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Coffee Rust Fungus of the Coffea Genus

- Introduction The coffee bean is one of the world’s most widely utilized commodities touching almost every continent. In the book Coffee Rust: Epidemiology, resistance, and management Ajjamada Kushalappa asserts, “After petroleum coffee is the most important product in international world trade” (Kushalappa, Eskes 1989) Given this fact, it can be safe to assume the growing of this crop plays a large role in many countries economic stability. Coffee rust is a disease of the Coffee tree which has proven it has the ability to decimate a farmer’s crop in a short period of time....   [tags: Agriculture]

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Garlic Fighting Fungus

- Although herbs and spices have traditionally been used in cooking, as they add varieties of flavor to our food, these herbs and spices have also been known to many cultures for their medicinal properties and miscellaneous uses. The oils extracted from these spices and herbs are found to be effective in killing bacteria and viruses. Garlic is known for its ability to fight bacteria and viruses. It is known to be affective against a wide range of bacteria and also has the ability to combat the common cold....   [tags: Bacteri, Viruses, Antibiotics]

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Fungus

- Fungus The Latin word for mushroom is fungus (plural, fungi). The word fungus has come to stand for a whole group of simple plants that contain no chlorophyll and lack such complex plant structures as roots, stems, leaves, and flowers. Included among the fungi, along with mushrooms, are molds, mildews, rusts, smuts, truffles, and yeasts. Toadstool is another name for mushroom. Some people use the name toadstool only when referring to poisonous mushrooms, but botanists make no such distinction....   [tags: essays research papers]

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The Role of Fungus in the Extinction of Dinosaurs

- The Role of Fungus in the Extinction of Dinosaurs The debate over what ultimately killed off the dinosaurs is an area of great interest to not only scientists, but everyone. The dominant thought seems to be that an asteroid struck the earth at the end of the Cretaceous period and killed off much of the fauna and flora inhabiting the earth. However, the sequence of events following that mass extinction has been fairly blurry until a recent discovery, published in a recent issue of Science, by paleontologists Vivi Vajda and Stephen McLoughlin....   [tags: Anthropology Essays Paleontology Papers]

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Should People Be Aware Of A Tiny Little Airborne Fungus?

- Should people be aware of a tiny little airborne fungus called Histoplasma capsulatum. An evaluated 40 million individuals in the United States are affected with the fungus called H. Capsulatum. Professionals in the field feel that 500,000 new instances happen every year. (Awosika-Olumo, Fallon, Jr., & Trangle, 2005, p. 10). Can we still enjoy simple things like family vacations and enjoying the great outdoors or are we putting ourselves and family at risk of developing ocular histoplasmosis syndrome later on in life....   [tags: Ophthalmology, Eye, Optometry, Visual perception]

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Virulence Factors and Evasion of the Human Defense System of Fungus

- A dimorphic fungus known as Candida albicans is the highest investigated and most common fungal pathogen in humans, capable of evading the human complement system. It populates the oral and genitourinary cavity surfaces, the digestive tract and triggers an array of infections that are dependent upon the character of latent imperfections in the host. As a former hospital employee that has witnessed firsthand accounts of the increasing degree of such infections, it sparked my curiosity to investigate the reason and manner in which this fungi can achieve such virulence....   [tags: Candida Albicans, fungi, immune system]

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The Great Potato Famine in Ireland

- The Great Potato Famine was a horrendous event that would change Ireland forever. A fungus had attacked the potato crops throughout Ireland. The natives were extremely dependent on potatoes and when the blight came, it caused the economy to plummet. With the mass dependency on the potato, people began to harbor serious illnesses. Food was extremely scarce, which was a major issue for the population as a whole. Ireland was under the rule of the British government at the time; which did not help in any way when they needed them so desperately....   [tags: Fungus, Immigration]

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The Irish Potato Famine Fungus, Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary

- The Irish Potato Famine Fungus, Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary The importance of the genus Phytophthora, both to humanity and to the development of the science of plant pathology, has been obvious ever since P. infestans devastated the potato crop in Western Europe in 1845. Its greatest impact was the potato blight epidemic in Ireland (Gregory 1983). In 1845 and again in 1848 a third of the potato crop was destroyed by blight, losses at the extremes of previous European experience. Even more disastrously, three-quarters of the crop failed in 1846....   [tags: Botany]

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Endophytic Microorganisms that Redise on the Tissues of Living Plants

- Two compounds from cultivation of the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp of leaves of kunyit putih (Curcuma zedoaria (Berg) Roscoe ) have been isolated. The endophytic fungus was cultivated on 5 L of Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB) medium at room temperature (no shaking) for 3 weeks. The cultures were then extracted with ethyl acetate to afford 3.0 g of residue after removal of the solvent under reduced pressure. The extract was separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography (CC) and afforded two pure compounds as yellow oil (compound 1) and yellow crystal ( compound 2)....   [tags: cultivation, endophytic fungus, penicillium]

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Pathogen that Causes Histoplasmosis: Dr. Samuel Darling

- Introduction H. capsulatum is a most common true pathogen that causes histoplasmosis, and was discovered by Dr. Samuel Darling in 1905 (Talaro & Chess, 2012). Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus that can grow in human bodies as yeast. It is known to grow best at human body temperatures, and it remains in a mycelial form at ambient temperatures (Fayyaz, 2013). Most individuals who inhale this microscopic fungal spore don’t get infected, however some individuals who inhale this spore result in developing lung infections....   [tags: histoplasma capsulatum, microbial fungus]

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Dr. Indrani Bose's Seminar, “Using RNA Interference to Understand the Virulence and Biology of the Yeast Cryptococcus Neoformans

- ... There are a few antifungal medicines in use today, these are Amphotericin B, Flucytosine, and Fluconazole. But there are various negative effects of using these drugs. “The long-term use of drugs that target ergosterol, such as fluconazole or amphotericin B, can result in renal and liver toxicity” (2). Another issue is that Cryptococcus neoformans eventually develops resistance to these medications. Dr. Bose stated that her long term goal is to discover better drugs to eradicate this disease from developing in humans....   [tags: meningoencephalitis, fungus, genes]

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Cryptococcus Neoformans: An Opportunistic Pathogen

- Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogen that can cause Cryptococcal meningitis. Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungus that can be found in soil contaminated with bird feces. It can also be found in fruits, milk, plants and in human feces (Davis, 2011). This type of fungus produces airborne spores into the environment. These spores can then be inhaled by humans. This is the only means by which an individual can become infected with cryptococcosis. Cryptococcosis is not a contagious disease. Therefore, it cannot be transmitted from one person to another....   [tags: pathogen, fungus, spore, healthy]

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Alternative Medicine : Modern Medicine

- There is no way to know how long forms of alternative medicine have been used. Mainly because of the modern treatments scientists have discovered involving medicine. Willem De Blécourt and Cornelie Usborne, authors of Medical History, state that “different times produce different historians of medicine and differing definitions of their object of research.” What we now refer to as alternative medicine was once considered the most modern form of medicine. Author, Jacqueline Langwith, refers to alternative medicine as a “wide range of healing practices that are not considered part of conventional medicine.” Langwith also mentions in her book, Alternative Medicine, that it is widely used when...   [tags: Alternative medicine, Medicine, Ayurveda, Fungus]

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How Does Mold Grows in Food

- Imagine a person buys a loaf of bread and a cake from a bakery, and then the food is set down in the automobile and forgotten about for a few days. The person comes back only to see that the loaf of bread is covered in green fuzzy mold but the cake looks brand new. Why. The cake-contained more sugar than the bread, and sugar is used as a preservative. That is why the mold grew faster on the bread. Sugar is used as a preservative to keep food fresh and to prevent mold. Salt is also used a lot as a preservative because it tastes good and keeps the food fresh....   [tags: oatmeal, fungus, fresh food, sugar]

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What Are Cryptococcus Neoformans?

- Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycete that can cause two serious conditions, a pulmonary infection and encephalitis, which can be deadly to humans. When cultured on a plate, colonies of Cryptococcus neoformans are mucoid and look much like bacterial colonies, indicating the fungus is in a yeast form (Ellis, 1999). One main feature of this fungus is the encapsulated yeast form. The capsule surrounds the yeast form, giving the colonies the characteristic mucoid appearance and helps the fungus evade the immune system when infecting a human (will be discussed later) (Vecchiarelli et al., 2008)....   [tags: Immune system, Bacteria, AIDS, Fungus]

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Chestnut Blight and American Chestnut Trees

- Chestnut Blight and American Chestnut Trees Since the early 1900's a disease known as Chestnut Blight has infected many American Chestnut trees and causing their removal from forests. A greater look at the history of this fungus as well as the mechanisms of action will allow us to learn on how to preserve the American chestnut. At one point, the American chestnut was virtually eliminated. With the help of government acts and conservation agencies, the American chestnut is slowly growing back in population....   [tags: Ecology Conservation Fungus Essays]

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The On The Restoration Of A Nutrient Poor Grassland Following Topsoil Removal

- 6.1 OUTLINE OF MAIN RESULTS Terrestrial ecosystems can be seen as subdivided into two different but mutually dependent components: an aboveground and a belowground part (Kardol and Wardle 2010). Therefore, restoration ecology should aim to integrate the restoration of both components. In the present PhD, we have considered both components and we have evaluated the effects of AMF inoculation and of distance to species donor sites on the restoration success of a nutrient-poor grassland following topsoil removal....   [tags: Plant, Fern, Spore, Fungus]

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Bacterial Spores Are Responsible For Contaminating The Bread

- The article is written as a review of how to quantify mold spoilage and consequently shelf life of a food product. According to the article, mold spoilage occurs from having a product contaminated with fungal spores that germinate and form a visible mycelium on the product. To determine the probability of mold growth, both germination and mycelium proliferation can be mathematically described by primary models. This article will be used to possibly explain why the mold on the bread next to the window and the bread in the closet appears....   [tags: Bread, Yeast, Fungus, Bacteria]

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The Health Of Aboriginal Australians

- Aboriginal Australians have survived in a harsh environment for thousands of years, as a result of this, there are many health beliefs that are unique to this group of people. When asked, up to 22% of aboriginals say that they have used a plant, known as bush medicine in the culture, to treat an illness (Patricks, 1999). This is a significant number, and has led to interesting medical beliefs because modern medicine is often incorporated with bush medicine within this culture. This civilization has historically been dependent with plants found in the local rainforests for survival and healing from health issues, and the culture still has an important relationship with plants today....   [tags: Indigenous Australians, Australia, Fungus]

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An Investigation Of Plant Pathology Lab 303

- For the past three months, an investigator in Plant Pathology Lab 303 has been on a mission to determine what the specific microbe 1027 is. By creating a series of investigations highlighted below, the detective has come to the conclusion that they have identified the missing microbe 1027, or known more formally as Xanthomonas campetris. Introduction: Throughout Plant Pathology (PP) 123 lab, I have been collecting data on my unknown pet. From the experiments I have run, I do know that my pet behaves like a bacterium....   [tags: Bacteria, Agar plate, Fungus, Organism]

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The Fungi Formerly Known as Dentinum Repandum

- The Fungi Formerly Known as Dentinum Repandum This paper will cover a description of Hydnum repandum, its ecology, and some research involving the species. The first topic to be discussed in this paper is a description of Hydnum repandum, which was until recently referred to as Dentinum repandum. The description of the fungi will start with the appearance of H. repandum, and will be followed by the life cycle of the noted species. The appearance of Hydnum repandum is quite unique. The stipe of the fungi can range from two to seven centimeters tall, and one to three centimeters thick (Wood)....   [tags: Hydnum Repandum Fungus Essays]

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Effectively Treating Fungal Problems with Terbinafine Hydrochloride

- Terbinafine Hydrochloride: Effectively Treating Fungal Problems Abstract Lamisil, which is chemically terbinafine hydrochloride, is the premier antifungal drug on the market. It effectively destroys fungal problems ranging from athlete’s foot to onychomycosis. However, Lamisil has a number of problems associated with it, including cost, side effects, and even effectiveness. Therefore, I created two analogs in an attempt to improve Lamisil, which I will discuss in my paper. Plenty of fungal problems exist, including athlete’s foot, jock itch, ringworm, and onychomycosis (fungal infection beneath nails)....   [tags: Biology Medical Fungus Fungi Lamisil]

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Automatic Optic Disc Detection in Digital Fundus Images Using Image Processing Techniques

- Optic disc (OD) is important part of eye. In developing systems automatic OD detection is an important step for automated diagnosis of various serious ophthalmic diseases like Diabetic retinopathy, Glaucoma, hypertension etc. The variation of intensity within the optic disc and intensity close to the optic disc boundary are the major hurdle in automated optic disc detection. General edge detection algorithms are frequently unsuccessful to segment the optic disc because of this. Complexity increases due the presence of blood vessels....   [tags: health, ophtalmic disease]

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How Zombies Could Really Exist in Real Life

- ... This could develop into full post-mortem mobility. A dead host came from a drawback to an advantage, becoming a mobile platform for spore distribution. Zombie hunger drive may have originated from the spores distribution method. The development refinement of the fungal neural system, allowing for zombies to be more coordinated and to run at a full speed. This behavior may seem unlikely, in the animal world. Some species of parasitic wasps are able to reprogram behavioral patterns of their hosts (bees, and ants) creating new behaviors beneficial to the wasps and the detrimental of the host....   [tags: fungi, neurotoxins, nanobots]

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Fungi: A Misunderstood Marvel

- Very few view fungi as essential to human life. If asked to consider this diverse kingdom, most would only answer with whether they enjoy mushrooms on their pizzanotwithstanding the fact that there are at the very least 1 million species of fungi thought to outnumber vascular plants by a ratio somewhere between six to one and thirty-three to one. Even so, only 100,000 species of fungi are known to exist while mycologists continue to discover 1000 new species every year. Most notable was the recent discovery of a single honey mushroom congregation thought to weigh 605 tons and cover 2200 acres of Oregon’s Strawberry Mountains....   [tags: Fungi]

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The Effects Of Ergot Poisoning And Mass Hysteria

- The Effects of Ergot Poisoning and Mass Hysteria Many significant historical events in history provide many unanswered questions about what exactly occurred. Much of this is attributed to the lack of proper documentation or explanation about just what exactly was occurring at the time. The Salem Witch Trials offer an interesting middle-ground to this confusion, in that there was a well-documented history of what was occurring as well as a rather broad explanation of the situation. By the end of the Salem Witch Trials in 1692, over one hundred and fifty Salem residents were accused of witchcraft with twenty-nine of them being found guilty and nineteen of them hung....   [tags: Salem witch trials, Witchcraft, Ergotism]

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A Brief Note On The Athlete 's Foot

- While feet are stuck inside shoes and socks all day, they can become damp and smelly. They are also prone to infections like athlete 's foot, which doesn 't impact only athletes as the name implies. Anyone can get athlete 's foot if they 're not careful, yet it has nothing to do with hygiene. People who wash their feet daily can still contract the infection, and those who get the infection seem prone to it in the future. Definition & Facts Athlete 's foot, also known as tinea pedis, is an infection that is fungal in nature....   [tags: Bacteria, Infection, Immune system, Foot]

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White Nose Syndrome in Bats

- The population of bats in the United States is facing a serious threat of extinction due to the outbreak of a deadly fungus called Deomyces destructans. The fungus is nicknamed White-Nose Syndrome, after the white fungus that typically appears on the infected bats noses and wings. Other signs and symptoms of White Nose Syndrome are white fungus on the ears and tail as well, bats flying during the day in the middle of winter, bats clustered near the entrance to a hibernacle or cave, and general abnormal behavior for a hibernating bat....   [tags: Ancient Greece]

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Diversity of Micro Fungi on the Leaves of Hevea Brasiliensis

- 2.1 What are pathogens. Carris, Little, and Stiles (2012) defined pathogen as parasites that causes diseases which are categorized by symptoms. 70% of known plant diseases are caused by plant pathogenic fungi. Plant pathogenic fungi are parasites, but not all plant parasitic fungi are pathogens. Of many types of fungi that live on plants, the endophytic fungi live in intimate association with plants and depend on them for nutrition. As for the biotrophic fungal pathogens, they obtain nutrients from living host tissues, often via specialized cells called haustoria that form inside host cells....   [tags: pathogens in rubber tree plantations]

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What Does Medicine Do for You?

- Almost every human being on Earth has experienced some form of medication in their lifetime. Whether it may be pill form, syrup, topical creams, or even a shot; medicine is experienced by everyone. The three medicines that I have chosen to talk about today are Lamisil, Lipitor and Zoloft. All three of these medications must be prescribed by a doctor. Lamisil is a medicine that tackles fungus of the skin, toenails and fingernails. A generic form of this is called Terbinafine. Nail fungus is a type of infection that is caused by certain types of fungi....   [tags: Medication]

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Symptoms and Treatment of Valley Fever

- Coccidioides immitis is a fungal disease that causes the fungal infection known as Valley fever (coccidioidomycosis). This fungus lives in soil, dry and low rainfall areas and replicates in increased soil moisture. Valley fever incidence is linked to climate changes due to the fungus lifecycle and is a dimorphic fungus. The fungus remains dormant in the soil and lives off of dead organic matter until the soil dries. When the soil dries it becomes a fungal spore (arthroconidia) with slender filaments that then break off and become airborne when the soil in which they are in is disturbed....   [tags: coccodioides immitis, fungal infection]

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Possibility of Zombie Apocalypse

- A zombie apocalypse is absolutely a possibility. When take a closer look there are many possibilities to which an apocalypse could happen. All though it may not be as Hollywood or video games have led us all to believe. The whole lumbering, brain-dead corpse thing has become a little overrated now-a-days, at least for me anyway. Today when we think about a zombie apocalypse we think of popular video games or movies released by some truly sick and demented people, who by the way probably have way too much time on their hands....   [tags: Factors, Spreading Diseases]

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The American Chestnut Tree

- Uncolonized North America was once inhabited by many organisms that have now become extinct. The extinction of these organisms can be blamed on the over harvesting of valuable resources or the introduction of foreign diseases from importation. One of these extinct organisms was the American chestnut. The American chestnut once inhabited the Eastern portion of North America from Maine to Florida. The great tree was once a dominant species that inhabited the Appalachian Mountains. The tree provided a staple diet to pre-colonized North American inhabitants and the immigrants of Europe....   [tags: monoecious deciduos tree]

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The Mircobiology Department: What is Studied, Tested, and Used

- Microbiology Department Introduction A Microbiology department deals with micro-organisms. These microorganisms are too small and they can only be seen by microscopes. A micro-organism is smaller than a red blood cell and they are the oldest form of life on earth. Pathogen is a biological agent that causes disease to its host and pathogen. Pathogen can pass disease to unicellular organisms that belong to biological kingdoms. There are some organisms that can cause infectious diseases. Infectious disease is a disease that caused by a micro-organism (viruses, bacteria and fungus) that enters the body of an organism....   [tags: mircoorganisms, infectious, sample types, health]

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The Spark that Ignited the Salem Witchcraft Trials

- What really happened in Salem that ignited the spark of the Witchcraft Trials. Was it out of boredom. Did the girls come down with a case of Schizophrenia, encephalitis, or Huntington’s chorea. (Vogel 1). These are all possibilities, but there is still one theory that could reveal the truth behind the Salem Witch Trials. According to the research by psychologist Linda Caporael, of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute of Troy, New York, the poisoning of ergot originally created the hysteria. (Vogel 1 and Clark 2)....   [tags: poisoning of ergot]

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The Horrors of the Salem Witch Trials

- In all of human history, people have written about inhuman beings, many of which include gods, demons, wizards, sorcerers, and witches. Nowadays, mystical beings are seen everywhere in media. Most of society stopped believing in these creatures years ago, but for 17th century Salem, witchcraft became a living nightmare (Fremon, 1999 The reason for the bizarre events that occurred during the Salem witch trials of 1692 and 1693 in Massachusetts has been the focus of speculation and curiosity for many years....   [tags: puritans, women, gods, demonds]

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How Do Germs Spread and Cause Illness

- Eeww. You sure you want to touch that. Germs since and before their discovery have been around man. Who discovered germs and what are germs. How do germs make us sick and are we winning the war on germs. Today we are using too much antibacterial soaps and cleaners. This is making germs mutate to the point they are almost impossible to kill. Let’s set off to enter the amazing world of germs and find the answers to these questions. According to Dr. Kelly Reynolds, Louis Pasteur a Frenchman, in 1850 began to explore the mysterious world of germs....   [tags: antibacterial soap, cleaners, pasteurs]

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The Causes of the Salem Witch Trials

- What caused the Salem Witch Trials. This question has been asked for hundreds of years, yet the world still isn't sure of the answer. The only statement that can be proven is that there were multiple causes (salemwitchtrials.com). No one factor pushed the trials into existence. Even simple things, like fear, took a part in the overall cause. To this day, scientists and researchers alike still argue over the answer to this riddling question. In the early winter months of 1692, in colonial Massachusetts, two young girls began exhibiting strange symptoms that were described to be "beyond the power of Epileptic Fits or natural disease to effect (examiner.com)." Doctors looked them over, but co...   [tags: trails, factors, hysteria]

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Symptoms And Treatment Of Invasive Cervical Cancer

- Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, esophagus, or lungs This illness is caused by infection with a common (and usually harmless) type of fungus called Candida. Candidiasis, or infection with Candida, can affect the skin, nails, and mucous membranes throughout the body. Persons with HIV infection often have trouble with Candida, especially in the mouth and vagina. However, candidiasis is only considered an OI when it infects the esophagus (swallowing tube) or lower respiratory tract, such as the trachea and bronchi (breathing tube), or deeper lung tissue....   [tags: AIDS, HIV, Pneumonia, Tuberculosis]

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The Fourth Extinction By Elizabeth Kolbert

- On a day to day basis, most people take for granted the lives we get to live, and put too much value on the extra things such as materialistic items. Also, the majority of humans are too invested in their personal lives or with themselves that they do not look at the big picture of how what we are doing now will effect us later. As humans, the routines in our lives can bring us harm, and within time a we may become the sixth extinction. In “The Sixth Extinction” by Elizabeth Kolbert, she gives many examples of animals that are or may become extinct....   [tags: Extinction, Human, Species, Megafauna]

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Movie Review : Odd Thomas

- The movie I chose to watch and analyze for this exam is a movie called Odd Thomas. This movie is an odd movie to choose, but it follows the pattern of the hero’s journey in odd way. Odd Thomas is about a man from California who is named Odd Thomas; he has this strange ability to see dead people. However, he is just a part-time cook at a little diner. He uses this gift that he has, as a super hero would consider an “undercover detective,” to help the police solve heinous crimes that were committed by bad people....   [tags: Ramayana, Rama, Sita, Annette Hanshaw]

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Analyzing Citric Acid

- The most widely used method for synthesizing citric acid was discovered by an American chemist named James Currie in 1917 in order to contend with the lack of citrus imports caused by the First World War. This method requires the fungus culture “Aspergillus niger”. This mould is fairly common in nature but special strains are used by the major citric acid producing companies to increase the fungus’s production of citric acid. This method involves substances that contain glucose such as simple sugar or molasses being fed to the fungus....   [tags: Chemistry]

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Assessing a film collection, film damage and decay problems, definitions of digital preservation, and the feasibility of digitally preserving moving i

- With the proliferation of information in the Digital Age and the advent of new technologies, digitization and digital preservation are hot topics in the archive and librarian worlds. More and more information, regardless of its form as a book, video, or audio recording, is being born digitally. Joan M. Reitz defines born digital material as “work created from scratch in electronic form, for example, a hypermedia thesis or dissertation, or an electronic journal that has no print counterpart.” This definition includes the majority of the information created in the Digital Age, but what about information not born digitally....   [tags: Film Preservation]

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Diseases in Dogs, Domestic Cattle and Mountain Chickens

- Contents Introduction 3 Diseases in Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) 3 Parvovirus 3 Anaemia 3 Mange 4 Diseases in Domestic Cattle (Bos Tauris) 4 Bovine Tuberculosis 4 Lyme Disease 4 Parasitic Gastroenteritis 5 Diseases of the Mountain Chicken (Leptodactylus fallax) 5 Chytrid Fungus 5 Metabolic Bone Disease 6 Diseases of the Superb Starling (Lamprotornis superbus) 6 Avian Salmonellosis 6 Hyperkeratosis 7 Conclusion 7 References 8 Introduction This assessment will cover a range of diseases that affect dogs, cows, The Superb Starling and The Mountain Chicken....   [tags: animal health]

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Microorganisms and the Great Potato Famine in Ireland

- ... People naturally find it disturbing and dirty, however there are good types of Fungi, often referred to as friendly fungi. In 1928 Penicillin, one of the most famous of antibiotic drugs was discovered having derived it from the fungi called Penicillium. This discovery has since has a huge impact on helping people across the globe. However, not all is it seems, there are some nasty fungi that can cause diseases in plants, animals and people. A famous one being Phytophthora infestans. This caused the Great Potato Famine in Ireland in the mid 1800’s which resulted in a million deaths....   [tags: microbe, fungi, spreading ]

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Cause and Prevention of Lawn Grass Disease

- Every lawn eventually becomes the victim of lawn grass disease from the well-manicured expanse of the golf course to the sometimes-neglected backyard. This problem is devastating for the landowner following a large investment in establishing and caring for his turfgrass. However, the destruction of lawn grass infection is not beyond repair. General Cause and Prevention Lawn diseases, like human diseases, infect susceptible hosts. Similarly, the identification of lawn diseases is difficult at times, because they do not always display distinct characteristics tending to manifest with the same symptoms....   [tags: landscaping, horticulture]

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Great Achievements of the 20th Century: Antibiotics

- One of the greatest achievements in the 20th century was the invention and mass production of antibiotics. Antibiotics or antimicrobials are chemical drugs that are used to treat a variety of different infectious bacterial diseases by destroying or slowing the growth of the bacteria. Antibiotics are toxic to the target cell but do not harm the host. They are designed to attack various kinds of parasites, fungus, and bacteria. Contrary to popular belief antibiotics do not work against viruses like those that cause the common cold....   [tags: world changing inventions, mass production]

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Mapping the Genes of Sordaria Fimicola

- The main purpose of this experiment is to examine the results of wild-type mutant crosses which influence the arrangements of ascospores in asci in the fungus Sordaria fimicola. These resulting arrangements help calculate the map distance between the centromere and spore color genes in Sordaria. My hypothesis was that due to so many group observations accounted in, the data will be underestimated and the results will not fit into the chi square table. A sample from Petri dish with both mutant stock cultures is observed after a week....   [tags: Research Analysis ]

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Common Diseases of Dogs and Cows

- Contents Introduction 2 Diseases in Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) 3 Parvovirus 3 Hookworm 3 Fleas 4 Diseases in Domestic Cattle (Bos Tauris) 4 Bovine Tuberculosis 4 Roundworm 4 Cattle Tick 5 Diseases of the Mountain Chicken (Leptodactylus fallax) 5 Chytrid Fungus 5 Metabolic Bone Disease 6 Diseases of the Superb Starling (Lamprotornis superbus) 6 Avian Salmonellosis 6 Hyperkeratosis 7 Conclusion 7 References 8 Introduction This assessment will cover a range of diseases that affect dogs, cows, the superb starling and the mountain chicken....   [tags: Animal Diseases]

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Infections of the American Chestnut Tree

- ... The genome of CHV consists of two open reading frames, open reading frames A and B (ORF A and ORF B) (Cite). Management of the blight using CHV has been greatly effective in Europe, but much less so in North America13. CHV’s primary use in North America is for managing blight infections on individual trees, rather than controlling the blight on the population level as in Europe13. Though its efficacy is limited in North America, CHV provides plant pathologists with a useful tool to study factors that affect the virulence of C....   [tags: cryphonectria parasitica]

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Diseases Found in Hair Salons

- “Its not just gross, its a health problem.” Wilder said, adding that dirty equipment and questionable procedures can lead to clients getting fungal and bacterial infections, MRSA and hepatitis C. Many different types of diseases that have to do with your scalp, and nails usually are spreading throughout many different salon areas. Inside every salon it should be very clean for your clients and your only safety. Their can be many diseases inside a salon some that you won't even know existed....   [tags: health problems, lack of proper hygene]

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Lawn And Keep Your Lawn

- To mow your lawn and maintain it, just like a professional landscaper. No matter how your lawn looks now or how you wish it to look, I will explain the importance of lawn maintenance and some simple ideals to consider for the best care and growth of the living organism you call your lawn. Let us start by pointing out the many benefits of having a well-manicured lawn. A well-manicured lawn can add thousands to the value of your home or property, increasing curb appeal or just add a level of comfort as a place to relax or even host a picnic....   [tags: Lawn, Lawn mower, Poaceae, Mower]

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Chapter Three : Histoplasma Capsulatum

- Chapter Three: Histoplasma Capsulatum This final microbe is far less dangerous and easier to comprehend than the formerly mentioned ones. Histoplasma Capsulatum, often called histoplasmosis, is caused by a fungus called Histoplasma (1). This fungus thrives within earthy environments with lots of soil filled with bird and bat droppings (1). It is found mainly in the United States, specifically within the central and eastern states, such as around the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys (1). The fungus can also be found within central and South America, Africa, Asia, Australia, and small parts of Europe (1)....   [tags: Immune system, Bacteria, Infection, Immunology]

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Pneumocystis Jirovecii

- Introduction Pneumocystis jirovecii is a genus of unicellular fungi found in the respiratory tracts of many mammals and humans. Causal Agents Pneumocystis jirovecii taxonomic classification has been a debate since it was discovered in 1909. It was originally labeled incorrectly as a trypanosome and again later for a protozoan (Bennett, 2013). In 1988, it was proven wrong when Edman and Stringer showed that the ribosomal RNA sequences of P carinii correlated to those of fungus and entirely dissimilar to those of other parasites (Catherinot, 2010)....   [tags: respiratory tract infection]

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Density-Dependent Polyphenism in Locusts

- Animal behavior is the scientific study of everything that animals do. This study includes all animals, and it ranges from the study of single celled organisms to the study of mammals. The most important question in this field of study is to ask why do animals do what they do. A person who studies animal behavior may take genetics, effects of environment of the subject, and how that relates to the evolution of that behavior into account (Animal Behavior Society). An evolutionary or developmental biologist would take animal behavior into account when they study polyphenisms....   [tags: Animal Behavior, Scientific Studies, Animals]

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Bird Species in Belize

- ... Smilax tendrils, also called cat claw, were used as a form of birth control. Aerial roots are a favorite of the black howler monkeys. The roots can be smoked and help people quit smoking. The cohune have many uses such as: makes furniture, rings, wine, massage oil, stops infections and more. The miconia leaves have an orange substance at the end that is used as a ringworm cure. Purple vervines is used as a treatment of leukemia. Melastoma leaves are favored by monkeys, very soft and can be a replacement to toilet paper....   [tags: mutualism relationships, biology, ecology]

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The Potential for Future Crop Loss

- The Potential for Future Crop Loss On the subject of potential crop loss there are several variables, which influence drought and plant disease resulting in a loss of crops. The first variable is that of drought. Drought is a result of shifting weather patterns, which changes the amount of precipitation an area receives. There are three major causes of drought, deficient and unfavorably distributed precipitation, excess heat and warm winds (Nemanishen, 1998, p.35). Historically the grasslands of North America have had a highly varied climate with years of drought immediately followed by years of sufficient precipitation....   [tags: Agriculture Farming Environment Essays Papers]

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Research on the Effects of UV Lighting on Mold Growth

- Intro Very little research has been done on this topic, UV lighting has been known to help mould, but very few test have been done on it. Especially on food moulding, UV lighting has been said to help prevent moulding on objects and things like damp area. Ours will most lightly be one of the first of its kind. Mould is a problem that is or has been experienced by almost every person, especially those living in damp conditions. It can cause several health issues as well as allergic reactions. Research done on this In America, germinal UV lighting has been utilized in public buildings to stop germs growing....   [tags: spores, waves, allergy]

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Can A Human Soul Still Be Alive Inside A Zombie?

- Short Research Paper: “Can a Human Soul Still Be Alive Inside a Zombie?” You wake up in the middle of the night in your dark apartment. You look at your broken watch – it reads 1:23 am. Your fiancé has returned to your apartment after an evening of scavenging, dirty and scratched with a few specs of blood on her blouse. You are glad to see her returned, safe and sound, to the abandoned apartment building you now call home. The outbreak caused most people who lived in your city, but you and your fiancé boarded up your doors, barricaded your windows, and decided to wait for help....   [tags: Death, Consciousness, The Walking Dead]

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Analysis of the Oxygen Group on the Periodic Table

- ... Sulfur also has six outer electrons in its electron cloud. The octet rule stats that an element will want eight in its outer shell, so sulfur will go and take two electrons from another element. When it fills its outer shell with eight electrons it will have a negative two charge do to the protons are less than the electrons. Sulfur has many different characteristics. It is a solid at room temperature and 1atm pressure. Sulfur is also odorless (almost), usually yellow, and tasteless. Sulfur is very abundant in the Earth’s crust....   [tags: group, element, electron]

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Lack of Genetic Diversity Amongst Bananas and Plantains

- Introduction Cultivars of the genus Musa (bananas and plantains) have grown in East Asia and Polynesia for millions of years as herbaceous weeds, thriving as r-selected species in forest clearings1. Circa 10,000 years ago, in modern-day Malaysia, natives discovered and succeeded in cultivating the hybrid of two different species: Musa acuminata (whose fruit is constituted of unpalatable flesh) and Musa balbisiana (where ½ of each ‘finger’ is flesh and ½ is seeds [Fig. 1]). The hybrid produced is sterile (having triploid chromosomes, whilst the original fertile varieties were diploid) and must thus be propagated by taking offshoots of their corms2....   [tags: Genetic Engineering]

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High Population Variability And Source Sink Dynamics

- In the article “High Population Variability and Source-Sink Dynamics in Solitary Bee Species” Authors Markus Franzen and Sven G. Nilsson examined the role of population dynamics of the decreasing Andrena humilis bee in southern Sweden between 2003 and 2011. Nineteen colonization and 14 extinction events were observed during this study. Occupancy decreased with distance from the persistent population and increased with greater availability to pollen (Franzen, 2013, 1400). They noticed a positive connection between the size of the persistent population and the occupancy and colonization of the patch....   [tags: Plant, Symbiosis, Ant, Bee]

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Characteristics of Boreal Felt Lichen

- Lichen Erioderma pedicellatum also known as boreal felt lichen is just one of the over 30,000 species of lichens. Although currently boreal felt lichen is categorized as a critically endangered species, it is one the earth's oldest foliose lichens, almost 400 million year old genus (“Lichens”). Boreal Felt Lichen belongs to kingdom Fungi, division Ascomycota, class Lecanoromycetes, order Lecanorales, family Pannariaceae, and genus Erioderma (“COSEWIC”). Lichen is made of two symbiotic partners, fungus and alga or cyanobaterium(“Lichens”)....   [tags: habitat, spores, threats]

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Acrylic Nails: A Beautiful Monster

- In this day and age of technological advances, women are able to improve their appearance and boost their confidence by going through all sorts of treatments and services. One such service is the application of acrylic nails. Acrylic nails are a great way to cover up the appearance of weak or brittle nails. They are a good option for women that bite their nails and are not able to have long nails. Although acrylic nails come in a variety of designs and look very attractive, they have bad long term effects and cause the nails to become weak for a long time after their removal....   [tags: Beauty]

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Candida albicans

- Candida albicans Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus. This means that that C. albicans has to different phenotypic forms, an oval shaped yeast form and a branching hyphal form. C. albicans normal habitat is the mucosal membranes of humans and various other mammals including the mouth, gut, vagina, and sometimes the skin. Normally C. albicans causes no damage and lives symbiotically with the human or animal host, even helping to breakdown minute amounts of fiber that are eaten in the host’s diet....   [tags: Essays Papers]

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LSD: Lysergic Acid Deithylamide

- Hallucinogens can alter the mind; it cause changes in mood and cause the user to have unusual thoughts. Hallucinogens do not always cause hallucinations, despite of the name; the user feels false sensations that they only experience. Hallucinogens induce the user to act and say things that they would normally not do. Lysergic acid diethylamide was the first synthetic hallucinogen that was discovered. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, better known as LSD and was first synthesized by Albert Hofmann on November 16, 1938....   [tags: Drugs ]

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Guam and Rhino Beetle

- Nature is a balancing act. When a certain balance of a simple, natural ecosystem is disrupted, it becomes dangerously unstable. This is exactly what happened, and is currently happening, to the island of Guam. This two hundred and nine square mile island has a very simple ecosystem. The only native mammal here is the Mariana fruit bat (Miller). Consequently, when human development started on Guam its animal kingdom started to become quite unstable. For example, the brown tree snake has wiped out half of the bird population and is currently downsizing the population of rats....   [tags: nature, ecosystem, Palau, palm tree]

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The Great Potato Famine

- A great famine occurred in Ireland from around 1845 to about 1852 and devastated the country. Approximately one million people died of starvation or diseases caused by this famine, and about one million more people emigrated Ireland and moved to other countries to try to find a better life. One country that a lot of people moved to is the United States. Numerous people immigrated to the U.S. and created settlements all around the country. To provide for themselves in these settlements, most of the people farmed the land because that was what they knew how to do....   [tags: Ireland, potato blight]

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Mycorrhizas Among Plant Species

- Figure. 1 - Abundance of various types of mycorrhizas among plant species, literature review from 128 publications (Brundrett, 2009) includes ca 8000 plant species, AM – arbuscular mycorrhiza, EcM – ectomycorrhiza, NM – nonmycorrhizal, Ericoid – ErM, Orchid – OrM. Arbuscular mycorrhiza The most common and abundant mycorrhiza is AM which belongs into the endomycorrhizas and inter alia associates with approximately 74% of all Angiosperm plant species, number of Gymnosperm species and some Cryptogamic species (Brundrett, 2009)....   [tags: photosynthesis, fungi, cell]

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The Irish Potato Famine

- The Irish Potato Famine In the middle of the eighteenth century, Ireland was an agricultural nation. There were approximately eight million people living in the nation. Most of the people were living in an extremely harsh condition. In addition, there were a small percentage of people who were educated. According to The History Place, “Only about a quarter of the population could read and write.” Reasonably, farming became one of the most popular professions back then. Before the potato famine, the Irish people were able to grow large quantities of healthy potatoes....   [tags: poor law, british government]

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Potato Famine of 1845

- ... It is thought that over half of a million people die in 1847, compared to the million that died from 1845-1848 (Kinealy, 92). Many of the Irish chose to become potato farmers, due to the fact that it could be grown on such cheap land. When the famine hit, thousands soon found themselves out of work. Many could not pay their rent, and were evicted. Some landlords tried their best to help their tenants and not charge them for rent, but soon they needed a source of income as well (Scally, 117)....   [tags: ireland, starvation, food crisis]

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Valley Fever

- Valley fever has always been a problem for humans all around the world. Valley fever is one of the many pathogens found in the world. It is an infection that can potentially cause many different problems. These problems have a very extensive range of severity though. It is very hard to avoid exposure to this pathogen if you live in an area where it is common. There are many different treatments and it is rarely fatal though. There are also ways to prevent valley fever. Valley fever is a pathogen that causes many different symptoms and is found all over the world....   [tags: pathogens, coccidioidomycosis]

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Cigarettes Should Be Made Illegal

- The sale of cigarettes and tobacco is a multi-billion dollar industry, but is it truly worth all the problems that stem from their use. Health care costs are extremely high due to all the health problems associated with cigarettes and tobacco. Even though research has proven time and time again the harmful effects of cigarettes, and the rising cost of health care caused by cigarettes our government will not take a stand and stop all manufacturing of the horrible toxins. Every year new medical reports are issued regarding the harmful effects of smoking cigarettes....   [tags: Argumentative, Persuasive, smoking, tobacco]

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Tomato Diseases

- Tomato Diseases Bacterial Spot (bacterial - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria) Infected leaves show small, brown, water soaked, circular spots about one-eighth inch in diameter. The spots may have a yellow halo. This is because the centers dry out and frequently tear. on older plants the leaflet infection is mostly on older leaves and may cause serious defoliation. The most striking symptoms are on the green fruit. Small, water-soaked spots first appear which later become raised and enlarge until they are one-eighth to one-fourth inch in diameter....   [tags: Papers]

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What are Mycotoxins?

- The contamination with mycotoxins in foods and feeds around the world have shown to be an expressive impasse. (Hussein and Brasel, 2001). It was estimated by FAO that mycotoxins have contaminated 25% of the global's food crops, causing considerable problems in the economic aspect. (Aidoo, 2011). These toxins are compounds that many sorts of fungus produce (EFSA, 2013) and have negative impacts on humans, animals and crops, that according to Hussein and Brasel (2001), result in diseases and losses in the economy....   [tags: Agriculture, Toxins]

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Nursing Care Plan

- Nursing Care Plan CLIENT CLINICAL PICTURE Mr. GB is a 78 year old white male admitted to Bay Pines VAMC on 6/18/96. for " atypical chest pain and hemoptysis". V/S BP 114/51, P 84, R 24, T 97.4. He seems alert and oriented x 3 and cheerful. Bowel sounds present x 4. Pt. has a red area on his coccyx. Silvadene treatments have been started. Pt. Has a fungal lung infection with a pleural suction drainage tube inserted in his chest . Pt is extremely thin with poor skin turgor with a diagnosis of cachexia ( wasting) secondary to malnutrition and infection....   [tags: Nursing Essays]

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The Destruction of Our World

- The Destruction of Our World „Ð The world is so unbalanced. We¡¦re killing it. Everyone is killing it, but especially us in the U.S. who see our nation as advanced and powerful. ¡§If car ownership and oil consumption per person in China were to reach U.S. levels, then China would consume eighty million barrels of oil per day. Yet, in 1996, the entire world produced only sixty-four million barrels per day.¡¨ Other nations can¡¦t live the way we do because the world can¡¦t supply enough. ¡§The U.S....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Hydroponics Growing Without Soil

- Hydroponics: Growing Without Soil The science of growing plants without soil has been known and used for more than one-hundred years. The word “hydroponics';, however, is comparatively new. Dr. W.E. Gericke is usually given credit for coining the word, which translated from Greek, means “working water';. The famous hanging gardens of Babylon were probably on of the first attempts to grow plants hydroponically. The work of Dr. Greicke in the 1920’s and 1930’s in California, however, is generally considered the basis for nearly all forms of hydroponics....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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Yartsa Gunbu and the Culture of the Annapurna Region in the Himalayas

- Introduction A caterpillar that changes into a plant, and if consumed provides powers of an aphrodisiac and amazing athletic abilities that provide an athlete the capability of breaking world records. To many Western ears, this sounds like a fantasy, but to many small Himalayan communities, the animal-plant hybrid is real, and has recently made a huge impact on day-to-day life. This pivotal moment in time for many of these small communities provides an opportunity to effectively and radically change and shape the people and preserve the culture of the Annapurna region in the Himalayas....   [tags: Nepal, asia]

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Tuberculosis ( Tb ) A Contagious Disease Caused By The Bacterial Microorganism

- Tuberculosis (TB) a contagious disease caused by the bacterial microorganism “mycobacterium tuberculosis”. There are two contagious forms of tuberculosis, pulmonary TB and extra-pulmonary TB. In people that become infected by pulmonary TB, this particular form affects the lungs of the person infected. Whereas the extra-pulmonary form affects any part of the body; bones, joints or central nervous system. (Emerging infectious disease journal, 2011) If either of the two contagious forms of the disease is left untreated the disease can become fatal....   [tags: Tuberculosis, Infectious disease, Immune system]

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