Your search returned over 400 essays for "memory"
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Representaion of Instructions in Working Memory

- Following instructions is part of our daily lives and a very important human attribute. It makes implementation of new arbitrary behavior rather effortless in comparison to trial and error, facilitating our learning process. Despite the fundamental role for our behavioral regulation, little is known of how instructions are represented in working memory. How do we plan an action and prepare ourselves to react in a specific way to a new and unpracticed task. Binding mechanisms have been shown to take part in action planning (Hommel, 1998; Stoet & Hommel, 1999, 2002); but does the mere instruction of an action result in binding of stimulus-response (S-R)....   [tags: Memory]

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The Memory Process

- The process of using memory is as natural as breathing yet there is a great deal of processing that occurs to keep us functioning properly. The journey information takes as it is processed into memories is complex and has many stages. This paper will look at concepts for short-term and long-term memory. The two concepts generally agreed upon as existing are short-term memory and long-term memory. As the names suggest, these stores will contain memories for a short period either of time, or on more of a long-term basis....   [tags: Memory]

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Mulit-Store Model of Memory vs. Working Memory Model

- Compare and contrast the multi-store model of memory with the working memory model. This essay will firstly briefly describe the theories and important facts about the original multi-store model of memory (MSM) and the working memory model (WMM). This essay will then evaluate the key studies within these two models and explain the strengths and weaknesses of the main theories. The final part of this essay will be to examine the similarities and differences between the two models. The first issue that needs to be addressed however is what exactly is memory....   [tags: Memory]

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Applying Memory Strategies

- Applying Memory Strategies Memory is an internal journal or account of a previous circumstance or experience that a subject has met. A person's ability to keep and store mentally retained impressions and information also define memory. While information is not just naturally recorded in our brains, how one applies a theory or theories of memory and forgetting can help to improve how a subject remembers. Memory is essential to our everyday lives. People must recant who they are, they must recognize other people’s faces, and need to also remember how to maneuver and how to communicate....   [tags: Memory]

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The Reliability of Memory

- According to Sternberg (1999), memory is the extraction of past experiences for information to be used in the present. The retrieval of memory is essential in every aspect of daily life, whether it is for academics, work or social purposes. However, many often take memory for granted and assume that it can be relied on because of how realistic it appears in the mind. This form of memory is also known as flashbulb memory. (Brown and Kulik, 1977). The question of whether our memory is reliably accurate has been shown to have implications in providing precise details of past events....   [tags: false memory formations]

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The Five Types of Memory

- The human body is a complex structure. The brain being the most complex organ has the most work to do. The human memory consists of a process in which memories are stored and remembered. According to Intelegen Inc., there is this unique process of Memory in which the process only involves three stages. In the stages of this process, the memory is formed, retained, and retrieved. There are three stages of the five different types of Memory; the three stages are encoding, storage and retrieval. The five types are Memory is classified by a few different characteristics....   [tags: memory, psychology,]

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The Aging Memory: A Research on Working Memory and Recall

- ... The results of the study depicted that older adults have a lower working memory capacity than their younger adult participants. Another study that supports the idea of the aging memory is the one conducted by Bender and Raz (2012), their study heeded significant results that suggest age-related differences in memory. The results had been further explained to be the result of impaired cognitive resources. This deals with the reduction in working memory processing as well as recall performance of working memory which had been shown to reduce with age....   [tags: short-term memory, neuroscience]

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Memory and Time

- Critically assess the theory that our memory for the past is a crucial element in imagining the future. Human beings do not have the ability to travel in time; therefore the only way to detach themselves from the present is through their mental world, where they can access past recollections as well as prospective expectations. The only memory system allowing individuals to mentally time travel is episodic memory. Bartlett (1932) proposed the idea that memory is not an actual reproduction of the past, but a constructive process in which distinct pieces of information from various sources are drawn together....   [tags: Informative, Episodic Memory]

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The influence of sleep on the accuracy of memory

- The influence of sleep on the accuracy of memory The purpose of this study is to do a memory-for-words that will explore the influence of sleep on the accuracy of memory. The study examines the influence of sleep on false memory. This study is looking at two things: (1) how does sleep improve recognition of words. And if so, it would support the claim that sleep facilitates encoding into LTM. (2) How does sleep enhance a false memory of a word. According to Elizabeth F. Loftus (1996) false memories are often created by combining actual memories with suggestions received from others, it can include words that we learn and having them associated with semantic information....   [tags: Health, False Memory]

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Memory and Alzheimer's: 7 Stages of Alzheimer's & Symptoms

- Memory is the retention of information over time and it changes through our lifespan, from infancy through adulthood (Santrock 218). There are two types of memory, explicit and implicit. Explicit memory is memory without conscious recollection-memory of skills and routine. Procedures that are preformed automatically (Santrock 219). Explicit memory helps with things like waking up, getting out of bed and putting on your slippers so your feet don’t feel the cold of the floor. Walking out of your room on the second floor and being able to walk down the hallway and to the left to reach the stairs and making it safely down to the first floor without having to turn the lights on....   [tags: explicit memory, implicit memory]

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Does schema affect our memory?

- Many of our abilities are innate and that includes memory. Memory is tightly connected with learning, which then can be influenced the individual's behavior in the future. In terms of cognition, the psychologist focuses on the way we process information. The information is brought and understand into the mind in various of ways and is then manipulated by placing into a sensory, short term or long term storage and is recalling and retrieved when necessary. Even so, retrieving memory was no longer the process of picking out an asymmetrical experience from storage, rather than the reconstruction of experience of using the schema as a guide....   [tags: memory, evaluation]

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A Stroke’s Effect on Memory

- Stroke is a medical condition most people are familiar with, but most people are unaware of its effect on memory functions. There have been several studies conducted that study of effects of stroke on different memory systems, how to properly assess memory damage in stroke patients as well as how to improve memory after stroke. A major theme from the course that relates to stroke and memory is the theme of metamemory and its components such as prospective memory. Personally, I believe that these studies offer hope to stroke victims and their families because memory damage can evaluated and therefore a method of treatment can be developed....   [tags: health, memory functions]

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The Effects of Music on Memory

- It can be proven, through literary research and personal experiences, that music has a positive effect on learning and memory. It can be concluded that these positive effects have an impact on patients with Alzheimer’s, on the motor skills and auditory memory of mentally disabled children, on students attempting to remember subject manner that they are learning, and on the affectivity of advertisements. On a personal note, music has facilitated my ability to remember things, both positive and negative, a number of times....   [tags: Mozart Effect, Music and Memory]

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The Memory Theories of Levels of Processing

- This research tests the memory theories of levels of processing proposed by Craik and Lockhart (1972) and encoding specificity presented by Wiseman and Tulving (1976). Craik and Lockhart (1972) assert that stimuli that are semantically related are encoded more deeply than stimuli that are related physically. Wiseman and Tulving (1976) state that encoded information must be retrieved in the same way in which it was encoded. These two theories come together in the current experiment where the subjects rate the relatedness of word pairs on either rhyming or categorization....   [tags: memory, processin, encoding]

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Human Brain: Forgetting Memory

- Everybody goes about their life on a daily basis making endless amounts of memories, but does not think back on them until later down the road. In reality, people’s lives are constructed by these mostly great however sometimes undesirable times called memories. Early researchers believed that there was one particular part of the human brain that contained memory; however, present day researchers have found that specific parts of the brain are responsible for different aspects of memory. As gratifying it is to create a life filled with joyous memories, due to various theories, accidents, or simply old age, forgetting memories can happen as quickly as making them did....   [tags: short-term memory, storage]

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Suggestibility and Human Memory

- Suggestibility in human memory is considered as the phenomenon called the misinformation effect. The misinformation effect occurs when the misleading information influence a person’s memory of the witnessed event and change how that person describes that event later. Moreover, the misleading information in this effect is referred to as misleading postevent information (MPI) (Goldstein, 2008). Loftus and her colleagues contribute a lot to the early studies of misinformation effect. In one of the classical misinformation experiments (Loftus, Miller, & Burns, 1978), participants first saw a slide show of a car accident and one of the sildes depicted a car at a stop sign....   [tags: Suggestibility, memory, psychology, ]

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Stage Theory: Model Of Memory

- In everyday life, we use our memory widely to carry out daily tasks. Memory is a topic that has become a primary focus in investigation for many years. According to Goldstein (2011), memory is a process involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas, and skills after the original information is no longer present. Memory stores and retrieves information. The Atkinson-Shiffrin model is a theory of human memory that was proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffin in 1968....   [tags: sensory memory, auditory, visual coding]

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Free Recall and Memory

- In daily life, memory is used all the time. When we go to buy things, we would remember the list of items what we are going to buy. At school, we would also need to have revision in order to remember the materials for examination. Or even, when we meet friends, we would also need to recall their names. Thus it is important to know and understand how we remember such things so that we can effectively recall them when necessary. Obviously, we do not need to remember the exact position or order of things in daily life....   [tags: free recall, memory, psychology,]

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Baddeley and Hitch’s Working Memory Model

- This essay addresses the working memory model which was proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974 in Smith & Kosslyn, 2007) as a response to Atkinson and Shiffrins (1968 in Smith, 2007) multi-store model. According to Baddely and Hitch the multi-store model failed to explain most of the complexities of the human memory and viewed it as being too simplistic. They argued that the short term memory store must have more components rather it being a single inflexible store as suggested previously by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)....   [tags: Neurology Memory]

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The Past, Present and Future of PKMZ in Memory

- The past, present and future of PKMZ in memory Francis Crick once posed an important question- “How then is memory stored in the brain so that its trace is relatively immune to molecular turnover?” (Glanzman, 2012). Ever since, neuroscientists have been struggling to answer Crick’s question. Long- Term Potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength is the underlying mechanism for formation of memory. In brief, LTP involves the increase in number of AMPA receptor and its permeability when neurotransmitters bind to NMDA receptor, which allows calcium influx and subsequent activation of Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII)....   [tags: Memory, Crick, PKMZ]

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Understanding Memory and Its Underlying Processes

- ... “It comprises a limited capacity system that provides temporary storage of information held in a multimodal code, which is capable of binding information from the subsidiary systems, and from long-term memory, into a unitary episodic representation.” (A.Baddeley. 2000. Pg. 417). This representation is known as the episodic memory trace. The episodic memory trace is an involuntary operation carried out by the cognitive system and the ability to access the trace is directly proportional to the “depth” of processing, where depth refers to the greater degrees of semantic involvement....   [tags: memory consolidation, academic sucess]

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Representations of May ’68 in French Memory

- Les événements (events) of 1968 are well imbedded in French society’s collective memory. There have been more than one hundred books published deliberating the meaning and significance of that year in France and many more discussions have taken place. It is without doubt difficult to understand what ’68 meant for many activists back then and even what is means to them today. Daniel A. Gordon, Robert Gildea and Bertram Gordon try to organize the varying thoughts and different perspectives on 1968 in their articles....   [tags: French Society, Collective Memory]

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Difference between the Types of Memory

- Difference between the types of memory There are 4 main types of memory and they are as follows, sensory memory, short term memory, working memory , and long-term memory. Sensory memory relates to the ability for our brain to retain memories of what our sensory receptors received after the initial stimulus has already passed. Short term memory relates to the ability to, “hold a limited amount of information in a very accessible state temporarily”, (Cowan 2008) this gives us the ability to turn our sensory memory into short snippets of memory which we can readily recall, but only for a short amount of time....   [tags: sensory, short-term, long-term & working memory]

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Testing Human Memory with Gabor Patch

- Although, it may sound easy to be able to determine if a Gabor patch is tilted to the left or the right as it quickly flashes on the screen, it is not really that easy. Past researchers have conducted how working memory may affect a person’s ability to complete tasks. Other literature reviews include, how the human visual system tracks changes and notice differences in stimuli. Lastly, earlier literature on humans who have completed a similar task to the participants in this study, which involves studying Gabor patches....   [tags: Scientific Experiment, Memory]

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Mnemonics: Unlocking your Memory's Potential

- Mnemonics: Unlocking your Memory’s Potential Mnemonics are truly the key to making the most out of the time one would spend studying a subject or learning new information. Mnemonic techniques are a great tool for learning and have been around since the Greeks cultivated much of them including the Memory Palace which was first invented by Simonides roughly 2500 years ago (Foer, 2011). What mnemonics do for a person is they enable someone to take knowledge that essentially has no meaning to them and turn it into something more memorable....   [tags: memory palace, art, science]

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Dissociative Amnesia- Memory Loss

- Introduction: The main Character is Lenard; he is an average looking male in his mid to early thirties. At first look one would never think that there is anything wrong with him, he speaks clearly and intelligently, id s polite individual and well-mannered when interacting with others. Lenard does the typical things and daily activities that a normal person does. On sight one can’t tell that, but Lenard has a condition where he cannot recall anything that happens to him within a matter of minutes, things such as people he meets, the conversations he had and places he’s been become distant after a few minutes....   [tags: short term memory, American Psyhocolgy]

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What´s Eidetic Memory?

- Eidetic Memory Imagine having the ability to take a screenshot of what one sees. It sounds like photographic memory, that superhuman ability one often hears about on Dateline or movies and shows. As much as the idea of saving everything one has ever perceived, storing it away like a file in a cabinet, and recalling it at a moment’s notice sounds amazing, it just isn’t plausible. Despite the stories you may have heard from friends, photographic memory is not real. This misconception is often muddled with eidetic memory....   [tags: photographic memory, children]

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What´s False Memory?

- When people think of memory, they most likely picture it as a perfect replica of the actual events that took place in their life time that can be replayed in their head over and over again in perfect sequence. But, memories can be very deceiving and inaccurate, misleading people into thinking they did something or were somewhere when they actually weren’t. These memories that we believe are real and are actually made up memories that the brain creates are called false memories. False memories feel so real to people that they in fact believe that they are what actually happened in their past....   [tags: memories, crash, distorted memory]

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Three Different Types of Human Memory

- "Memory is the diary we all carry about with us," Oscar Wilde once said. Now for a second imagine a life without any memories. One wouldn't be able to remember his/her name, how to look after themselves or to even recognize their own friends and family. It would be impossible to live happily without ones memories. That is why our memories are such vital points in our lives. They are the building blocks of our current selves. Due to those reasons it is very useful to find as much information regarding it as possible....   [tags: Human Mind, Brain, Connections, Memory]

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The Effect Stress Has on Working Memory

- The Effect Stress has on Working Memory Question What is the effect of stress on working memory. Stress has been shown to influence working memory (Schoofs, Pabst, Brand, & Wolf, 2013). The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether the stress has a positive or negative impact on working memory. Many people either handle stress well in their daily lives or they succumb to the pressure. While many studies have been done to examine the implications of stress on our physical well-being, there is limited research on specifically how stress affects working memory....   [tags: impact, memory, stress, pressure, physical]

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The Use of Memory

- The Use of Memory Memory is the vital tool in learning and thinking . We all use memory in our everyday lives. Think about the first time you ever tied your shoe laces or rode a bike; those are all forms of memory , long term or short. If you do not remember anything from the past , you would never learn; thus unable to process. Without memory you would simply be exposed to new and unfamiliar things . Life would be absent and bare of the richness of it happy or sorrow. Many scientists are still unsure of all that happens and what and how memory works....   [tags: Memory Brain Neurology Essays]

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Real Memory

- ... A page table is a data structure used by a virtual memory to store the mapping foundation between virtual addresses and physical addresses. Another type of table is the inverted page table. Unlike a standard page table it is not necessarily able to hold all current mappings. The inverted page table is complex and is known for missing data. Despite its flaws its advantage is it's relatively small size compared to a standard page table. Virtual addresses refers to the software and physical addresses refer to the hardware....   [tags: virtual memory, paging, segmentation]

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The Control Processes of Short and Long Term Memory

- On a day-to-day basis humans are processing different information constantly. Have you ever wondered how this is possible. Have you ever wondered why you are able to obtain new information, store it, and then recall it for later usage. For example, how is it possible that we can study for a test one day, and then the next day we are able to retrieve that very information to use to take and pass a test. Because memory is an important cognitive process it helps us to record the past, so we are able to refer back to it at a later date....   [tags: human memory, cognitive process]

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What is Memory?

- What is memory. Memory is involved in all aspects of our lives, is it a cognitive thinking process or a way of retaining information or is it a number of connected stores or even actual information retained. According to Reber (1985), it is possibly all of theses. Memory has not been defined as a single process or fact and several theories exist about its nature, character and structure. We have vast amounts of information stored in our memory systems which we are able to access quickly and effortlessly, this implies that knowledge stored must be highly organised to allow us to retrieve the appropriate information for a given situation....   [tags: Memory Essays]

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False Memory

- Memory is one of the most critical parts of cognition. It is important because it is involved in almost every aspect of cognition including problem solving, decision making, attention, and perception. Because of this importance, people rely on one’s memory to make important decisions. The value of one’s memory in this society is so high that it is used as evidence to either save one’s life or kill one’s life during murder trials. But as many of the cognitive psychologists know, human’s memory can cause many errors....   [tags: distorted memory, fabricated recollections]

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Memory Recovery in Therapy: Recommendations to Clinical psychologist Counselors

- Memory recovery in therapy: Recommendations to clinical psychologists & counselors The false memory and recovered memory literature is marked by controversy. It examines the phenomenon a variety of patients have exhibited: purportedly “losing” memories of trauma, only to recover them later in life (Gavlick, 2001). In these cases, temporary memory loss is attributed to psychological causes (i.e. a traumatic event) rather than known damage to the brain (Gavlick, 2001). While some assert that the creation of false memories through therapeutic practice is a serious concern and founded associations like the False Memory Syndrome Foundation (FMSF) in the U.S....   [tags: patients, memory, brain, literature]

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The European Parliament and The Notion of a Common European Historical Memory

- ... Since identity is socially constructed, there is a link between identity and power. Specific discourses can be used by those in power to create a certain kind of social reality. Michel Foucault has argued that discourses regulate what can be said and what is considered true or false. Those in power are in control of information and consequently the stories told. Therefore individuals in society “act in certain ways based on discourses that are visible to them.” Foucault states that “for something to be considered a fact, it must be subjected to a thorough process of ratification by those in positions of authority.” The construction of knowledge in a particular way has therefore implica...   [tags: internal policies, historical memory]

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Short-term Memory Affects Color Perception in Context

- ... The observers task was to select the stimulus that appeared “bluer”. They were to choose from blue, gray, green, etc. stimulus hues. The data was then gathered, pooled, and blocked to calculate the probability at each trial of choosing the test stimuli as “bluer” than the reference. Now all of these scholarly words I'm using may sound a bit long and confusing right now, but by the end, you'll understand what I'm talking about. Okay, now on to the basics. This whole experiment raised the broad question of whether perception is affected by context change and short-term memory....   [tags: memory studies, vision, accuracy]

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The Three Most Relevan Sins of Human Memory

- For cognitive neuroscientists who study memory, it is a commonly accepted fact that human memory is imperfect. People regularly forget, misattribute, or confabulate information that is presented to them. In his seminal review, Daniel Schacter (1999, 2002) notes seven sins of memory. However, the three most relevant to this study are insufficient attention, misattribution, and pre-existing beliefs and biases. The first sin of memory is insufficient attention, which leads to absent-mindedness. Research has suggested that a great deal of forgetting occurs because insufficient attention is devoted to a particular stimulus during the time of encoding or retrieval, which causes information to be...   [tags: memory, attention, cognitive studies]

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The Making of the Ukrainian Collective Memory: The Contemporary Revival of the Cossacks

- “A nation is a soul, a spiritual principle. Two things, which in truth are but one, constitute this soul or spiritual principle. One lies in the past, one in the present. One is the possession in common of a rich legacy of memories; the other is present- day consent, the desire to live together, the will to perpetuate the value of the heritage that one has received in an undivided form... Of all cults, that of the ancestors is the most legitimate, for the ancestors have made us what we are. A heroic past, great men, glory (by which I understand genuine glory), this is the social capital upon which one bases a national idea.” (Renan) In the age of nations, the consolidation of national unity...   [tags: Ukraine, Collective Memory, Cossacks,]

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Collective Memory Resists Hong Kong Development ?

- Contents 1. Introduction 2. Definitions of terms 3. Collective memory assists economic development 4. Promoting identity 5. Acting as educational medium 6. Maintaining the multifunctional society 7. Criticism is for improvement 8. Conclusion Annexes 1. Image reference 2. Book reference Introduction “Memories reveal the culture, history and time of the city.” (Aldo Rossi, 1982). The demolishment of Star Ferry Pier and Queen’s Pier in 2006 and 2007 has gathered a raising awareness on the discussion of collective memory with urban development in Hong Kong....   [tags: collective memory economic development]

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The Effect of Audio Multitasking and Visual Multitasking on an Individual's Memory.

- Multitasking is an idea that many people believe saves time and helps complete tasks in a shorter amount of time. However, theory suggests that by doing the same type of multitasking tasks, it would be too strenuous to remember what you just did since both activities were almost the same. This research paper aims to evaluate how the same type of multitasking affects the memory of humans. Data from twenty-seven people were collected in which they had to perform two types of multitasking activities and take a test to see how much they could remember....   [tags: anatomy, memory, distraction]

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Memory Processses

- Memory Processes The human capacity for memory is unknown, and the process for remembering is an invisible, and therefore, an unsubstantiated concept. A discussion regarding the concepts of short-term, working, and long-term memory precedes an explanation of the encoding and retrieval in the memory processes. An evaluation of the variables associated with encoding and retrieval provides an understanding of the results from an online self-administered memory test. Although online memory assessments provide an entertaining experience, the concept of memory and the factors influencing memory are too complex to depend on such assessments and individuals questioning their memory related abilities...   [tags: human capacity, short-term memory]

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A High-Performance Memory Allocator for Computer Systems

- In today’s CMOS VLSI technology makes it possible to combine a very powerful processor onto a single chip. NUMA (Non uniform Memory Access time) multiprocessor designs were of increasing importance as they were involved in supporting shared memory on a huge scale. For such systems, the placement and movement of code as well as data are crucial to performance. This needs to deal with data placement problems and this has been called the “NUMA Problem.” Presenting the programmer with an explicit NUMA memory model resulted in a significant kind of extra programming burden....   [tags: numa, memory model, programming, ip]

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My Childhood Memory of My Role Model

- Since the age of 12, I have struggled to remember what my childhood was like; from time to time I regained a little memory about my life. I was brought up by my grandparents, who worked hard every day to make ends meet for me. However, my life changed on May 25, 1995, when I received a call from Belinda, a friend of the family, saying that my grandparents were in a bad car accident, and that they did not make it out alive. It seemed as though the world around me had come crashing down. Then my aunt Joyce, a mother of three children and a postal worker stepped up as my care giver....   [tags: Childhood, Memory, aunts, single mothers,]

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Link between Verbal Fluency and Phonological Short-Term Memory in Simultaneous Bilinguals and Monolinguals

- ... Taking into consideration the results from the study of Kaushankaya et al. (2011) we expect to find that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in the Phonological Short Term Memory Task. Gender differences in verbal abilities have been researched since 1974 when Maccoby and Jacklin (as cited in Herlitz, Nilsson and Backman, 1997) concluded that girls have an advantage in verbal abilities when boys are better in visuospatial abilities. Futhermore, when Herlitz et al. (1997) looked for gender differences in memory performance they found that women outperformed men in the episodic memory tasks....   [tags: vocabulary and memory]

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Impact of Pregnancy Cortisol Levels on High and Low Working Memory Capacity

- PROJECT DESCRIPTION Impact of Pregnancy Cortisol Levels on High and Low Working Memory Capacity The terms “baby brain” and “maternal amnesia” are informally used to describe the perceived memory loss and inattentiveness many women report suffering during pregnancy (Cuttler, Graf, Pawluski & Galea, 2010). Previous studies have suggested that this perceived memory loss may be associated with temporary exhaustion of working memory capacity (WMC) (Casey, 2000). In 1971, Marian Diamond and collegues did extensive research on pregnant and non-pregnant rats and demonstrated for the first time that pregnancy reshapes the brain (Diamond, Johnson & Ingham, 1971)....   [tags: Health, Diseases, Memory Loss]

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The Relationship of Photographs, History, and Memory

- The Relationship of Photographs, History, and Memory Abstract: This essay reflects on the relationship of photographs, history, and memory based on a found and mutilated photo album. Photographs provide opportunities for disrupting and restructuring history with their attraction to memory; they privilege the subjective, creative power of the personal explanation and provide an emotional and even ideological grounding for memory. Photographs as manifestations of memory assist in the process of understanding the present....   [tags: Image Photography Memory]

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Discuss how cognitive research into context-dependent memory might be applied to improve our memory in everyday life

- Empirical studies on context-dependent memory date back to Carr Harvey (as cited in Smith & Vela, 2001). Memory is context-dependent, when contextual cues affect remembering (Morris & Gruneberg, 1994). Context-dependent memory implies that contextual information is stored along with the target information. Findings from the research (Godden & Baddeley, 1975; Smith, Glenberg, & Bjork, 1978) indicate that context change alters memorization and recall processes. According to Tulving (1973) the usage of contextual cues can improve the retrieval processes....   [tags: Empirical Studies, Memory, Contextua Clues]

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Theories of Sleep: The Role of Slow-Wave Sleep in Memory Consolidation

- Introduction Sleep is defined as a reversible, natural state of reduced responsiveness to external stimuli and relative inactivity, accompanied by a loss of consciousness1. This state of inactivity has been evolutionary conserved across species against many selection pressures. This suggests that sleep holds a vital function. Multiple studies have suggested that sleep enhances both declarative and procedural memory 2,3. Consequently, memory consolidation is one of the ostensible functions of sleep....   [tags: neuroimaging techniques, memory]

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The Second World War in U. S. History and Memory by Mark A. Stole

- World War II was a global event that forever changed the world. From devastating events to heart wrenching stories, World War II bore witness to some of the most heinous acts against humanity. A debate exists over the differences between the history and the memory of the war. From historians to the way societies remember it, the war impacted everyone. Many argue that the United States entered the war for ulterior motives others remember its involvement as a necessity in order to prevent a more catastrophic outcome....   [tags: holocaust, germans, memory]

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1147 words | (3.3 pages) | Preview

Nonvolatile Multilevel Resistive Memory Switching in Amorphous LaGdO3 Thin Films

- Currently there is worldwide interest to develop alternative nonvolatile memory technologies as the commonly used MOS transistor based semiconductor memory devices are rapidly approaching the scaling limits. Among all of the emerging concepts, the metal oxide based resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the competitive candidates for future nonvolatile memory applications due to its simple metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure, high storage density, low power consumption, high operation speed, high endurance, and long retention....   [tags: computer memory devices]

Term Papers
2022 words | (5.8 pages) | Preview

On the Extinction of Voluntary Memory

- On the Extinction of Voluntary Memory Absolute certainty is a term that can rarely, if ever, be applied in any realm of human endeavor. In science, there is always a limit of precision to which any measurement can be taken. In literature, the fact that the author's language merely represents his ideas (as opposed to embodying them) leaves such conveyed ideas open to a degree of interpretation. More important than these factors, though, is that the greater part of what we today regard as knowledge is founded in theory....   [tags: Memory Psychology Psychological Papers]

Term Papers
2008 words | (5.7 pages) | Preview

How Memory and Patterns Help Us Develop Our Models of Consicousness

- Consciousness Consciousness is a divine mercy, by our conscious we can understand ourselves better and we can feel our presence in this world. Since we know that, consciousness plays a vital role in our existence, so we will explore the consciousness by scientists and artist viewpoints. We will further look at the question of how memory and patterns helps us develop our models of consciousness through three different themes from three pieces," The Uncanny" by Sigmund Freud , "I Am A Strange Loop" by Douglas Hofstadter and "Matt Mullican's World" by Allan McCollum....   [tags: conscicusness, existence, memory, themes]

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1020 words | (2.9 pages) | Preview

Richard Rodriguez's Hunger of Memory

- Richard Rodriguez's Hunger of Memory The universal "growing pains" that all children experience in one form or another are easily recognized in Richard Rodriguez’s autobiographical excerpt from Hunger of Memory. Rodriguez’s childhood was particularly unique given the fact that while he was born and raised in the United States, he was strongly influenced in the ethnic environment of a Spanish family. Although the reader is introduced to only a short excerpt from the autobiography, he learns a great deal about Rodriguez’s family and his relationship to it, his conflict of speaking English versus Spanish, and the paradox that became evident as he used English as his prim...   [tags: Hunger Memory Rodriguez Essays]

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1130 words | (3.2 pages) | Preview

A Look Into False Memory Syndrome

- Memory is the mental faculty of retaining and recalling past experiences. A repressed memory is one that is retained in the subconscious mind, where one is not aware of it but where it can still affect both conscious thoughts and behavior. When memory is distorted or confabulated, the result can be what has been called the False Memory Syndrome: a condition in which a person's identity and interpersonal relationships are entered around a memory of traumatic experience which is objectively false but in which the person strongly believes (note that the syndrome is not characterized by false memories as such)....   [tags: Memory Psychology Disorders Medical Essays]

Free Essays
3567 words | (10.2 pages) | Preview

The Working Memory Model Proposed by Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch

- That our memory isn’t veridical is not a novel idea. This means that we don’t perfectly remember everything that we have seen or experienced in the past. Broadly speaking, there are two fundamental memory errors that occur in everyday life. One is forgetting events that have occurred, and the other is remembering something that did not transpire (or misremembering them in the way that they occurred). The first error, forgetting, is very common, and needs no explanation. We can all think of instances where our memory has failed us....   [tags: illusory memories, false memory, veridical]

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1642 words | (4.7 pages) | Preview

Memory in Marshall’s "Praisesong for the Widow" and Danticat’s "Breath, Eyes"

- Memories can in a way define who we are and how we progress through life. Memories can be a pathway to either follow the straight and narrow or to have us decide which fork of the road to take. Past memories can help to identify a person and can effect the future that follows. Through the journy of self discovery, Marshall’s Praisesong for the Widow and Danticat’s Breath, Eyes, Memory suggest one must relive past and present memories to find their true identity in the future. Avey Johnson, Praisesong for the Widow, a financially stable, middle aged widow through the years has somehow lost her identity after her youthful age....   [tags: Memory, Praisesong for the Widow, Danticat, "Breat]

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1954 words | (5.6 pages) | Preview

Order, Memory, and Anxiety in Borges' Fiction

- Order, Memory, and Anxiety in Borges' Fiction The fundamental questions of how and why we read have an infinitude of answers, none of which entirely 'do the job', simply because they bear too closely upon the automatic, (and therefore, to us, secret) processes of the mind; the act of reading is too closely related to the act of living in the world for us to comprehend definitively. There are few writers who understand and exploit this primal link more persistently than Jorge Luis Borges. One of the ways in which he forces us to examine the parallels between reading and existing (I use the word 'force' because it is not always a pleasant confrontation) is through the thematic use of me...   [tags: Reading Memorize Memory Essays]

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2605 words | (7.4 pages) | Preview

Effect of Identity of the Confederate on Social Contagion of Memory: Does Misinformation From Significant Other Cause Higher Levels of Contagion?

- Memory’s reconstructive structure is known and has a consensus upon for a long time; and researchers try to identify different kinds of effects on memory such as neurological factors, cognitive factors and developmental factors and so on (Sutton, 2011). However, influence of social factors was not considered in research until recently. Echterhoff and Hirst (2009) reviewed both group and dyad studies in memory conformity and social contagion. They mention the first studies of social influence on memory started with researcher’s involvement in experiment....   [tags: health, memory, reconstructive structure]

Strong Essays
1018 words | (2.9 pages) | Preview

Analysis of Hunger of Memory by Richard Rodriguez

- Analysis of Hunger of Memory by Richard Rodriguez Richard Rodriguez?s essay, Hunger of Memory, narrates the course of his educational career. Rodriguez tells of the unenthusiastic and disheartening factors that he had to endure along with his education such as isolation and lack of innovation. It becomes apparent that Rodriguez believes that only a select few go through the awful experiences that he underwent. But actually the contrary is true. The majority of students do go through the ?long, unglamorous, and demeaning process....   [tags: Papers Hunger Memory Rodriguez Essays]

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1257 words | (3.6 pages) | Preview

Repressed Memory

- Repressed Memory If someone asks me, "Where were you on September 11, 2001?" I would be able to give that person an accurate answer. It seems impossible to ever forget the events of that day. How could one forget such a traumatic day. It seems like life changing events would stay with a person forever. However, there are many victims of, let's say, child abuse that cannot remember the actual abuse. The memories of such horrors have been erased so there is no recollection of the events. Being a skeptic, I am not sure if I would be able to forget such horrific events....   [tags: Psychology Essays Memory Neurology]

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1875 words | (5.4 pages) | Preview

Sophie's Journey Toward Freedom in Breath, Eyes, Memory

- Sophie's Journey Toward Freedom in Breath, Eyes, Memory The novel Breath, Eyes, Memory, by Edwidge Danticat, is a bildungsroman. The narrator, Sophie, embarks on a journey towards her freedom. Sophie's freedom comes from her therapy. Sophie's treatment and her sex phobia group help her to cope with problems and move past them. The therapy helps Sophie to take logical steps towards her freedom. In Sophie's sex phobia therapy group, Sophie is able to realize she is not the only person in the world with problems....   [tags: Breath, Eyes, Memory Edwidge Danticat]

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679 words | (1.9 pages) | Preview

Memory and Memory Hierarchy

- 1.0 Introduction: In computers terminology, any device which is used to store data and different applications is called memory. Memory is one of the essential parts of computers or any electronic device. It enable device to save the data and the instructions which the CPU Central Processing unit require. The term memory is usually used to describe fast and temporary form of storage. Particularly memory is identified by its capacity. CPU will take long time to retrieve data without memory, therefore, the memory exists so that CPU can retrieve data faster (Tyson, 2011)....   [tags: Storage Space, Computers, Technology]

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931 words | (2.7 pages) | Preview

An Analysis of Anne Bradstreet: In Memory of My Dear Grandchild Elizabeth Bradstreet

- An Analysis of Anne Bradstreet: In Memory of My Dear Grandchild Elizabeth Bradstreet   The Puritan woman's life was one entrenched in self-examination; bringing about the assembly of a spiritual armor in order to duel feminine sexuality to the death. In the elegy "In Memory of My Dear Grandchild Elizabeth Bradstreet, Who Deceased August, 1665, Being a Year and Half Old," Bradstreet does not to fight with the expected vengeance against the manifestation of her "evil," her child, as one would expect within the given spiritual context....   [tags: Memory of My Dear Grandchild Elizabeth Bradstreet]

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An Annotation of Anne Bradstreet's In Memory of My Dear Grandchild Elizabeth Bradstreet

- An Annotation of Anne Bradstreet's In Memory of My Dear Grandchild Elizabeth Bradstreet This poem is a firsthand account of how Anne Bradstreet was feeling when she experienced the loss of her granddaughter, Elizabeth. Although Bradstreet's attitude on Elizabeth's death seems to reflect her belief in God's plan, the diction suggests otherwise. In Memory of My Dear Grandchild Elizabeth Bradstreet, Who Deceased August, 1665, Being a Year and Half Oldby Anne Bradstreet 1 Farewell dear babe, my heart's too much content, Farewell sweet babe, the pleasure of mine eye, Farewell fair flower that for a space was lent, Then ta'en away unto eternity....   [tags: Memory My Dear Grandchild Elizabeth Bradstreet]

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The Veracity of Memory

- When we try and remember ideas events or facts, we are actually remembering our version of events. If you think about what you ate for dinner on Thanksgiving five years ago you most likely would say the generic idea of a thanksgiving dinner, such as turkey, ham, sweet potatoes ect. You would not be able to recall and explain specific details that require attention and focus. Since memory is unique to the individual, is what we remember a realistic recollection of events and facts. From Larry R. Squire’s book, Memory and Brain, we can classify Memory into three different stages: Immediate, Short Term, and Long Term....   [tags: neuroscience, lopng-term, short-term]

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1268 words | (3.6 pages) | Preview

The structure of memory

- Introduction Prior research into the structure of memory have suggested that memory is comprised up from three separate stores each performing a specific and relatively inflexible function (in Passer, Smith, Holt, Bremner, Sutherland, & Vliek, 2009). That is the multi-store model, developed by Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968 in Passer et al., 2009) who claim a sensory memory store, short-term memory store (STM) and a long-term memory store (LTM) (in Passer et al., 2009). Although to some, the multi store model provided an adequate explanation of memory processes, it was regarded as being too simplistic since short-term and long- term memories were far more complicated than originally thought (in...   [tags: Technology, Multi-store Model]

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1616 words | (4.6 pages) | Preview

The Brain and Memory

- The Brain and Memory The puzzle of the brain and how it “remembers” has perplexed scientists for ages. As new technologies for observing the brain functioning develop, scientists are starting to get a clearer picture of the mystery of memory. The brain is made up of three crucial parts, the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem (WBE B: 550a). The largest part of the brain at 85% of it’s total volume, the cerebrum, or forebrain, controls thought and many kinds of learning. Different parts of it have many different procedures, such as analyzing complicated sensory information, regulating fine movements, and directing many bodily functions....   [tags: neurons, messages, temporal]

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1701 words | (4.9 pages) | Preview

Effect of List Position on Free Recall

- In our daily lives, we constantly try to store and retrieve information from our memory. Sometimes the retrieval process is quite simple, while other times it seems to be almost impossible. An experiment was done to investigate the effect of list position on free recall. The serial position effect refers to the U-shaped pattern presentation on a free recall task. The accuracy of item recall depends on the order that the stimulus is presented. The serial position curve is an example of how the recency and primacy effect appears to have influence on recall....   [tags: Memory]

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787 words | (2.2 pages) | Preview

The Memory System

- Memories are creative recollections of past experiences that are unique to each individual. They define us and give us our identity. Memories are a collection of information, which at one time was new to us, and as we learned and progressed, that information became stored as memory. The main fact to memory is that practice and repetition is a key asset to making the brain encode the information as memory. When the brain encodes this information it is stored, waiting to be retrieved. When we memorize something, it is stored for a certain amount of time in the brain, the more we recall this information the more familiar we become with it, making it easier to remember and recall later in life....   [tags: Human Intellect]

Term Papers
1945 words | (5.6 pages) | Preview

Memory and History

- 1. Using the excerpts from Marx, Nietzsche and Freud that we have read in class, please explain one commonality and one salient difference in each on the question of memory. There is a common saying that one must “learn from the past to change the future.” In the context of memory and history, learning from the past causes history to repeat itself, rather than causing change. Marx, Nietzche, and Freud have discussed the question of memory in the context of modernity. Even though there are differences in the way Marx, Nietzche, and Freud approach elements of remembering, they perceived memory as dangerous and problematic....   [tags: philosophy, marx, nietzsche]

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1987 words | (5.7 pages) | Preview

Truth and Memory

- The usage of recreational drugs has a negative effect on the body, and can interfere with one’s memory. The main question is whether this addiction to recreational drugs is the main cause of the mind that interferes with the issue of truth and memory and how is it this shown by creative nonfiction writers. I argue that the addiction to such drugs as cocaine and crystal meth can mess with the author’s cognitive ability, therefore tying it to which ties into memory. When the authors are addicted to these drugs, their brains are affected to the point that they can no longer distinguish between truth and memory and thus result in blurred and false memories....   [tags: Drugs]

Term Papers
1763 words | (5 pages) | Preview

The Nonrealistic Memory

- Both of the plays, “The Death of a Salesman” by Arthur Miller and “The Glass Menagerie” by Tennessee Williams, have acting done based on memories that haunt a character in the play. In the “Death of a Salesman”, the acting shifts from present to past with the past at times intermingled with the present as the main character, Willy, seems unable to distinguish his memory’s flashbacks from reality. In “The Glass Menagerie”, the play shifts from present to past also, but the only actor in the present is the narrator Tom, whose memory the play is based on....   [tags: Literary Analysis ]

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889 words | (2.5 pages) | Preview

A Flashbulb Memory

- Have you ever experienced an event that was so significant to you that you felt as if your memory was taking a photograph, keeping the memory implanted in your brain for the rest of your life. This is a prime example of flashbulb memory. Flashbulb memory is a term that pertains to a person’s memory of hearing about extremely shocking events (Goldstein, 2011, p. 209). Flashbulb memory is not the memory for the event itself, but it’s the memory of how the person heard about the specific event (Goldstein, 2011, p....   [tags: Vivid, Event, Shock]

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520 words | (1.5 pages) | Preview

Organization of Memory

- Introduction In Psychology, the cognitive approach studies the mental processes of people; the organization of memory is a major area of research within this perspective (Cherry). The many theories of organization and memory originated from a study performed by Bousefield (1953) claiming that organizing in categories is the natural way to process information in long term memory (Cognitive Processes). Modeled after Bousefield’s study, the aim of this current study was to examine the effects of organization of words on the ability of recalling from memory if there are any....   [tags: Bousefield, psychology, cognitive approach]

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1372 words | (3.9 pages) | Preview

A Childish Memory

- There is a certain difficulty in dealing with charges of sexual assault involving a child. Things to take into account when preparing a case for a trial would be the reliability of the witnesses, the conditions of the defendant as well as the victim, and the approach in attempting to defend against accusations of sexual abuse. As this specific case is dealing with sexual assault of a minor, who are easily persuaded for even the most insignificant rewards, there is a possibility that the minor have been prepared by the prosecution to lie in court....   [tags: Sexual Assault, Abuse]

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1046 words | (3 pages) | Preview

Memory Accuracy: Long-term and Short-term Memory

-   Memory can be defined as the collection of information over time (Lillienfled, 2012, p. 301). Our experiences will be stored in the brain in terms of long-term memory or short-term memory (Conners, 2011). However, average person has no ability to recall all events clearly because memory will less accurate over time (Lillienfled, 2012, p. 301). Even though the accuracy will reduce over time, the pain memory still will be clear as it play with their emotions (Science Daily, 2014). (Zonneveld, L....   [tags: pain memories, recalling emotions]

Good Essays
579 words | (1.7 pages) | Preview

Augustine and the Locus of Collective Memory

- In the books X and XI of his Confessions, Augustine aims to tackle the intriguing questions of memory and time, respectively. His phenomenological as well as rigorous approach has attracted many later commentators. Also Paul Ricoeur (1913-2005) can be taken as one of these, although Ricoeur’s angle is decisively distinct from that of Augustine’s – it can be said to represent a certain “hermeneutical rationality”. By using Ricoeur’s material as a springboard, this paper aims to examine both the possibility and the locus of collective memory (part I) as well as Ricoeur’s reply to Augustine’s challenging question “quid est enim tempus?” (part II)....   [tags: hermeneutical rationality, Paul Ricoeur]

Term Papers
3491 words | (10 pages) | Preview

Memory Is a Reconstruction: Myth or Truth?

- Definition of memory and it's functions is difficult to illustrate by a single sentence. Consequently we use several metaphors to describe memory implicitly. Our beliefs, perceptions and imagination influence memory. The fact gave rise to memory being described as a reconstructive process, explaining that memory is not an exact record of a particular experience. Instead we bring various components together and fill in the blanks with our predisposed schemas while recalling. The metaphor building "an entire dinosaur skeleton from fossils" is the indirect way to describe memory as cognitive reconstruction....   [tags: retrieval, schemas, ]

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1236 words | (3.5 pages) | Preview

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