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Membranes : An Integral Function

- Membranes play an integral function in trapping and securing metabolic products within the borders of a cell within an aqueous environment. Without a selectively permeable border surrounding sites of anabolic function, potential useful products of this metabolism would simply diffuse away in the aqueous environment contained within and surrounding the cell. However, securing metabolites within the cell also comes with a price of not being able to acquire potentially useful compounds from the surrounding environment....   [tags: Cell membrane, Protein, Membrane protein]

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The Structure of Cell Membranes

- In 1871 Hugo de Vries cell membrane permeability for ammonia and glycerol, this was leading upto the first successful X-ray study by Bernal and Crowfoot in 1934 of the globular protein pepsin, however even though it shows water covering the protein surface, it doesn’t show it in high resolution. Many years has past with more testing and experiments but it wasn’t until 1925 when E, Gorter and F, Grendel proposed the phospholipid layers in the cell membrane which resulted in them doing first bilayer structure experiment test, obtaining this by measuring the size of water surface that phospholipids taken from red blood cell can cover, the area in which it covered was nearly twice as much as t...   [tags: cell membrane, experiment]

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Macromolecules And Macromolecules Of Eukaryotic Membranes

- 1. General Introduction All cells have a plasma membrane enclosing their cytoplasm, organelles, and every other thing the cell needs to function properly. Organelles, themselves also have membranes. Lipid vesicles are spheres of lipid molecules in bilayers that enclose some sort of aqueous solution, which is what a plasma membrane is. Replicating conditions of cellular membranes in vitro can give us great insights into understanding how cell membranes function in vivo. However, it is not that simple....   [tags: Cell membrane, Lipid bilayer, Protein, Cell]

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The Effect Of Temperature On Beetroot Membranes

- The effect of temperature on the beetroot membranes Aim of the research: The aim of this investigation is to determine what kind of effect will the increasing temperature have on the plasma membrane of a beetroot cell. Introduction The beetroot contains a red pigment that is kept in the cells by the membranes. If the membranes are damaged, the pigment “betalain” will leek out. The amount of pigment that leeks out can be assessed, as “betalain” will colour any water that surrounds the cell. If the water with the beetroot slices is heated at different temperatures, then will the temperature have any affect on the colour of the solution....   [tags: Molecular Biology]

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Membranes And Its Effect On The Separation

- Membranes provide physical barriers that permit the passage of materials only up to a certain size, shape or character. There are four cross-flow, pressure‐driven membrane separation processes currently. Employed for liquid/liquid and liquid/solid separation: ultrafiltration (UF), reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), and microfiltration (MF). Membranes are manufactured in a variety of configurations including hollow fiber, spiral, and tubular shapes. Each configuration offers varying degrees of separation....   [tags: Water, Liquid, Chemical engineering, Desalination]

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Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

- Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes A complication of pregnancy that is often seen in obstetrical triage is premature rupture of membranes, according to Friedman (2013). Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is a condition in which the membranes spontaneously rupture before the onset of active labor. Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is PROM before 37 weeks gestation (Friedman, 2013). According to the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2009), 3% of all pregnancies present with PPROM, including approximately 1/3 of all preterm births....   [tags: pregnancy, fethal chorion]

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Membranes and Their Functions

- Membranes and Their Functions Membranes form boundaries both around the cell (the plasma membrane) and around distinct sub cellular compartments (e.g. nucleus, mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.). They act as selectively permeable barriers allowing the inside environment of the cell or the organelle to differ from that outside. Membranes are involved in signaling processes; they contain specified receptors for external stimuli and are involved in both chemical and electrical signal generation....   [tags: Papers]

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Cell Membrane And Its Effect On Cell Membranes

- Transport across cell membrane involves molecules getting in and out of cell, water is one of the major components of cells, we can find water in cytoplasm and in cell sap, this water contains many breaks up substances and these substance plus water enter and leave the cell through the cell membranes. The development of a cell membrane could allow some materials to pass while blocking the passage of other molecules which is the major evolution of the cell. Transport across cell membranes also occurs by actively or passively....   [tags: Osmosis, Cell, Cell wall, Diffusion]

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Temperture's Effect on Beet Membranes

- Temperture's Effect on Beet Membranes Aim: To investigate the effect of temperature on membrane structure Hypothesis: The higher the temperature, the greater the amount of pigment that leaves the beetroot cell. 1. An increase in temperature increases the kinetic energy of the molecules within the cell, raising the rate of diffusion of pigment out of the cell across the differentially permeable cell membrane. 2. A further increase in temperature will cause the protein molecules in the cell membrane to change shape, i.e....   [tags: Papers]

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Permeability of Beetroot Cell Membranes

- Permeability of Beetroot Cell Membranes An experiment to investigate how temperature affects the Permeability of beetroot cell membranes Interpretation of Results: 0°C 20°C 30°C 40°C 55°C 0.24 0.28 0.75 0.79 0.22 0.26 0.35 0.41 0.81 From 0°C to 30°C there is a gradual increase of absorbency which shows that as the temperature increases it is denaturing the cell wall and cell membrane and allowing the beetroot pigment to leek out into the distilled water. As soon as the sample of beetroot is placed into the distilled water diffusion occurs naturally, which is the net movement of molecules from a region of high concentration (beetroot sample) to a region of low concentration (distilled...   [tags: Biology Science Experiments Essays]

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Membranes in Biological Systems

- Membranes in Biological Systems Biology is never far from the headlines. You may not know it but biology affects our everyday lives in ways which would bore you. Have you ever wondered what a cell membrane or a cell was made of. Cells are surrounded by thin membranes; it is these cell membranes which separate inside from out, life from non-life. It is believed that a cell or plasma membrane similar those of today's cells defined the boundary of the first cell nearly 4 billion years ago....   [tags: Papers]

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The Structure and Role of Proteins in Cell Membranes

- The Structure and Role of Proteins in Cell Membranes Cells are the building blocks of which all living organisms are composed. There are lots of different types of cells that make up living organisms but they are all similar in structure. All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane (or plasma membrane), which controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell. Cell membranes are described as partially permeable. It is also structural and keeps the cell contents together and separate from other cells....   [tags: Papers]

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Investigate the Effect of Temperature on Cell Membranes and Membrane Structure

- Investigate the Effect of Temperature on Cell Membranes and Membrane Structure If you read a recipe for cooked beetroot it will usually recommend that you don’t remove the outer skin of the beetroot and don’t cut off al the stalk and root if you want to avoid getting lots of red dye in the cooking water. Beetroot contains red pigments called betalains, located within the cell vacuole. Normally the pigments can’t pass through membranes but they leak out when the beetroot is cooked. Aim – The aim of this practical is to use beetroot to examine the effect of the temperature on cell membranes and relate the effects observed to membrane structure....   [tags: Biology Chemistry Science Experiment Essays]

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A Novel Reverse Osmosis Carbon Nanotube Composite Membranes: Preparation and Characterization

- Since invented by Iijima in 1991 [1], CNTs have become important materials in many aspects, due to their unique structural, mechanical, electrical and physicochemical properties [2]. Currently CNT containing materials are developed and evaluated for many different applications including sensors, electronics, actuators, drug delivery vehicles and new composites [3]. Unfortunately, CNTs typically exist as ropes or bundles of 10-30 nm in diameter because of strong van der Waals interactions that results in stacking and entangling; these phenomena have slowed down the applications of CNTs [4-5]....   [tags: Research Analysis ]

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The Effect of Temperature on the Cell Membranes of Beetroot Cells

- The Effect of Temperature on the Cell Membranes of Beetroot Cells Apparatus ·Corer size 4 · White tile · A Beetroot · Automatic Water Bath · Segregated knife · A thermometer · Stopwatch Method: · First take the white tile and the corer. Then collect a cylinder of beetroot by pushing the corer into the beetroot and withdrawing it. The cylinder remains inside the corer- so push it out with the end of a pencil. · Collect 3 cylinders, and then cut them into 6 pieces of 3 cm with a segregated knife....   [tags: Papers]

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Investigation of the Movement of Pigment through Cell Membranes

- Investigation of the Movement of Pigment through Cell Membranes Aim The aim of the investigation is to identify the effect of temperature of the movement of pigment through cell membrane of beetroot cells. Prediction and Reasoning [IMAGE]I predict that the temperature will effect the movement of the beetroot pigment through the cell membrane. I believe an increase in temperature would result in an increase in the amount of pigment being released out of the cell. I base my prediction on the fact that an increase in temperature would provide the pigment molecules with more kinetic energy and therefore the rate of diffusion will increase....   [tags: Papers]

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G-protein-linked Receptors in Cell Membranes

- G-protein-linked receptors are protein receptors, located in the plasma membrane of a cell, that work with G-proteins to activate a cell-signaling pathway. These receptors are structured similarly in most organisms, with seven α helices and specific loops for binding sites for signal molecules and G-proteins. When a signal molecule from the extracellular fluid attaches to the signal-binding site it activates the G-protein-linked receptor by changing its shape. When this happens, the G-protein, loosely attached to the cytoplasmic side of the cellular membrane, attaches to its binding side on the receptor protein....   [tags: Enzyme, Proteins, Cellular Response]

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Ultrafiltration Process

- What exactly do we mean by Ultrafiltration, and for what processes can it be used. Ultrafiltration is a process by which one uses a pressure-driven process utilizing a specific-sized membrane to separate macromolecular weights of a solution, allowing the transfer of the low molecular weight (permeate). Ultrafiltration is exclusively defined by the pore size range (0.1 – 0.001 microns) (Dhawan). Ultrafiltration is used in a wide array of applications, such as food and beverage, chemical, pharmaceutical, medical, drinking water, wastewater and etc....   [tags: ultrafiltration nanofibrous membranes]

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Pervaporative Separation of Methanol/Methyl tert-butyl ether Mixtures with Polyion Complex Composite Membranes of Sodium alginate/Chitosan

- ... (3) where Y is the permeate composition and X is the feed composition. Pervaporation separation index (PSI) was used to determine the membrane separation ability whenever there is a trade-off between permeation flux and separation factor [7]. It is calculated according to Eq. 4, PSI=J(α-1) (4) where α must be greater than 1 for separation to happen. The temperature dependence of the permeation rate can be expressed by Arrhenius type law as in Eq. 5, J=A_p exp⁡(E_p⁄RT)....   [tags: chemical and petrochemical industries]

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How Temperature Effects the Movement of Pigment Through Cell Membranes

- How Temperature Effects the Movement of Pigment Through Cell Membranes Abstract The experiment below displays the effects of temperature on the pigment in uncooked beetroot cells. The pigment in beetroot cells lies within the cell vacuole and is called anthocyanin, each vacuole is surrounded by a tonoplast membrane and outside it, the cytoplasm is surrounded by the plasma membrane, therefore the foundation of this experiment lies with the temperature at which the membranes will rupture and therefore leak the pigment....   [tags: Papers]

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Proving that Osmosis and Diffusion Occur in Artificial Membranes by Using a Dialysis Tubing

- Proving that Osmosis and Diffusion Occur in Artificial Membranes by Using a Dialysis Tubing Hypothesis- Osmosis and diffusion will continue until equilibrium is reached and net movement will no longer occur. Solute size and concentration gradient across the selectively permeable membrane will effect diffusion. Materials- please refer to transport across semi-permeable membranes: diffusion and osmosis laboratory exercise hand out. Procedure: please refer to transport across semi-permeable membranes: diffusion and osmosis laboratory exercise hand out....   [tags: Papers]

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Investigating the Effect of Temperature on the Movement of Pigment through Cell Membranes

- Investigating the Effect of Temperature on the Movement of Pigment through Cell Membranes INTRODUCTION: The aim of experiment is to prove that temperature effects on a proteins in cell membranes so that pigment can pass through them HYPOTHESIS: On higher temperatures proteins in membranes denature so there is no barrier to prevent the passage of large molecules THEORETICAL BACKGROUND: Certain chemicals and treatments, such as ethanol or high temperatures, can destroy the partial permeability of cell membrane....   [tags: Biology Biological Lab Experiment Essays]

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Voltage Sensor Of Membrane Potentials

- As the article was reviewed, it is clear that the main purpose of the research presented was to create a voltage sensor that would send out fluorescent signals and return responses from the actions of membrane potentials. The researchers also wanted a voltage sensor that would keep track of the membrane potentials in neurons at quicker rates by using a microscope that not only detects refection and adsorption but also fluorescence. The method, in this design plan, places the fluorescent protein into the extracellular, S3-S4, loop domain....   [tags: Neuron, Action potential, Membrane potential]

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Cells And The Cell Membrane

- Despite the fact that there is still plenty to ascertain about cells, what is known so far has had an extensive impression on a multitude of scientific fields. The analysis of cells has even assisted in the investigation to more effectively understand cancer. Cells are essentially the building blocks of life. As a matter of fact, all organisms varying from the minuscule and simple organisms to the gigantic and sophisticated organisms are made up of cells. Truly, something that is noteworthy about cells is that although they are so small they have even smaller organelles with many important functions within them....   [tags: Cell wall, Cell, Cell membrane, Bacteria]

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How Molecules Can Move Across A Semi Permeable Membrane

- The purpose of this lab is to determine which molecules can move across a semi-permeable membrane. The hypothesis for this experiment is as follows; As the smaller molecules of iodine travel through the “cell membrane” the artificial cell will gain mass. Dialysis tubing, a thin membrane that behaves in much the same way as a living cell’s actual plasma membrane, was used to test this experiment. After filling the dialysis tubing with the starch and glucose solutions, the artificial cell was then submerged in a water and iodine solution, and the results we’re recorded after 30 minutes....   [tags: Cell membrane, Cell, Semipermeable membrane]

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Investigating The Permeability Of The Membrane Using Red Blood Cells

- An investigation of the permeability of erythrocyte membranes. A membrane is a barrier between the cell contents and the cells surroundings. The structure of a membrane contains a lipid bilayer that forms a membrane by the arrangement of molecules. (Wright, 2015) The functions of the membrane are to protect the cell, detecting molecules and cells within the external environment and control the cells contents. (Nature Edition, 2012) Chemicals can get through a cell membrane by the nuclear pore complex, which controls what enters and exits the nucleus....   [tags: Cell membrane, Red blood cell, Cell nucleus, Blood]

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The Effect Of Permeability On The Membrane Using Chemicals And Beta Vulgaris ( Beetroot )

- ‘The affect of permeability in the membrane using chemicals and Beta Vulgaris (beetroot)’ Introduction: All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane, which has a semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer (Mitchell, 2015, Flinders University). A membrane is comprised of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates (Mitchell, 2015, Flinders University). Membrane permeability is determined by the structure of the membrane, meaning some larger substances will not pass through the membrane (Flinders University, 2015, p.36)....   [tags: Cell membrane, Lipid bilayer, Chemistry, Beet]

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How Does The Term Fluid Mosaic Describe The Structure Of The Plasma Membrane?

- Essay Quiz 1. How does the term fluid mosaic describe the structure of the plasma membrane. Let’s find out first what it is plasma membrane and its function. The plasma membrane is the boundary between the cell and its environment. It regulates what enters and exits the cell. Plasma membrane plays a vital role in protecting the integrity of the interior of the cell by allowing only selected substances into the cell and keeping other substances out. It also serves as a base of attachment for the cytoskeleton in some organisms and the cell wall in others....   [tags: Cell, Cell membrane, Protein, Cell wall]

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The Membrane Of The Cell Membrane

- Cells are living things that requires substances to be imported into the cell for growth and repair just as a human, or animal, needs to eat for growth and repair. Unlike the human or animal that has arms, jaws, or external tools to collect and consume food, the basic cell does not have any external appendages to readily obtain the substances it needs. This does not leave the cell without any way to obtain the required substances, obviously otherwise they would all be very short lived, and the ways they obtain substances differ in the required energy and the substance being obtained....   [tags: Cell membrane, Cell, Lipid bilayer]

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The Plasma Membrane of Eukaryotic Cells

- The plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells performs a multitude of tasks ranging from cell signaling to transport of ions and other molecules from the extracellular matrix into the cytosol. The membrane is the result of lipid packing into a bi-layer. The plasma membrane is composed of two sections, an outer section known as the exoplasmic layer, and an inner section known as the cytosolic layer. The two layers are composed of differing lipids with the exoplasmic layer containing primarily sphingolipids and the cytosolic layer containing phospholipids1....   [tags: Biology]

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Osmosis through a semipermeable membrane

- Osmosis through a semipermeable membrane: effects of solution concentration on the weight of deshelled eggs Solutions are liquid monophase homogenous mixtures comprised of a solvent - usually, though not always, the prevalent substance and solute, the less prevalent substance. A dissolved substance will be distributed uniformly throughout the solution, at molecular level. The quantity of solute per unit of solution volume or mass is called concentration. This quantity can be expressed as mass per mass of solution (percentage, g of solute per 100 g of solution) or amount per volume (molarity, mol/dm3)....   [tags: effects, solution concentration, weight]

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Measuring The Permeability Of Cell Membrane

- Biology Assignment 2 Measuring the Permeability of Cell Membrane in correlation to temperature. Prediction: The Prediction is that as the temperature rises as does the permeability of the cell membrane, as the permeability and the temperature increase so does the amount of pigment being released. Introduction: During the experiment I worked with Helen Grinter. The Reasoning behind the experiment is to see what effects Temperature has on the permeability of Phospholipid bi-layer of Beetroot cells and the amount of pigment released from the vacuole....   [tags: Energy, Temperature, Cell membrane, Lipid bilayer]

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The Functions of Erythrocyte Membrane

- The erythrocyte membrane has many functions, the first of which is to serve as an impenetrable fluid barrier which separates the inside contents of the cell from the plasma. The membrane allows it to transport O2 and CO2 by maximizing the ratio of surface area to volume with its biconcave disc shape. The membrane is also strong and is constantly going through shape and metabolic changes and has a tensile or lateral strength that is greater than that of steal. The membrane is also more elastic than a comparative latex membrane, this strength and elasticity allows for deformability (Solberg, 2013)....   [tags: cell membrane, red blood cells, cholesterol]

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The Effect Of Intracellular Fluids On The Cell Membrane

- Human cells are partially made up of liquids that are both inside and outside of our cells. The water inside the cell is called intracellular fluid (ICF) and makes up about 42% of the total body weight. On the other hand, extracellular fluids (ECF) usually denote all body fluid outside of the cells. In order to define which area the fluids are based, they are determined by its location to the cell membrane. For instance, if the fluids are found to be on the outside of the cell membrane, it would signify that we are viewing ECF....   [tags: Blood, Potassium, Cell membrane, Glucose]

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Cell membrane

- In life, it is critical to understand what substances can permeate the cell membrane. This is important because the substances that are able to permeate the cell membrane can be necessary for the cell to function. Likewise, it is important to have a semi-permeable membrane in the cell due to the fact that it can help guard against harmful items that want to enter the cell. In addition, it is critical to understand how water moves through the cell through osmosis because if solute concentration is unregulated, net osmosis can occur outside or inside the cell, causing issues such as plasmolysis and cytolysis....   [tags: Osmosis, Dialysis Tubing]

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Preparation of High Density Cellulose Membrane for Pressure Flux

- 3.1 Membrane porosity properties A. The Effect of Pulp DP Table 2 show the high DP of pulp (Exp. Code A) result in higher porosity (low density) and water permeability of membrane. As it is well known that the molecular weight of membrane polymer has a great effect on the membrane performance while molecular weight is depend on Degree of Polymerization which indicate number of repeat unit (monomer) in chain molecules. Polymer with high degree of polymerization will have longer chain and larger molecule compare to a polymer with low degree of polymerization....   [tags: Research Analysis ]

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Mitochondria And The Cell Transport System Of The Inner Membrane

- Mitochondria are double membraned organelles found in almost all eukaryotic cells. The outer membrane defines the external shape of the mitochondrion and is composed of a phospholipid bilayer that contains integral membrane protein structures knows as porins. The porins make the membrane permeable to ions, ATP, ADP and other molecules that are around 5000 Da or less. The inner membrane is more complex and covers a much larger surface area due to folds organized in layers called cristae. The cristae are covered with a protein complex called the FoF1 complex which is instrumental in ATP synthesis....   [tags: Cellular respiration, Adenosine triphosphate]

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The Effect of Cholesterol on Membrane Fluidity

- The cell plasma membrane, a bilayer structure composed mainly of phospholipids, is characterized by its fluidity. Membrane fluidity, as well as being affected by lipid and protein composition and temperature (Purdy et al. 2005), is regulated by its cholesterol concentration (Harby 2001, McLaurin 2002). Cholesterol is a special type of lipid, known as a steroid, formed by a polar OH headgroup and a single hydrocarbon tail (Wikipedia 2005, Diwan 2005). Like its fellow membrane lipids, cholesterol arranges itself in the same direction; its polar head is lined up with the polar headgroups of the phospholipid molecules (Spurger 2002)....   [tags: Biology]

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Osmosis Through A Semi Permeable Membrane Using Dialysis Bags

- In this experiment we took dialysis bags and filled them with various sucrose solutions and put them in water over a period of about 90 minutes to look at the osmosis in each bag and the tonicity of each environment the bags were in. We also took potato pieces and submerged them into various sucrose solutions to determine the ideal state of tonicity for plants and the osmosis that occurred over a period of time. The final results for the first exercise was that 0.8M sucrose solution gained the most mass and that it was hypertonic to its environment....   [tags: Osmosis, Semipermeable membrane, Diffusion]

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How the Dialysis Tubing Compares to the Cell Membrane

- In life, it is critical to understand what substances can permeate the cell membrane. This is important because the substances that are able to permeate the cell membrane can be necessary for the cell to function. Likewise, it is important to have a semi-permeable membrane in the cell due to the fact that it can help guard against harmful items that want to enter the cell. In addition, it is critical to understand how water moves through the cell through osmosis because if solute concentration is unregulated, net osmosis can occur outside or inside the cell, causing issues such as plasmolysis and cytolysis....   [tags: permeation and osmosis]

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History Of Cell Membrane

- In the early stages of the twentieth century, little was known about cell membranes. Until the early 1950s, the biological cell membrane was rarely mentioned in scientific literature. It was recognised that something was probably there, but hardly anything about it was known. Considering the lack of technical equipment available a century ago, scientists such as Charles Overton and Edwin Gorter were not only exploring new territory in looking at the properties of cell membranes, but laying the way for future cell biologists....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Transport Across Plasma Membrane

- Transport Across Plasma Membrane The plasma membrane covers all living cells, enabling the cells’ contents to be held together and controls movement of substances into and out of the cell. Plasma membranes are made of phospholipids, proteins and carbohydrates. The phospholipids are essentially made out of two fatty acid chains and a phosphate-glycerol group. They are arranged in a bilayer with the hydrophilic phosphate head facing outwards and the hydrophobic fatty acid chains facing inwards and to each other in the middle of the bilayer....   [tags: Papers]

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The Effects of Varying, Extreme Temperatures and Varying Organic Solvents on a Beet Root Cell Membrane

- ... This can be explained because it is the longest chained alcohol when compared to the others that were used in the experiment (Bio. Sciences Dept., 2013). It is theorized that the cell membrane is significantly reformed following the attachment of the 2-propanol to the membrane phospholipids. (Wanderlingh et al., 2010). This change in the membrane could be related to the high amount of leakage recorded by the spectrophotometer, as these changes could rupture the plasma membrane if a sufficient amount of the alcohol is present (Wanderlingh et al., 2010)....   [tags: molecules, hydrophilic, membrane]

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The Effect of Temperature on the Permeability of Beetroot Membrane

- The Effect of Temperature on the Permeability of Beetroot Membrane Analysis The graph shows the colorimeter readings increase as the temperature increases, they increase by the most at higher temperatures. This is shown by a smooth curve. This means that the beetroot samples release more dye at higher temperatures. This is because higher temperatures cause the membrane structure to break down. The membrane structure: Membranes have two layers of molecules called phospolipids to make up their structure....   [tags: Papers]

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Cell Membrane/ Electron Transport Chain / Biochemical Pathway

- 1. The cell membrane structure is vital to the life of the cell. The cell membrane is shaped as having a phosphate head at the very outer surface, and two fatty acid tails hanging from it. The membrane is double, so at the tip of the fatty acid tails, there are two more fatty acid tails attached to another phosphate head. This is what it looks like: The reason the cell membrane is shaped like this is mainly to control the water flow in and out of the cell. Water is very important to the cell: if too much water enters the cell, the cell will explode, and if too much water leaves the cell, the cell will shrivel up and die....   [tags: essays research papers]

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An Investigation to Show How Water Temperature and Alcohol Concentration Affect Membrane Permeability

- An Investigation to Show How Water Temperature and Alcohol Concentration Affect Membrane Permeability Aim The aim of the experiment is to show the cell’s membrane permeability is affected by being placed into different temperatures of water. Also the effect of placing beetroot in to different concentrations of alcohol. Beetroot cells contain a red sap, which leaks out of the cells if their membranes are damaged or altered. Cell membranes are made up of a bilayer of phospholipids, which also contains proteins....   [tags: Biology Lab Report]

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The Cell of the Human

- The cell is the smallest unit in the structural hierarchy of life that does every work needed for life (Reec, Urry, Cain, Minorsky, Jackson & Wasserman, 2009). This cell works with other cells in a system to perform other complex process by dividing the functions of performing the complex work to groups of cells. For instance, the process of moving the eyes of the readers while reading this research happens because the activity of the muscle and nerve cells (Reec et al., 2009). Moreover, every process of performing complex work that cells take part in happens because of dividing the functions of the cell particularly between its parts....   [tags: membrane, nucleus, mitochindria]

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Importance of Glycophorin A Protein Found in Red Blood Cells

- ... Each of the dimer is an alpha helix containing 40 amino acids. According to RCSB protein databank, the homodimer is asymmetric as shown in figure 1. Alpha helices of GpA protein span at -400 to position an interface that lack hydrogen bonding within the monomers. The arrangement of the interface provides the physical basis for the interactions between the two helices. Two glycines are observed to help in the backbone-backbone contact of the helices. The sequences in between the terminuses of the dimer are buried within the bilayer because they are mostly hydrophobic residues....   [tags: Membrane, Cell, Structure]

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Determining If Cxcl10 Is It Within The Multivesicular Body ( Mvb )

- determine if CXCL10 is sorted within the multivesicular body (MVB), we will also transfect WT, JNK1-/-, and JNK2-/- Huh7 cell line with a CXCL10 tagged PHulorin [41]. CXCL10 tagged PHulorin is a pH sensitive GFP mutant whose fluorescent is quenched in acidic environments but unquenched at neutral pH. This experiment will help define whether CXCL10 is shuttled in the MVB and released within exosomes, For example, if during live cell imaging following PA or LPC treatment we observe quenching of fluorescence the CXXL10 is in an acidic environment; if fluorescence is unquenched it is unlikely to be in the MVB....   [tags: Protein, Cell membrane]

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Investigating The Factors Of Osmotic Pressure, Or Water Potential?

- Introduction: In the following paper will attempt to prove a hypothesis that osmotic pressure, or water potential, can be demonstrated and observed to “flow” through a semi-permeable membrane from high water potential to areas of low water potential. Objective: To observe diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane to understand water potential and osmosis. Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted with prepared sucrose solutions of varying strengths (5, 10, 20 and 40% solutions) with different color food dye, dialysis tubing, 2 small beakers (500 ml), a scale (in grams), and a stop watch....   [tags: Osmosis, Semipermeable membrane, Diffusion]

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The Basic Structural And Functional Unit For All Living Organisms

- Cell Biology Cells are the basic structural and functional unit for all living organisms. They vary in size but are compartments that hold all of the biological components that are required to keep an organism alive and functioning correctly. Some organisms are singled cells such as bacteria, more complex forms like the human body are multi cellular. Cells are the smallest unit of life that can replicate independently. Levels of Organization Everything in the world (all matter) starts as an atom; this is the beginning of the levels of organisation, which form organisms....   [tags: Cell, Cell membrane, Protein, Organelle]

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The Evolutionary Tree Of Extremophiles Includes Bacteria, Archaea And Eukarya

- As many know, there are places on this earth where conditions are too inhospitable for humans to live. There are places with skull crushing depths, boiling water and high methane concentrations, where no human could survive. Survival in such hostile conditions was thought to be impossible for any organism; until the late 1960’s when bacterial microorganisms were found living in scalding thermal environments above 70 degrees Celsius, in Yellowstone National Park (Madigan & Marrs, 1997). These microorganisms were later termed extremophiles for their “love” of environments that are too hostile for other organisms to tolerate....   [tags: Bacteria, Archaea, Cell, Cell membrane]

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The Structure And Function Of The Cell Membrane

- 2.1 describe the structure and function of the cell membrane. The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, regulates what enters and leaves the cell. The cell membrane also deals with recognition of proteins and transport that regulates the movement of water and soluble molecules throughout the membrane. The cell membrane is composed of phospholipid molecules and consists of two lipid layers in which protein molecules float; this is sometimes referred to as a “lipid sandwich” this surrounds the cell....   [tags: Mitosis, Meiosis, Chromosome, Cell cycle]

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The Function And Structure Of The Plasma Membrane

- The overall purpose of the experiments in this lab was to introduce the function and structure of the plasma membrane, describe the workings of diffusion and osmosis, and to demonstrate how different factors such as particle size, temperature, and space of diffusion area affect the rate of diffusion. With the results from the experiments, it can be concluded that all of the factors listed do affect diffusion, and there may be many more than are unaccounted for. Through the osmosis experiment, it was clear that water moved into the cell due to a lack of water and an excess of solute; in the environment, there was an excess of water and a lack of solute....   [tags: Osmosis, Cell, Diffusion, Central nervous system]

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The Reaction Of The Cell Membrane

- Neurons primarily communicate by using chemical signals in the form of neurotransmitters, but neurons may also communicate by using electrical signaling. Neurons are able to send information via electrical signaling as a result of a quick change in the concentration of ions found on opposite sides of the cellular membrane, or action potential. This action potential is then transmitted down the axon and is received by the dendrites of another neuron. Before an action potential occurs, there is a high concentration of sodium ions outside of the cell and a low concentration of sodium ions inside of the cell....   [tags: Action potential, Neuron, Postsynaptic potential]

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Factors That Affect The Cell Membrane

- Keeping a constant balance of substances inside and outside the cell is key to maintaining life. Altering that balance can be very harmful and cause abnormalities in the cell. Aquaporins are protein channels that play a vital role in the transfer of water across the cell. So far, thirteen different type of aquaporins have been discovered in mammals, and each plays a different role In various parts of the mammalian body, like the hydration of the skin, controlling urine concentration and keeping the water balance in different areas of the eyes....   [tags: Protein, Gene, Skin, Epidermis]

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Organelles And The Cell Membrane

- Organelles Organelles are subunits that allow a cell to function correctly and efficiently. The name comes from organ as these subunits act like organs to cells in the same way that organs are for us. Most organelles in eukaryotic cells and some in prokaryotic cells are membrane bound and protected by a membrane or in some cases a wall. Universal organelles While most of the main organelles making up the nucleus grouping are present in all organelles, the ‘group’ is not membrane bound in prokaryotic (bacterial) cells and therefore are free to move about the cell....   [tags: Cell, Organelle, Bacteria, Eukaryote]

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The Nuclear Membrane Of Mitosis

- In the first part of the lab students arranged the cells of mitosis in the correct order. By arranging the cells, we were able to further analyze each phase of mitosis. For instance, by arranging the phases, we discovered that the nuclear membrane began to dissolve during prophase. The nuclear membrane then reappeared during telophase. Our conclusions of the -nuclear membrane’s disappearance and re-appearance can be seen in Figure 4.1, which is a drawing that represents five stages of mitosis in the correct order—the drawings are based on the arrangement and are based upon a figure showing each stage of mitosis that was presented during class....   [tags: Mitosis, Cell cycle, Chromosome, Eukaryote]

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Membrane Ions And The Cell

- Resting membrane potential is when the inside of the neuron is 70 mV less than the outside of the neuron when the cell is at rest. Resting membrane potential can be changed by two factors: differences in ionic composition of the intracellular and extracellular fluids and difference in permeability of ions in the plasma membrane (Marieb and Hoehn 397). Relatively, there are more sodium ions outside the cell than it is inside the cell and there are more potassium ions inside the cell than it is outside of the cell....   [tags: Cerebrum, Brain, Frontal lobe, Cerebral cortex]

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The Emergence Of Mdr Tb And Xdr Tb

- The emergence of MDR-TB and XDR-TB in recent years poses a sever threat to global health. Treatments for drug-resistant TB, which developed resistance to first-line and second-line anti-TB drugs, are longer and require more expensive and more toxic drugs with much lower treatment success rates. There is an urgent need to develop new therapeutics to overcome the problems caused by drug-resistant TB. In the previous study [75,76], a series of linear cationic amphipathic α-helical AMPs, the D-LAK peptides and their antimicrobial activities against Mtb were evaluated....   [tags: Cell, Cell membrane, Cytotoxicity, Protein]

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Radiation Therapy And Chemotherapy As Treatment

- Humans has been struggling to find a treatment to cure cancers. Even with surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy as treatment, it is still not enough to guarantee a one-hundred percent success. Now with the advancement in medical technology, scientists have found a potential cure. The cure are in venoms from scorpions, snakes, wasps, and other animals. With the use of nanoparticles that mask the venoms, the body will now accept the venom. Nanoparticles Using venom to treat cancer is not as simple as injecting these proteins into a patient, which could actually be quite dangerous....   [tags: Cancer, Oncology, Protein, Cell membrane]

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The Left Membrane Vs. The Right Membrane

- THE LEFT MEMBRANE VS. THE RIGHT MEMBRANE “Most people equate learning with studying, but psychologists define it more broadly, as the process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior. This definition certainly encompasses academic learning, but it covers many other forms of learning as well: learning to turn off lights when we leave a room, learning which way to put the key into the front door lock, learning how to avoid falling down on skis, learning how to dance” (Morris & Maistro, 185)....   [tags: essays papers]

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Osmosis Is A Special Case Of Diffusion

- Osmosis is a special case of diffusion. It is when the passage of water from a dilute solution moves through a semi-permeable membrane to a more concentrated solution. Selective permeability is whether solutes can cross through a membrane freely or not at all. Plant cells and animal cells differ in that plant cells have a strong cell wall and animal cells do not have cell walls. They both can undergo osmosis and both lose water, however the cell wall of plant cells prevent the cells from bursting whereas animal cells will burst because they have no cell wall....   [tags: Osmosis, Semipermeable membrane, Cell wall]

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The Physics Of The Electron Microscope

- Introduction: In 1931 Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska became the first people to accomplish something no one else had ever done before. “…(They) overcame the barrier to higher resolution that had been imposed by the limitations of visible light,” this meant these two men were able to see more on an cellular level than anyone before them (Palucka 2002). Their invention that accomplished this was called the Electron Microscope. “Within a decade, their invention was tweaked to the point that scientists could see up to 10nm and in 1944 it was furthered to the level of 2nm” (Palucka 2002)....   [tags: Cell membrane, Cell, Diffusion, Lipid bilayer]

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Human Neurons And Its Effects On The Membrane

- Introduction: Typical human neurons have a resting membrane potential (Vm) of -65 mV due to the membrane’s high permeability for potassium (EK = -80 mV) and relative impermeability to sodium (ENa = +62 mV) as well as other background ions.1 When a change in sodium permeability occurs, sodium rushes into the cell and causes depolarization, a change from a negative Vm to one less negative.1 This could generate an action potential leading to neurotransmitter release, capable of signaling and coordinating motor responses....   [tags: Neuron, Action potential, Nervous system]

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Cell Wall and Extracellular Membrane and Their Importance

- CELL WALL AND EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX The extracellular matrix is a network of non living tissues that support the structure of the cell, similar to the cell wall in plants. It is the extracellular matrix that form the framework that ultimately determines the architectural structure of plants and animals (textbook). Due to its dynamic nature, the ECM has multiple functions which include cell adhesion, communication between cell, and Plant and animal cells secrete macromolecules that form the extracellular matrices....   [tags: Tissue, Growth]

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The Poylmer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

- A fuel cell is mainly used to provide electricity from chemical reactions. It harnesses the chemical energy of hydrogen and oxygen to generate electricity without combustion one of the basic types of fuel cells is the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). This section will give a general description of its parts, how do they function and the material they are consisted of. 3.2 Background Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells operate at relatively low temperatures, around 80°C (176°F)....   [tags: part, function, material, fuel cell]

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The Effect Of Ethanol And Methanol On Lipid Bilayers

- The results from this experiment are consistent with the hypothesis posed. The results from the experiment of others also confirmed that the data obtained from the current experiment are consistent. The solutes that had higher lipid solubility penetrated the erythrocyte plasma membrane quicker than those with a lower lipid solubility. An experiment to test the effects of ethanol and methanol on lipid bilayers was done by Patra et al. in 2006 that further validated the results obtained from the current experiment....   [tags: Cell membrane, Lipid bilayer, Chemistry, Solvent]

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The Function Of Osmosis And Diffusion

- Osmosis and diffusion are two important processes in the human body that help in the functioning of cells and providing homeostasis, or maintaining proper functioning of the body and its systems working together. The cell has many different components, including a cytoplasm containing organelles; however, one of the most complex and vital units of a cell is the plasma membrane. Membranes of the cell have many different parts that help keep the integrity of the cell together (Lombard 2014). With all of the components of the membrane working in sync, many functions can be completed at once, such as protection, control of products going in and out of the cell, and assistance in maintaining a pr...   [tags: Cell membrane, Cell, Phospholipid, Carbon dioxide]

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Diffusion Of Diffusion And Osmosis

- Diffusion and Osmosis Shown In Solutions INTRODUCTION This lab, title Diffusion and Osmosis, was centered around the diffusion across a cellular membrane and how exactly materials move and diffuse in concentrations. Both diffusion and osmosis are forms of movement that are part of passive transport dealing with cell membranes. Diffusion is where the solutes move from an area of high concentration to a low concentration. Water goes through the cell membranes by diffusion. Osmosis is specifically the movement of water through membranes....   [tags: Osmosis, Concentration, Cell wall, Cell membrane]

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Guillain-Barre Syndrome Descrption

- What is myelin sheath. A typical nerve consists of dendrites, axons, a cell body, terminal buttons and myelin sheaths. Dendrites gather information from the environment and the stimulus is gathered in the cell body. The axons of a nerve function to carry nerve impulses from the body to another nerve. Spaces in between myelin sheaths in axons, where electrical impulses travel, are called Nodes of Ranvier. The myelin sheath, also called medullary sheath, is a modified plasma membrane formed by layers of Schwann’s cell membranes (in the peripheral nervous system) or oligodendrocyte membranes (in the central nervous system) wrapped around the axon of the nerve....   [tags: myelin sheath,plasma membrane,ataxia]

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Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

- Platinum, HiSPEC 4000, nominally 40% on carbon black, was acquired from Alfa Aesar. Chitosan (a number-average molecular weight ~ 20k, 85% deacetylation, PDI ~ 4) was purchased from Ta Ming Enterprises Co., Ltd., Thailand. Epichlorohydrin (Acros Organics), acetic acid (Sigma-Aldrich), and sodium hydroxide (MERCK) were used as received. Gas diffusion layers (GDL Sigracet GDL 10BB, 420 µm) were purchased from SGL Carbon Group, whereas the 5 wt% Nafion solution and NR-212 Nafion membrane were from Aldrich and Ion Power, respectively....   [tags: Platinum, Carbon Black, Crosslinked Chitosan]

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Comparing The Structure And Function Of Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Cells

- Title : With the aid of diagrams, compare the structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells All the living beings are made up of cells. They contain nucleus, which controls and performs their activities. The cells are divided into the two main categories depending on whether they contain nucleus or not. They are: Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell Simplest and ancient Complex and evolved from prokaryotes Single-cell Single - celled or multicellular Lacks nucleus Contains nucleus Contains cell wall (peptidoglycan) Contains cellulose cell wall only in plant cells Small ribosomes scattered throughout the cytoplasm....   [tags: Cell, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Eukaryote]

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Active and Passive Transport of Molecules Through Plasma Membrane

- ... i The plasma membrane has a phospholipid bilayer which separates the inside (the cytoplasm) and the outside (extracellular fluid and lipid-soluble solutes) of the cell. The fact that the plasma membrane monitors the passage of molecules based on size and solubility constitutes it as semi-permeable. Diffusion can be categorized as either simple diffusion or facilitated diffusion. A similarity between simple and facilitated diffusion is that they are both passive processes and travel from areas of higher concentration to region of lower concentration....   [tags: cells, diffusion, filtration]

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The Diffusion Of Water Across The Semi Permeable Membrane

- Introduction Osmosis is the diffusion of water across the semi-permeable membrane from a region of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration in order to equalize the level of water in each region. Hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic solutions are involved in this process. Water tends to move from a high to low concentration area, towards a higher solute concentration is hypertonic. When there is more solute outside of a cell, the cell is hypotonic, and when there is more solute inside a cell, the cell is hypertonic....   [tags: Osmosis, Concentration, Solution, Measurement]

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Proton- Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC)

- ... It was subsequently dried in vacuum at 80°C. The Pt/C catalysts treated differently were denoted by Pt/C−x−Chi, where x is the weight of epichlorohydrin per 1 g of chitosan. 2.3. Fabrication of MEA and measurement of cell performance The procedure used here followed literature [11, 12]. The ink solution for the anode electrode consisted of isopropanol, deionized water, Nafion solution, and the untreated Pt/C in an amount that yielded a platinum loading of 0.5 mgcm−2. The same recipe was applied for the cathode electrode, in which the untreated Pt/C was replaced by the same weight of the treated onereducing the platinum loading to 0.33 ± 0.03 mgcm−2 due to the presence of chitosan....   [tags: energy, source, ploymer, temperature]

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Ethical Considerations in Relation to Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

- Introduction As medical technology continues to advance, options to treat what were once thought to be fatal conditions continue to increase. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used since the 1970s and became a common therapy for newborns with respiratory failure (Rehder, Turner, & Cheifetz, 2011). Despite ECMO’s proven pediatric use, there are still ethical concerns over this therapy. There are concerns over the expense of this particular therapy in relation to results (Richards & Joubert, 2013)....   [tags: ECMO, medical technology]

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The Transport of Substances Across the Plasma Membrane

- The Transport of Substances Across the Plasma Membrane The plasma membrane or, the cell surface membrane, is made almost entirely of protein and lipid. The plasma membrane controls the movement of substances into and out of a cell. It is partially permeable so some substances cross more easily than others. The lipids found in the membrane are known as phospholipids. Phospholipids are fat derivatives in which one fatty acid has been replaced by a phosphate group and one of several nitrogen-containing molecules....   [tags: Papers]

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Gated Channels Are Used For Facilitate The Movement Of Molecules From One Side Of A Membrane

- 5) Gated channels are used to facilitate the movement of molecules from one side of a membrane to another and are necessary for facilitated diffusion. A gated channel can be open, closed, or in an intermediate state, and are controlled by change in membrane voltage, and differs from active by not requiring additional ATP for movement like active transport. Gated channels are exactly what they sound like, a channel that is controlled by a gate or regulator that will allow the movement of specific molecules in and out of cells....   [tags: Cellular respiration, Adenosine triphosphate]

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Oil And Dairy Effluent Treatment Using A Membrane Bio Reactor

- The technologies intended for the development of human civilization have brought incredible progress to our life, but they have inadvertently disturbed our environment in ways that are not sustainable. For instance, the industrial activities like mining, smelting, burning of fossil fuels, etc. are largely responsible for polluting the environment, thereby engendering global warming, unpredictable climate and rainfall patterns and alarming habitat destruction. Throughout the majority of the last century, most of the manufacturing and process industries prioritized maximum productivity from minimum expenditure, largely ignoring the impact of their production process on the environment....   [tags: Fossil fuel, Alternative energy, Renewable energy]

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