herculean task to overcome owing to the differences in the interests and views of the various disciplines involved in public health research (Saks, 2013). This could result in a pyramid of research approaches where an approach is seen by professionals as more scientific and more relevant to public health than others....   [tags: Public Health Essays]

Research Papers
2673 words | (7.6 pages) | Preview

Child Abuse And Neglect At A Young Age

- Child Abuse and Neglect is a major problem that is happening in our society on a daily basis. Many theories have been put into place to try and explain this behavior, and get to the bottom of why it is happening. The empirical article that I chose to critique is by Izabela Milaniak and Cathy Spatz Widom and is called Does Child Abuse and Neglect Increase Risk for perpetration of Violence Inside and Outside the Home. The main point of this article is to determine that if children are exposed to abuse and neglect at a young age if they are at an increased risk to perpetrate these behaviors in the future....   [tags: Child abuse, Domestic violence, Violence, Abuse]

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1574 words | (4.5 pages) | Preview

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