Hardness

  • Investigating the Hardness of Water

    1131 Words  | 5 Pages

    Investigating the Hardness of Water Planning Aim To investigate the hardness of water in 5 different water solutions Background knowledge about hard water The hardness of water is caused by the presence of Calcium 2+ and magnesium 2+ ions in the water. These minerals in water can cause some everyday problems. They react with soap and produce a deposit called "soap scum" that remains on the skin and clothes and, because it is insoluble and sticky, cannot

  • The Effect Of Water Hardness And Its Implications

    1024 Words  | 5 Pages

    purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of water hardness and its implications. To be able to do this, the experiment was divided into many sections, that let us understand, calculate and determine many other things about different water samples such as concentration in different units, the effects of resin on the concentration, titration procedures and more. Being more specific about the importance of water hardness, the definition of this concept has to be explained in order to better

  • Determining The Water Hardness Of Various Sources

    2168 Words  | 9 Pages

    Daniel Marshall Chem 111 – Section 106 November 6, 2014 Room 110B Group: Natasia Morozowich and Johan Moreira TA: Saranya Pullanchery Determining the Water Hardness of Various Sources Introduction: Before water reaches the tap to go into your glass it goes through many different methods of treatment to reduce the amount of unwanted particles in order to ultimately increase the purity of the water. The water is first sent through coagulation, where chemicals such as Alum are added which bind

  • Lab Report Testing the Hardness of Water

    1629 Words  | 7 Pages

    Lab Report Testing the Hardness of Water Water is the most important molecule that exists on the Earth. Without water living beings would not be able to live. Water is used for an immeasurable number of things. There are many properties of water, which makes this molecule so unique. One which people overlook is hardness. Hardness is defined in the Chemistry: The Central Science by Prentice Hall's as being "water that contains a relatively high concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+, and other divalent cations

  • An Experiment to Determine the Total Hardness of 4 Different Types of Bottled Water

    889 Words  | 4 Pages

    ) From the titration results, the average total hardness of the bottled water is 42.25mg/L, whereas the total hardness of tap water was 70mg/L. Referring from the table above, bottled water can be determined as soft water, whereas tap water is moderately hard, making tap water harder than bottled water. From the manufacturers’ claims, it is calculated that the average total hardness of bottled water is 29.25mg/L, in comparison to the total hardness of tap water which is 41.1mg/L, which still makes

  • Essay On Gravimetric Analysis

    924 Words  | 4 Pages

    effectiveness of using gravimetric analysis in determining the hardness of a water sample. More specifically, this lab tests for the amount of dissolved substances such as magnesium carbonate and calcium carbonate. The amount of these substances dissolved in water determines water hardness as they contribute cations to water which result in a buildup of scum or solid CaCO3 as a precipitate. All water tends to have a different hardness as it is determined by the geography area of the water as different

  • Essay On Wheat Bread

    673 Words  | 3 Pages

    determines the end use quality. Puroindoline form the molecular basis of wheat grain hardness. These are low molecular weight, highly basic, highly surface active, quantitative relatively proteins minor non-gluten protein of the wheat caryopsis. They occur in two forms, Pina and Pinb of 13 KDa protein. Morris (2002) the two Puroindoline genes and grain softness protein-1 (GSP-1) (Jolly et al. 1993) is associated with the hardness (Ha) locus is on the short arm of chromosome 5D in common wheat. However, the

  • Sin as a Tool to Bestow Mercy or the Result of Man's Free Will in Turning Away from God

    1805 Words  | 8 Pages

    and Eve," those offered by St. Paul in his letter to the Romans, and those given by St. Thomas Aquinas in Suma Theologica. Throughout his letter to the Romans, Paul expresses clearly several times that God indeed is the cause of certain sin and hardness of heart. He also explores the concept of God's motivation in causing such infractions. In each of these instances, a central theme of sin and blindness leading to salvation is repeated. Paul uses many examples to prove the point that God, in his

  • The Properties of Water

    731 Words  | 3 Pages

    through soil, it dissolves very small amounts of minerals such as calcium and magnesium. The greater the content of calcium and magnesium, the more hard the water is. Therefore, hard water is the result of an excess of two elements, C and Mg. The hardness of water is measured in grains per gallon (gpg), milligrams per litre (mg/l) or parts per million (ppm). (See chart below) Grains Per Gallon      Miligrams Per Liter (mg/l) or Parts Per Million (ppm)      Rating

  • The Chemistry of Natural Waters

    2402 Words  | 10 Pages

    and causes many health-related problems in humans 2 . To avoid such problems, it is important to understand ways that commercial businesses and homeowners can test for hard water. This experiment examines two possible methods of testing water hardness. They include: AA spectroscopy, which measures a water sample's absorption of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , and EDTA titration, which uses a titration's end-point to determine the concentration of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ present in a water source 1 . It is also

  • What Does Algae Affect The Water?

    1546 Words  | 7 Pages

    of the water acidity lead to increase in filamentous algae. As a result the presence of the algae indicates poor water quality. (Garg, P., 2008). 2. What is hardness and what impact does it have on water quality? What standards is it associated with? Hardness is the concentration of dissolved magnesium and calcium salts in the water. Hardness impacts on water quality throughout the aesthetic acceptability by consumers. Meaning the concentration of the calcium and magnesium and other dissolved solid

  • Analysis Of Box Behnken Response Surface Methodology

    715 Words  | 3 Pages

    that DT (Y2) is greater at lower levels of Kollidon and Prosolv (X3). In Y3 (hardness), as shown in the Figure 4 and the variation domain 2.8 – 7 kp, with increasing all 3 variables, hardness also increases. This increase in X1 and X2 is significant and in X3 is non-significant. Following equation shows the relationship between dependent variables and hardness: Y_(3 )= - 0.692 +0.157 X_1+0.088 X_2+0.170X_3 (8) Hardness of ODTs is usually considered lower than usual tablets, which is an important

  • Stainless Steel Essay

    1272 Words  | 6 Pages

    mechanical and microstructural properties of a nonconventional stainless steel. In order to accomplish these intended objectives, set of various experiments were carried out. This includes heat treatment, microstructural characterization, determination of hardness of the virgin and the sensitized samples, determination of tensile properties, tribological study of the samples, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). 1. Material Selection X12CrMnNiN17-7-5 according to ISO/TR 15510:1997 [65], a special grade of

  • Nanoindenter: Securing the Mechanical Characteristics of Materials at Nano-scale

    1397 Words  | 6 Pages

    Introduction:- Nanoindenter is basically used for securing the mechanical characteristics or properties at micro or nano-scale with the help of powerful technology known as Nanoindentation which is utilized for securing the parameters of material for example hardness, elastic modulus, viscous or plastic parameters with the help of experimental readings of penetration depth and indenter load. It must be note down that forces, those are involved, are normally in the range of micro newton or mili newton and depth

  • What Does Nanoindentation Mean?

    1922 Words  | 8 Pages

    Nanoindenter is basically used for securing the mechanical characteristics or properties at micro or nano-scale with the help of powerful technology known as Nanoindentation. Nanoindentation is utilized for securing the parameters of material for example hardness (H), elastic modulus (Es), viscous or plastic parameters with the help of experimental readings of penetration (h) and indenter load (P). It must be note down that forces, those are involved, are normally in the range of micro-newton or mili-newton

  • Essay On Extrudates

    2098 Words  | 9 Pages

    correlation). Parameter Fish Content Barrel Temperature Moisture content of feed Bulk Density 0.458 -0.166 0.841 Expansion ratio -0.305 0.236 -0.853 Moisture content of extrudate 0.748 -0.413 0.430 WAI 0.414 -0.502 0.650 WSI -0.561 0.334 -0.677 Hardness 0.541 0.284 0.755 1. Effect of Process Parameters on Bulk Density of Rice-Fish Extrudates From the Table. 2 it is obvious that all process parameters are affecting the bulk density of extrudate significantly (@ 1%) at individual as well as 2nd

  • Titagen Essay

    1983 Words  | 8 Pages

    hence before implantation in the human body, a surface modification process is carried out. The aim of carrying such modifications include; to sterilize the implant surface form contaminants before implantation, to increase the bioactivity, increase hardness and hence promotes the reduction in the implant wear rate and the introduction of a passive layer to minimize the ion release in the body.1 For this scope of this assignment a study in the surface modification of a titanium alloy stem, used in

  • Comparing Local Tap Water to Surrounding Towns

    925 Words  | 4 Pages

    water quality such as pH, Ammonia, Nitrite, Hardness, iron, carbon dioxide, and chlorine. In my tests I did not use all the test that new kit was equipped with, I only choose the aspects that I felt were harmful to humans and aspects that I felt relevant to the initial water quality. The towns I selected from around the Wellesley area were Natick, Weston, Needam, and Newton. I originally tested for pH, Ammonia, water hardness, nitrite, iron, water hardness, and chlorine. However, during my discussions

  • Coastal Landforms and Features Related to the Rock Type of the Area

    1178 Words  | 5 Pages

    Bournemouth * Durdle Door * Stair Hole * Old Harry's Rocks We used a sheet to record the information collected in each area. These included a grid reference, the landforms present, the rock type of that area, the rock hardness, the cliff height and cliff profile, if there was a cliff. To determine the grid reference we used a map of the area and noted the reference down in the classroom after we had returned from the beach. The rock type of each place

  • Microstructure of Metal

    586 Words  | 3 Pages

    pearlite to coarse pearlite, the increase in hardness and strength is due to the increased phase boundary area per unit volume of material from having thinner layers of the phases. At phase boundaries, adhesion between the two phases allows the stronger cementite to reinforce the softer ferrite and also act as barriers to dislocation motion during plastic deformation. The increase in phase boundary area per unit volume causing an increased in hardness and strength is also seen in tempered martensite

  • Principles of Heat Treating of Steels

    1551 Words  | 7 Pages

    suppressed or limited to a very short range. Bainite is a eutectoid decomposition that is a mixture of ferrite and cementite. Martensite, the hardest constituent forms during severe quenches from supersaturated austenite by a shear transformation. Its hardness increases monotonically with carbon content up to about 0.7 wt%. If these unstable metastable products are subsequently heated to a moderately elevated temperature, they decompose to more stable distributions of ferrite and carbide. The reheating

  • The Unique Characteristics of Rubies

    1063 Words  | 5 Pages

    quantities stated in Ruby’s, therefore introducing us to the chemical formula shown. Hardness Rubies have a hardness of 9.0 according to Mohs’ scale of mineral hardness, which is by definition is the “resistance of a mineral to being scratched.” (Tong 1) In other words, having a hardness of a crazy 9.0 means the Ruby is extremely sturdy and extremely difficult to stretch, coming from the fact that on Mohs hardness scale, 1 is considered the softest and 10 is the hardest. Friedrich Mohs was a German

  • Analytical Chemists and Chemical Compounds

    1525 Words  | 7 Pages

    dissolved solids (TDS) TDS measures the overall salinity of the water, as most solutes are ionic. High TDS can affect the taste of water and cause hardness. A portable conductivity meter is used to measure the TDS of water in the field. For samples with a high TDS (>100 ppm) evaporated residue is weighed to calculate TDS. Hardness Hardness is a measure of the total concentration of magnesium and calcium ions. When water is hard, soap does not lather. The concentration of magnesium and

  • The Importance of Successful Provisional Tooth Restoration

    522 Words  | 3 Pages

    in the oral environment [10]. Hardness is used to predict the wear resistance of a material and its ability to abrade opposing dental structures [10]. Diaz-Arnold et al studied surface hardness as an indicator of density, which may be essential for wear resistance and surface deterioration [2]. Therefore, in vitro studies are necessary to evaluate the mechanical properties of provisional materials being simulated under oral cavity conditions. Measurement of hardness and moduli of rupture together

  • Optimization of Extrusion Cooking Process

    2195 Words  | 9 Pages

    and moisture content of extrudates are discussed below. Table 1. Consolidated ANOVA results for the quality factors of extrudates with full factorial interaction. Source Bulk Density Expansion Ratio Moisture Content of the Product WAI WSI Hardness Blocks 0.965 0.828 0.135 0.490 0.438 0.066 Fish Content 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** Barrel Temperature 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** 0.000** Moisture

  • Screwdriver Analysis

    1317 Words  | 6 Pages

    screwdriver demands hardness and higher torque values for the meeting the requirements and to compete between the manufacturers. For maintaining both torque and hardness in higher level. there are mainly three key factors for the producing the required type of screwdriver : heat treatment, material and machining processing. On the other hand the most famous type of steel used in the manufacturing of the screwdriver bit are Cr-V type of steel, material wise known as SAE6150 steel. The hardness of this material

  • paper1

    547 Words  | 3 Pages

    sliding wear of metals at different conditions and it reveals that sliding wear differs from different materials.[2, 3] In material’s approach, Hardness of material plays significant role in sliding wear. The increase in hardness increases the wear resistance.[4, 5]Counterpart’s material hardness also considerably influences the sliding wear.[6-8]Hardness of the materials is complex one. It varies with time and temperature. The Presence of micro elements in the steel gives important effects on wear

  • Metallurgy Essay

    3146 Words  | 13 Pages

    of metals? I would say TOUGHNESS. Toughness is the ability of a metal to mutilate plastically and to absorb energy in the process before it breaks or fracture. Metals can be heat treated to alter the properties of strength, ductility, toughness, hardness or resistance to corrosion. This can be done by using heat treatment processes which include precipitation strengthening, quenching, annealing and tempering. Annealing and tempering are the most prominent methods for treating metals. A material

  • material assignment

    1566 Words  | 7 Pages

    fracture size and stress required to cause fracture. The computed toughness or hardness of a metal relies on its capacity. Soft metal need huge specimens for dependable crack or fracture toughness or hardness measurement, brittle or hard materials can be computed with smaller materials. Figure 7: the measurement of fracture toughness INDENTATION TOUGHNESS OR HARDNESS OF CERAMICS For conventional measurements of hardness, the assemblage of ceramics samples as shown in figure 7 is costly and pricy

  • What Makes A Colored Gem From A Diamond?

    1283 Words  | 6 Pages

    another. In addition, durability consists of hardness, toughness, and stability. Hardness measures how likely a gemstone resists scratching. Diamond, the hardest known gem available can only scratch other gemstones of the same or lower value. Since diamond measures a ten, it can cause damage to other diamonds, colored stones, or jewelry metals when worn or stored closely together. However, people tend to believe that since diamond has an exceptional hardness, that they also have exceptional toughness

  • Metals, And Frerrous Alloys

    745 Words  | 3 Pages

    fair period of time so that this steel becomes equilibrated. The strength and hardness that is obtained during this process depends upon the temperature of the steel while tempering takes place. If tempering takes place at a low temperature, this will produce low ductility and high hardness and strength. However, if tempering takes place at a high temperature, the material produced will have high ductility but low hardness and strength. Normalizing: The process of normalizing involves the heating

  • 123

    693 Words  | 3 Pages

    core. The increased hardness of outer case improves the wear resistance of the steel part which in turn improves the service life of the part. Carburizing is one of the commercial and extensively used surface hardening techniques in engineering industries for its simplicity and cost-effectiveness[1]. Many researchers studied the effect of carburizing process in various materials[2-8] and it was revealed that carburizing improves the surface properties of steel namely hardness[2, 9-13],wear resistance[2

  • Problems with Common Medical Implants

    1558 Words  | 7 Pages

    materials. The common hip joint re-placement prosthesis shown in Figure 2 consists of a metal ball, socket and stem and a plastic spacer. The metals used are mostly CoCr, austenitic stainless steels, Co–Cr–Mo alloys and Ti or Ti alloys, for their hardness, corrosion resistance, fracture toughness, low modulus and good machinability [1, 2]. The plastic spacer is typically made of polyethylene. The prosthesis is secured to the host body through either press-fitting or cementing . Biocompatibility

  • Water Project

    654 Words  | 3 Pages

    following: nitrates, heavy metals, magnesium & calcium, ammonia, chlorine, phosphate, and visible contaminants, which all are dangerous in drinking water. Nitrates cause water quality issues and pollution, heavy metals cause a bitter taste and bad color, hardness leads the undrinkable water, ammonia spells water pollution, chlorine provides horrible taste and order, phosphates assist aquatic plant growth, and visual contaminant signal unsuitable water to drink. For our filter’s design, we used the following

  • Drawing is Essential to Architecture Skills and Techniques

    961 Words  | 4 Pages

    Principle/s of Free-Hand Drawing Degree of Hardness Possibilities of a stroke's intensity depend on the graphite stick or pencil.Variation in hardness allows us to use light and dark lines to create light and dark shading.Artist usually use the softer leads because they create intense lines, which makes shading much easier. It is also a good idea to hive some mechanical pencil ,so that you have different options to choose from. (Sterling, 2002) Degree of hardness is how hard or softer your hands are

  • Chemistry Of Natural Water

    1289 Words  | 6 Pages

    The purpose of this experiment is to explore the hardness of the water on campus. Hard water has been a problem for hundreds of years. One of the earliest references to the hardness or softness of water is in Hippocrates discourse on water quality in Fifth century B.C. Hard water causes many problems in both in the household and in the industrial world. One of the largest problems with hard water is that it tends to leave a residue when it evaporates. Aside from being aesthetically unpleasing to

  • Disinfection Byproducts Resulting from Swimming Pool Chlorination

    1719 Words  | 7 Pages

    that must work together in order to create a united system that will work efficiently. When all of these factors work together effectively, the water is said to be in balance. The contributing factors to water balance are the waters pH, calcium hardness, alkalinity, temperature, and total dissolved solids (TDS) (National Swimming Pool Foundation, [NSPF], 2011). pH The pH of the water is the important factor as it has the most direct effect on bather comfort and the most readily distorted factor

  • Rocks

    563 Words  | 3 Pages

    which molten rock cools. Rapid cooling is small grains, and cooling slowly is large grains. The rock granite that I collected is an intrusive igneous rock. It is rich in silica. The granite solidifies slowly and has a course grained texture. The hardness of this rock is around a 7. There crystals are randomly arranged. Basalt is also an extrusive igneous rock. This texture of the rock is fine. It is dark with fine grains and forms from the flow of lava. Sedimentary rock can be chemical sediments

  • Disinfection Byproducts Resulting from Swimming Pool Chlorination

    1679 Words  | 7 Pages

    factors that must work together in order to create a united system that will work efficiently. When all of these factors do work together, it is said that the water is in balance. The contributing factors to water balance are the waters pH, calcium hardness, alkalinity, temperature, and total dissolved solids (TDS) (National Swimming Pool Foundation, [NSPF], 2011). pH The pH of the water is the important factor as it has the most direct effect on bather comfort and the most easily distorted factor

  • Descartes Forms And Ideas

    851 Words  | 4 Pages

    of ideas seem more “real” than those of Descartes. Peirce used the example of the hardness of a diamond to explain his notion of ideas. For example, let’s say that a diamond is lying on a faraway planet that no one could reach to test the diamond for its hardness themselves. Peirce believes that there would be no falsity in saying that the diamond could be soft since there is no way for anyone to test its hardness. Seeing the point that Peirce is trying to make, one knows and can infer from examining

  • Magnesium Essay

    907 Words  | 4 Pages

    Ductility, hardness, electrical and thermal conductivity, machinability Cu of group 11 Polytetrafluoroethylene polymer Melting point 327◦C 620◦F, high strength, toughness Melamine-formaldehyde Non metal Melamine and formaldehyde Stiff, hard, strong, resists some chemicals and stains(15) Polyisoprene Elastic polymer Resilience, low hysteresis, low rolling resistance, high fatigue resistance. Alumina Non metal bauxite Good electrical insulation, high compressive strength, high hardness Fibre glass

  • Importance Of Qualitative Analysis In Chemistry

    3160 Words  | 13 Pages

    forms of litter down the drain), you can help keep one of the earth’s most amazing resource clean. Treating water hardness Have you ever noticed mineral deposits on your cooking dishes or that your soap does not lather but rather leaves insoluble soap scum in your bathtub? This is probably not because of bad housekeeping, but is rather the sign of hard water. What is water hardness? Hard water is water with a high concentration of ions that form insoluble compound with soap. It contains cations

  • Rice Essay

    3249 Words  | 13 Pages

    21 to 14 min and increase in cooking loss and water uptake ratio with increase in voltage and time of treatment. Water uptake kinetics showed there is decrease in rate constant in the plasma treated samples. Textural parameters showed decrease in hardness and stickiness (soft texture and easy to chew) with increase in voltage and time. Effect of cold plasma on surface morphology of rice was determined by investigating contact angle, surface energy and SEM graphs. There is decrease in contact angle

  • Brass Wedges Essay

    569 Words  | 3 Pages

    each thickness was then annealed for 1 hour at 350 °C. Because the wedges varied in thickness across the length, multiple cold work values were able to be recorded. Hardness and thickness measurements were taken before and after the cold rolling and after the annealing as shown in Figure 1. Generally, as cold work increased, hardness increased. As the wedges were rolled, the width slightly increased and the length significantly increased. The rollers applied an even load across the wedge width, and

  • The rate at which Alka-Seltzer tablets reacts with water

    3766 Words  | 16 Pages

    0.073 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ From the results obtained, and from the graphs, the experiment went quite well. At 60oC onwards the graph tended to curve, and this was due to the fact of the hardness in water being dissolved. The reaction also seemed to get slower and slower. The 1/time graph was also good, and showed that 1/time was inversely proportional to time. Background Information The Alka-Seltzer tablet dissolves in solution. The higher

  • Formulating Nitrite Butadiene Rubber High Density Polyethylene Blends by Using Industrial Blends and Compatibilized Chloroprene Rubber

    2453 Words  | 10 Pages

    (CR). Results indicated that the minimum and maximum torque increased with increasing HDPE amount in the blends, whereas scorch, and cure time showed the decreasing trend. Increment in HDPE increased the tensile strength, modulus, tear strength, hardness and crosslink density. % tensile strain, % compression set and abrasion loss of NBR/HDPE blends revealed the decreased trend with increasing HDPE level. MW filled blends based on CR provided the most encouraging balance values of overall properties

  • Advantages And Disadvantages Of Biomaterials

    1474 Words  | 6 Pages

    Cochlear replacements 17. Artificial heart HARDNESS OF BIO MATERIALS: Hardness is one of the most significant factors for comparing properties of biomaterials. This is used for judgment and appropriateness of the clinical use of biomaterials. Biomaterial hardness is required as equivalent to bone hardness because if is it more than the biomaterial then it will penetrate in the bone. Biomaterials sample are very small so micro and Nano scale hardness test (Vickers indenters and Diamond Knop) are

  • Minearls Found around the World

    1102 Words  | 5 Pages

    sulfide (ore of copper) with a tetragonal crystal system that has be found in Ontario, Canada, the Andes, South Australia (Broken Hill and American cordillera mining). It is found as brass yellow with metallic luster and greenish black streak. Hardness can range from 3.5 to 4 on the mineral moh’s scale. Mining of chalcopyrite requires digging for veins with the mineral. Heavy equipment is used to dig and drill holes around the vein of chalcopyrite. Chalcopyrite is then moved to a refinery to

  • 1368

    691 Words  | 3 Pages

    percentages of sustained release beads were prepared and evaluated for various physical properties and dissolution profile. Hardness of tablets was decreased and percentage loss in friability is increased as concentration of beads in tablet increased. All the parameters are within range for tablets containing micro beads up to 35% thereafter loss in friability and hardness are not within range. Keywords: Metformin Hcl; Immediate release; Sustained release beads; sodium alginate; sodiumCMC INTRODUCTION

  • Essay On Aquarium

    1673 Words  | 7 Pages

    been properly treated and is safe for the fish and plants. If the chemistry in the aquarium isn’t right, the fish will suffer the consequences. In a freshwater aquarium, the common things to test the water for are PH, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and hardness levels. If any of these tests do not fall within the normal and safe range, it is likely that the fish will suffer and possibly die. pH The pH measures how acidic or alkaline a sample of water is. pH levels are measured on a scale which ranges