Your search returned 368 essays for "fermentation":
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What is Fermentation?

- ... You want to fill the conical tube to at least 50 ml of water (Cressy). Take the four conical tubes filled with water and place two in each beaker, to do this you must invert the tube and cover the release hole as to not lose any water (Cressy). Then place the beakers with the tubes in the bath so they can be at the same temperature as the bath (Cressy). Next mark all of your test tubes in number order to be sure which tube contains what concentrations and pH (Cressy). Having mixed a solution to the specifications of 2.5 ml of glucose in all tubes, 3 ml of yeast in 2 tubes of pH 5, 2 tubes of pH 9, and the single pH 7 tube, the remaining two tubes will contain no yeast as they will be neg...   [tags: metabolic process, oxygen molecules]

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The Processes of Photosynthesis and Fermentation

- Introduction: “Fermentation occurs in fruits, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, as well as in mammalian muscle”(Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx) . “Yeasts were discovered to have connection with fermentation as observed by the French chemist, Louis Pasteur” (Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx). “Pasteur originally defined fermentation as respiration without air” (Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx). “However, fermentation does not have to always occur in anaerobic condition” (Biology Online, 2008, p. xx-xx). “Yeasts still prefer to undergo fermentation to process organic compounds and generate ATP even in the presence of oxygen” (Biology Online, 2008, p....   [tags: Biology, Organic Compounds, Bacteria, Fungi]

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Bio fuels of Yeast fermentation

- Introduction Biofuels are an importance source of fuel due to the cause that they are infinite and can be found easily compared to fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are finite, hard to find and are not cost-effective as biofuels are. Another good thing about biofuels is that don’t contribute to global warming as much as fossil fuels do. Biofuels are mainly used for as a source of energy and sustainable transport. The ways that these biofuels are produces is that fact they convert living organism’s derivatives into biomass and use it as a fuel source (European Environment Agency, 2011)....   [tags: Carbon Dioxide, Glucose Solution]

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The History of Fermentation

- The History of Fermentation It is impossible to set a date as to the first time fermentation was performed. It is possible, however, to guess, and this guess is roughly 8,000 years ago. Wine has been written about for centuries, in the Greek and Roman myths and scriptures. The Greek god of wine, Dionysius, was in charge of the fermentation atop Mount Olympus. The people of this time may not have known exactly what they were doing, but it was a somewhat complicated procedure. The crushing of grapes, and the storing of their juices led to an amazing beverage that is still used in current society....   [tags: Fermenting Wine Distillery Alcohol Essays]

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Future Prospects of Food Fermentation in Malaysia

- What is fermentation. In biochemical term, Standbury (1984) defined fermentation as the catabolism process of organic compound which generate energy. This fermentation process has been used in a lot of fields, such as food preservation, biomass, enzyme production, waste management, antibiotics etc. it is true that nowadays, fermentation products cannot be separated with our life, especially fermented food. The development of fermentation industry started before 1900 with the production of fermented beverages and food (Standbury, 1984)....   [tags: investment and business opportunities]

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The Affects of Different Yeast on the Rate of Fermentation

- AIM: To see how different yeast affect and influence the rate of fermentation, how much alcohol is being produced and how this affects the overall quality of wine produced. BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Alcohol, is mostly thought of as ethanol which is the alcohol which is found in alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer. But there are many different varieties of alcohol such as methanol, propanol and butanol. In chemistry terms “alcohol” is a compound of a hydroxyl group which is covalently bonded to a carbon chain which can be seen in figure 1....   [tags: Chemistry ]

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Rate of Fermentation

- Rate of Fermentation Problem set: Plan an investigation to find out what increases the rate of fermentation. Scientific knowledge: Yeast Yeast is a microorganism which grow by feeding on sugars. In food manufacture, yeast is used in fermentation and leavening. The fungi feed on sugars, producing alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is used in beer and wine manufacture. In sparkling wines and beer some of the carbon dioxide is retained in the finished beverage....   [tags: Papers]

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Kimchee and Fermentation

- Kimchee and Fermentation Introduction Each country has its own unique food item that is special and has been providing local community with rich nutrition and various flavors. Such food item in Korea is called Kimchee. It was not well-known to the world until the Olympic Games in 1988. This was the first time when numerous people were exposed to such interesting flavors of Kimchee—spicy, fermented bok choy or Chinese cabbage product. By fermentation, Koreans were able to preserve much nutritional values of the cabbage, improve and develop layers of different flavors, and significantly increases shelf life of the product....   [tags: Korean Food]

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Fermentation of Apple Cider

- Fermentation of Apple Cider “Science knows no country, because knowledge belongs to humanity, and is the torch which illuminates the world. Science is the highest personification of the nation because that nation will remain the first which carries the furthest the works of thought and intelligence.” – Louis Pasteur, Great French Scientist (1822-1892). Fermentation is chemical changes in organic substances produced by the action of enzymes. This general definition includes virtually all chemical reactions of physiological importance, and scientists today often restrict the term to the action of specific enzymes, called ferments, produced by minute organisms such as molds, bacteria, and yea...   [tags: Papers]

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Production of Alcohol by Fermentation

- Production of Alcohol by Fermentation Introduction/ Aim: Yeasts are microbes that produce carbon dioxide and alcohol from sugars. This is called fermentation. In this assignment I am going to try two methods of making alcohol from fruit juice (apple juice). One uses ‘free’ yeast cells; the other uses ‘immobilized’ yeast cells. The process of using microorganisms to make useful products from an energy source is called fermentation. This is carried out in large vessels (open or closed) called fermenters....   [tags: Papers]

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Investigating the Effect of Temperature on the Fermentation of Yeast

- Investigating the Effect of Temperature on the Fermentation of Yeast To fully investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of fermentation of yeast Background Information Yeast is a single-cell fungus, occurring in the soil and on plants, commonly used in the baking and alcohol industries. Every living thing requires energy to survive and through respiration, glucose is converted into energy. There are two types of respiration available to living cells are: 1....   [tags: Papers]

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The Effect of Sugar Level on the Rate of Fermentation

- The Effect of Sugar Level on the Rate of Fermentation Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out whether the rate of Fermentation is affected by the amount of sugar. Apparatus: The equipment used is: · Bunsen burner. · Heat proof mat. · Boiling tube. · Delivery tube. · Water bath. · Water flask. · Thermometer. · Stop watch. · Yeast and Sugar. · Digital weighing scale. · Water. · Measuring cylinder. · Test tube. · Tripod Method: · Fill the water bath with water (not to the maximum)....   [tags: Papers]

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An Examination and Analysis of the Role of Yeast in the Evolution of Societal and Religious Views of Beer and Alcohol in America

- Understanding the process of brewing will help explain the time limitations of brewing and storing beer, and will ultimately help explain how this tug of war came into existence, as the process of brewing itself is largely responsible for the limited availability of beer early in American history. The process begins with malted barley which is heated to, and held at, a temperature between 60o and 71o C. This process is known as mashing and serves to activate the amylase enzymes which convert the complex starches into fermentable and unfermentable sugars....   [tags: brewing processs, anaerobic fermentation]

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Investigating Alcoholic Fermentation and the Affects of Yeast on Dough

- Biology Lab Report Investigating Alcoholic Fermentation and the Affects of Yeast on Dough Aim: The aim was simply to investigate whether or not yeast had any affect on causing dough to rise when baked and to experiment with alcoholic fermentation eg. to see if it gave off carbon dioxide. Introduction: Following a few weeks of fermentation theory, groups of three to four were assigned and told to conduct a series of experiments involving the affects of fermentation. My group consisted of myself, Won Jin, Brendan and Sun-Ho and we chose to investigate alcoholic fermentation and the affects of yeast on dough, more specifically to see if yeast caused the dough to rise in anyway....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Investigation in to the factors that affects the rate of fermentation of Glucose

- Investigation in to the factors that affects the rate of fermentation of Glucose Aim: To investigate the factors that affects the rate of fermentation of Glucose. Background knowledge. ENZYMES Fermentation is a form of an anaerobic respiration where by glucose is partially broken down so only a small amount of energy is released. The yeast cells use the enzymes, ZYMASE to break down sugars unable to obtain. GLUCOSE CARBON DIOXIDE + ETHANOL(+ENERGY) C6 H12 O6 6CO2 + C2H5OH (210KJ) Enzymes have several properties....   [tags: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation]

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The Chemistry of Alcohol

- Alcohol is a class of organic compounds that is characterized by the presence of one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) attached to a carbon atom. Alcohol was unknowingly produced centuries ago when fermentation occurred to crushed grapes (Pines, 1931). In today’s society alcohol is produced for the use of household products such as varnishes, cleaning products, but is more commercially important in the liquor business. A chemical process called fermentation accomplishes the production of ethanol, the alcohol or liquor....   [tags: fermentation process, ethanol, liquor]

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Viticulture: Cultivation of Grapes

- Cultivation of Grapes The process involved in the cultivation, production and science of Grapes is called Viticulture. Grape cultivations one of the oldest cultivation in mankind after grains, that dates back to 7000 years during the Neolithic period. Viticulture originated from the Mediterranean region & spread across Middle East & Asia & gradually to the world. It’s in the records that the 1st grape harvest occurred 5400 B.C in region where present day Georgia & Armenia countries are called....   [tags: wine industry, fermentation, alcohol]

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Substance Abuse and Genetics

- A drug is a chemical substance that acts on the brain and nervous system, and changes individual's mood, emotion or state of consciousness (Health Service Executive 2013). Drugs classified by the effect they produce: • Stimulants, such as cocaine, make people feel full of energy; • Depressants (or sedatives), such as heroin and alcohol, make people feel relaxed; • Hallucinogens, such as LSD, make people see, feel or hear things that are not real (Health Service Executive 2013). Legal drugs. Under Irish law, most drugs are illegal....   [tags: drugs, alcohol, ethanol, fermentation]

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Different Types of Fermentations

- ... Belonging to a group of fungi, yeast is a microscopic one-celled organism. Yeasts are found in the soil, water, on the surface of plants, and on the skin of humans. Like other fungi, yeasts obtain food from the organic matter around them; they secrete enzymes that break down the organic matter into nutrients they can absorb. Yeasts obtain food from fructose, glucose, and other monosaccharaides (simple sugars), which are found in most fruits. Yeast enzymes chemically break down the sugars into products that the cell can use....   [tags: wine, grapes, grape juice, yeast]

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An Experiment to Investigate How Amount of Sugar or Temperature Affects the Rate at Which the Product of Fermentation (carbon dioxide) is Released

- An Experiment to Investigate How Amount of Sugar or Temperature Affects the Rate at Which the Product of Fermentation (carbon dioxide) is Released Yeast is a single celled fungus. When it is carried in the wind it sometimes lands on fruit, where it feeds on the sugar. They turn this sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide. No oxygen Sugar + Yeast à Carbon Dioxide + Ethanol This reaction is known as fermentation. I am going to see the effects of temperature over how much carbon dioxide is released....   [tags: Papers]

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Fermentatiom By Yeast

- Fermentation of glycine, water, sucrose, galactose, and glucose as induced by yeast. ABSTRACT This lab attempted to find the rate at which Carbon dioxide is produced when five different test solutions: glycine, sucrose, galactose, water, and glucose were separately mixed with a yeast solution to produce fermentation, a process cells undergo. Fermentation is a major way by which a living cell can obtain energy. By measuring the carbon dioxide released by the test solutions, it could be determined which food source allows a living cell to obtain energy....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Authentic Champagne of Northern France

- Typically, when one thinks of Champagne they associate it with sparkling wine. However, authentic Champagne may only be yielded in the small region of Champagne in northern France, dating back to the 1700s. Bringing forth the world’s most famous wine, is the Champagne AOC, a region in Northern France. Alongside the 48th parallel, near the world’s northerly limit for viticulture, is the Champagne AOC. The Champagne only contains one AOC, while Burgundy includes over 110 AOCs. Burgundy has its AOCs spread over 8,450 hectares, equated to Champagne, who sits on 31,000 hectares with just its one AOC....   [tags: grapes, wine, fermentation]

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Energy Crisis and Environmental Pollution

- ... Among all investigated electron acceptors, oxygen (O2) is one of the most preferred electron acceptors because of its high oxidation potential, sustainability, availability, and low environmental impact i.e., lack of waste product (17). The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an MFC’s cathode occurs usually in an electrolyte with a neutral pH (~ 7.0), which is one of the requirement of bacterial growth in any biological system i.e., an MFC’s anode. Platinum (Pt) is one of the most employed cathodic catalysts in MFC research due to its catalytic activity for oxygen reduction....   [tags: technology, microbial fuel, wate, fermentation]

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Effectiveness of Garbage Enzyme as Detergent and Fertilizer

- Garbage enzymes were produced based on the formulation of three parts of fruit peels, one part of brown sugar and ten parts of water were mixed together (The Star, 2009) and fermented in 5L plastic bottle at room temperature for three months. CHARACTERISTICS OF GARBAGE ENZYME. The progression of fermentation of the fruit discards showed a reduction of pH with times, 3.15 for GE while 3.78 for CGE. Odunfa, (1985) attributed the significant reduction of pH to acid production during fermentation. In our study, the fall of pH could be attributed to the organic acids produced during fermentation by microorganisms....   [tags: organic and sustainable agriculture]

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The Effect of Sugar Substitutes on Yeast Respiration

- Introduction The purpose of this investigation is to test the effects of multiple sugar substances on the respiration of yeast. Most people think of yeast when they think of what makes bread rise, cheese, alcoholic beverages, or other food products. Another type of yeast can also cause yeast infections, an infection of the skin. Yeasts (Saccharomyces) are tiny, microscopic organisms with a thin membrane and are usually oval or circular-shaped. They are a type of single-celled fungi of the class Ascomycetes, capable of processing sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) ; this process is known as fermentation....   [tags: microscopic organisms, health issues]

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Australian Wine

- Wine it is a fundamental component of many Australian’s day to day life, being closely related with both business and pleasure. Whether it be a quiet drink on a Friday night to a career in wine manufacturing, wine affects the lives of many daily. Not only does wine affect the individuals of Australia, it forms a lucrative industry, employing 28000 people in both winemaking and grape growing (2006 Census of Australia), with Australia being ranked consistently as one of the top ten wine producers in the world....   [tags: Wine Production]

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Benefits of Microbes in Industrial Production

- INTRODUCTION The tiny organisms can not be seen by naked eye, or require the use of microscopes for their visualization are called microbes. These are studied under the branch of biology known as microbiology. Microbiology mainly involves the study of virus, fungi, parasites and bacteria. It also includes the study of immune system. Microbes are present in all parts of biosphere i.e soil, hotsprings, ocean floor, atmosphere and deep inside Earth’s crust. They are the first form of life on Earth....   [tags: e-coli, microbiology, probiotics]

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Future Prospect of Malaysian Fermented Food Indusrty

- INTRODUCTION Fermentation refers to reaction of yeast on extracts of fruit or malted grains (Stanbury, Whitaker & Hall, 1995). It is often associated with brewing as alcohol and vinegar are the two first products of fermentation. Although there are many products resulted from fermentation, fermented foods are the most commonly known to consumers. Probiotics which were introduced in the food are good for our health such as reduced risk of getting cancer, improve our intestinal condition and boost our immune system (Parvez et al., 2006)....   [tags: lactic acid bacteria, potential development ]

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Current and Future Status of the Cocoa Bean

- Current and Future Status (description, current usage, forecast of future requirements, suppliers, price, terms, annual expenditures, mode of transportation, current contracts) DESCRIPTION The cacao bean (cocoa bean) is a commodity that comes from the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao – the food of the gods), an evergreen tree that begins to bear when it is 4-5 years old. The tree can grow up to approximately 50 feet in the wild although cocoa trees on plantations are kept between 15-25 feet tall because they are typically grown under a canopy of taller trees, which makes harvesting easier in addition to protecting them from strong winds....   [tags: usage, requirements, price, terms, varities]

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The Process of Beer Production

- The Process of Beer Production Beer is produced mainly through a process known as fermentation. Fermentation is a result of anaerobic respiration of the yeast in the "wort" – the mash of barley and wheat that the beer is brewed from. How does this work, and what is anaerobic respiration. Some organisms can survive while they get their energy without oxygen gas being directly involved in their "breathing". Respiration is a complex chain of chemical reactions that releases energy from energy-rich molecules, such as sugars....   [tags: Papers]

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Whiskey from Sratch Malting

- Whiskey from scratch Malting Malting is fundamentally controlled germination and is stopped before the grain shoots start to grow. This stage is broken up into three sub-stages; steeping, germination and kilning. Steeping is where the grain is soaked with water because the grain embryo will only grow immersed in water. The water used in steeping must be alkaline to help prevent bacteria souring of the water. Steeping is usually done for 48 hours at 14 °C and the moisture content is increased from 12 % to 45 % (Boulton, 2013)....   [tags: alpha and beta amylase, yeast]

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A Comparison of the Laboratory and Industrial Processes

- A Comparison of the Laboratory and Industrial Processes When going through the process of fermentation in a laboratory they use certain methods to achieve their goals and some of the methods that they use are completely different from the ones that are used in the industry of fermentation. A fermenter is a container that maintains optimum conditions needed to grow a particular organism I will be using different criteria’s to compare the laboratory and industrial process of fermentation in this assignment; some of them are listed below: * Equipment Used * The Quantity of the Product * Method Used * Quality of the Product Before I get righ...   [tags: Papers]

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Isolation and Identification of Thermophilic Fungi

- We isolated thirty thermophilic fungi with ability to grow at 45 °C on medium containing wheat bran and casein as carbon sources and produced proteases in both SSF and SmF (data not shown). The fungus strain F.2.1.4 presented the highest protease activity and was sub-jected to taxonomic characterization. Analyses of macro and micro-morphological characteristics accommodated the isolate F.2.1.4 in the genus Myceliophthora due to the presence of spreading colonies with dense aerial mycelium and blastic conidia often borne in ampulliform swellings (Van Oorschot, 1980)....   [tags: science experiments,]

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The Brewing Process of Beer

- The Brewing Process of Beer The first and most important step in brewing is cleanliness. "Brewing is ninety percent janitorial," said Frederick Bowman, founder of Portland Brewing. (Bowman) The first step in the actual brewing process is malting. Malting is what is done to the barley to prepare it for brewing. The steps of the malting process release the starches that are contained in the barley, while minimizing haze and off-flavors. Grain is allowed to soak in 60° F. water to increase the moisture content of the grain to about 40-45%....   [tags: Brewery Alcohol Beer Essays]

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Beer Brewing Process

- Beer is processed by steeping, boiling, and fermenting malt and hops to make or prepare by mixing, steeping, soaking, or boiling a solid in water. This process has been used by prehistoric nomads even before they learned how to make bread (Raley). In prehistoric times, beer was so valued that it was sometimes used as a form of compensation for workers (Raley). The 1850’s brought the modern era of brewing in the United States with Anheuser-Busch, Miller, Coors, Schlitz, and Pabst brewing companies (Raley)....   [tags: steeping, boiling, fermenting malt & hops]

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Origin and Story of Soy Sauce

- ... By December 1750 it had reached the North America, arriving first in New York Harbor bearing the name “India Soy.” (Shurtleff & Aoyagi,2012) Now, I will explain the process of making soy sauce. Now we all know that soy sauce comes from soy beans, but how is it turned into the dark syrupy liquid. These use a process called fermentation, which a way of cooking a food using bacteria. There are two distinct ways to making soy sauce, there is the traditional brewing fermentation and refining process, and then there is a chemical non brewing process called chemical-hydrolyzation....   [tags: Chinese, Cuisine]

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The Relationship Between Food Concentration, And Respiratory Activity

- The Relationship Between Food Concentration, and Respiratory Activity In this experiment different concentrations of sucrose were tested to determine which leads to the most respiratory activity in yeast. Yeast is a heterotrophic anaerobic fungus which lacks chlorophyll. Yeast is used commercially to ferment the sugars of wheat, barley, and corn to produce alcohol, and in the baking industry to raise or expand dough. Yeast or alcoholic fermentation is the anaerobic process of respiration by which sugars, such as glucose and sucrose, are converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide (CO2 )....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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batch process of wine making

- Introduction The homemade production of wine is a fun and challenging hobby that many people can enjoy. In this paper the reader will be taken through several different steps and processes that must be accomplished for your wine to be of satisfactory flavor and clarity. Crushing and stemming This first step may be performed by hand or by machine. For handling a ton or more of grapes, use a mechanical crusher-stemmer. Using a small crusher-stemmer, two persons can crush and stem a ton of grapes in about one hour....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Acid-Base Chemistry Lab

- The purpose of this lab was to determine the pH and total acidity of grape juice and wine. A second purpose was to experimentally determine the pKa of a monoprotic weak acid, polyprotic weak acid, as well as, a free amino acid, alanine. Acids and bases were defined by Bronsted-Lowry in 1923, in which acids were described as substances capable of donating a proton and bases are substances capable of accepting a proton (Thompson and Dinh 2009). In addition to defining acids and bases, Bronsted-Lowry further classified acids and bases as being either strong or weak....   [tags: Scientific Research ]

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Global Economic Crisis

- Global economic crisis due to the depletion of fossil fuels had turned backed the world towards alternate source of energy for industrial development. Non-renewable and clean energy had gained importance for a sustainable growth. Hydrogen is one between the lightest, easily combustible gas that can be used as eco-friendly source of energy. Hydrogen burns out to produce water as a by-product. Hydrogen has been produced by various methods which include chemical reaction, electrolysis, light fermentation and dark fermentation....   [tags: Environment, Fossil Fuels]

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Photosynthesis: The Emergence and Early Evolution of Biological Carbon-Fixation.

- Introduction As the world’s population increases, availing adequate food for the population will be a challenge due to need to improve crop cultivation, production of fertilizer, and agricultural yields (Berg et al, 2010). However, carbon fixation is an essential limitation that affects crop yields because plants rely on converting carbon (IV) oxide into biologically functional molecules (Berg et al, 2010). Through various carbon fixation pathways, green plants, algae, and certain bacteria are able to convert inorganic carbon into organic compounds useful to all living organisms on earth (Aresta and Wiley, 2010)....   [tags: green plants, bacteria]

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Alcohol and its effect on Society.

- Alcohol consumption, production and sale has been an integral part of many societies over the course of human existence. The exact origin of alcohol is as of yet unknown, however it is generally regarded that early farmers noticed the rich aroma and flavour of fermenting fruit (Narconon alcohol rehab, 2010) and as such recreated the substance in consumable amounts. The first ever known record of organised alcohol manufacture dates to approximately ten thousand years, where the drink was produced from fermented honey, also known as mead....   [tags: Alcohol Consumption, Society, Culture, History]

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How the Human Body Obtains Cholesterol

- According to the scientific report from Gunness and Gidley (2010), the human body obtains cholesterol from two sources. The major source is liver. Liver synthesizes about 700-900 mg cholesterol per day. Another source is diet, which account for up to 300-500 mg/d. The major route cholesterol eliminates from human body is to convert to bile salts (BS) and excrete from the gastrointestinal tract (Gunness & Gidley, 2010). Bile salts (BS) are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver. Hydroxyl (OH) groups are inserted at several points of cholesterol, and then the second ring of cholesterol loses its double-bond....   [tags: liver, diet, metabolism]

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Louis Pasteur: A National Hero

- Louis Pasteur, one of the greatest benefactors of humanity was the first person to see that bacteria cause diseases. He was a scientist who associated an animal disease with a microorganism. Pasteur solved the mysteries of rabies, anthrax, chicken cholera, and silkworm diseases. He is also contributed to the development of the first vaccine. He described the basis of fermentation, wine-making using pasteurization and brewing of beer. Pasteur’s work gave way to many branches of science, making him responsible for some of the most theoretical concepts and practical applications of modern day science....   [tags: Biography ]

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Alcohol Is a Legal Drug

- ... There are four main types of alcohol: 1. Methyl; 2. Ethyl; 3. Propyl; 4. Butyl. The most important type that used in production of alcoholic beverages is ethyl (ethanol). Its chemical formula is C2H5OH. The other three types of alcohol are toxic and its consumption, even in small doses could potentially lead to blindness and death. Yeasts acquire food from fructose, glucose, and other monosaccharaides or simple sugars, which are found in fruits ( HowStuffWorks, 2014). Furthermore the process of breaking down of sugars called- fermentation....   [tags: sedative, chemical substance, depressant]

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Anthropogenic Sources of Atmospheric Methane

- Anthropogenic Sources of Atmospheric Methane Introduction The atmosphere has always contained the Greenhouse Gas methane. Along with carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and water vapor, methane helps to create the natural greenhouse effect. These gases trap some of the sun's energy and keep the Earth at a warm enough temperature to sustain life. If the occurrence of any of these gases in the atmosphere is increased, the natural greenhouse effect will intensify and further warm the Earth. Due to man's activities, the amount of atmospheric methane has more than doubled since pre-industrial times....   [tags: Geology]

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Processing of Black Tea

- INTRODUCTION Tea is a beverage made from the leaves of the shrub Camellia sinensis, consumed all around the world. It is prepared by mixing the leaves in the hot or boiling water. The origin of tea is believed to happen in Southern and Eastern parts of China, Assam region of India, Myanmar and Tibet. But, the country that extensively started the cultivation of tea was China for thousands of years(Chakraverty, 2003; Mohammad, 2011). There are two varieties of tea, Camellia sinensis sinensis from China and the second variety, Camellia sinensis assamica coming from Assam of India (Harler, 1964)....   [tags: Black Tea Production]

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Preparation of Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid

- Preparation of Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid AIM: To obtain pure samples of Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and Ethanoic Acid (CH3COOH) from fermented Yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae). BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The use of yeast in food production is the oldest and most extensive contribution made by any group of microorganisms. A most common substrate that yeast can work with is GLUCOSE. Glucose is a monosaccharide, which are sweet crystalline sugars that dissolve easily in water to form sweet solutions....   [tags: Papers]

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Thermophilic Fungi

- Thermophilic fungi are known to produce thermostable enzymes which have a number of applications, mainly in biotechnological processes. In this work, we report the characterization of a protease produced in state-solid (SSF) and submerged (SmF) fermentations by a newly isolated thermophilic fungus identified as a putative new species in the genus My-celiophthora. Enzyme-production rate was evaluated for both fermentation processes, and in SSF, using a media composed by a mixture of wheat bran and casein, the proteolytic output was 4.5-fold larger than that obtained in SmF....   [tags: biology, science, experiments,]

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Applying the Methyl Red (MR) Test

- ... The final test performed was the Gelatin test. The Gelatin medium is composed of gelatin, peptone, and beef extract (Stout et al, 44). To perform the Gelatin test, I used the stabbing technique to inoculate the Gelatin media. I sterilized the stabbing utensil under an open flame, obtained a small amount of unknown bacteria, and stabbed the Gelatin media. Once the Gelatin media was inoculated, I let it incubate for 8 days in the 37°C hot room. After the 8 day incubation, I put the Gelatin media into the 4°C “cold room” for one hour....   [tags: gelatin test, incubation]

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Biography on Louis Pasteur

- Louis Pasteur Louis Pasteur was born December 271822 in Dole, France. When he was five, his family moved to Arbois, France. He attended college in Paris and received a Doctor of Science degree in 1847. He began teaching chemistry at the University of Strasbourg, where he met his wife, Marie Laurent, who shared Pasteur’s interest in science. Marie and Pasteur married in 1849 and had five children, two of which survived to adulthood. Pasteur eventually went on to instruct chemistry and became dean of the school of science at the University of Lille....   [tags: science, germs, disease]

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Home Sweet Homebrew

- Believed discovered purely by accident, beer has played a huge role in the history of human civilization. In early civilizations, beer was used as a safe source of water and other nutrients and in later years consumed for reasons that are more social. Although the reasons for homebrewing beer have changed, the process has remained primarily the same. The oldest documentary evidence of beer brewing comes from Uruk in Mesopotamia and dates to about 3500 B.C.E.; found on clay tablets that tell the story of Gilgamesh in Sumerian, written in cuneiform (see fig....   [tags: Food & Drink]

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Analyzing Citric Acid

- The most widely used method for synthesizing citric acid was discovered by an American chemist named James Currie in 1917 in order to contend with the lack of citrus imports caused by the First World War. This method requires the fungus culture “Aspergillus niger”. This mould is fairly common in nature but special strains are used by the major citric acid producing companies to increase the fungus’s production of citric acid. This method involves substances that contain glucose such as simple sugar or molasses being fed to the fungus....   [tags: Chemistry]

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Identifying an Unknown Microbial Organism

- Identifying an Unknown Microbial Organism Introduction The purpose of identifying an unknown microbial agent is so that the five “I’s” of Microbiology, which are, Inoculation, Incubation, Isolation, Inspection and Identification can be practiced. Providing an unknown microbial agent tests the ability of ones skill of the above techniques and to accurately obtain the correct results and compare these results to biochemical test results that are already established. (Forrest & Elliott, 2012, p.111) Test used include the Gram Stain, the Streak Plate and Biochemical test such as the MR-VP, SIM, Phenylalanine Deaminase, Simmon’s Citrate along with the Carbohydrate Fermentation and Urease t...   [tags: microbiology, laboratory analysis]

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Alcohol: A Double Edge Sword

- ... Potions can be concocted by combining distilled beverages with mixers such as vodka and tonic, etc… Alcohol is used mainly for recreational purposes but is also used for rituals, such as in religious ceremonies (Maisto et al., 2011). Most people use this drug for social occasions. Bars, parties, weddings, and even illicit use by underage drinkers at home and at parties, are common events where this drug is consumed. Furthermore, religious rites commonly use these beverages in the practice of faith (Katsigris &Thomas, 2007)....   [tags: oldest known drug]

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Monitoring the Growth of Yeast

- Monitoring the Growth of Yeast Introduction Yeast is a microscopic fungus, of which there are hundreds of species. It is extremely important brewing ingredient because different strains give different beer types their distinctive and characteristic flavors. When a brewery has found an ideal yeast, it will be retained for many years. However, fresh batches are produced regularly from samples kept under special laboratory conditions to prevent the built up of microbiological contamination....   [tags: Papers]

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Alternative Sources of Fuel

- This is a petroleum dependent society. Everything from the vehicles that are driven to the electricity that is used, require petroleum to operate. However, this is becoming a major problem due to the decreasing amount of fossil fuel available to the world. The solution to this problem is alternative sources of fuel. Alternative sources of fuel can be obtained from a variety of energy sources, including those derived from biomass, various liquid fuels, and even energy from the sun (The New Book)....   [tags: petroleum, electricity, ethanol]

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Acid/Base Chemistry

- Yeast produce beverages that Americans twenty-one or older enjoy, they make drinks like beer, wine, and etc. One of the most widely seen genus and species is Saccharomycescerevisiae (winemakermag.com). There are many different strands of this organism. But this particular yest genus is so useful that one company seems that they only work with it, Vinters Harvest provides these organisms to home brewers and theirmain yeast is this one. Yeast ferment sugars in order to produce energy and alcohol an unintended byproduct....   [tags: Scientific Research ]

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Louis Pasteur

- Many individuals have made astounding contributions to society in the past 200 years; however, some of these contributions were so powerful, they effectively changed the future of our world. Louis Pasteur, born December 27th, 1822, in the town of Dole, Eastern France, is one of the most noteworthy individuals to live during the last 200 years. Responsible for a myriad of accomplishments ranging from the debunking of the infamous “spontaneous generation” theory to the method named after him today, pasteurization, Mr....   [tags: Science]

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Microbiology: Microorganisms That Co-exist With Life on Earth

- A diverse collection of microorganisms co-exist with life on Earth; most of them as inhabitants among plants or oceans, many as normal flora in humans, and some in remote locations in the most extreme habitats. Despite being ubiquitous in nature and typically harmless, bacteria get particular attention for causing disease in humans. Correct identification of a microorganism allows for proper investigation of a particular species, and prevention or treatment of a disease if necessary. During lab, students were instructed to choose a test tube inoculated with an unknown organism and then prompted to initiate a series of appropriate lab tests to correctly identify the organism....   [tags: bacteria, plants, oceans, species]

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Bioenergy is Renewable Energy Derived from Biological Sources

- What is bioenergy. Bioenergy is renewable energy created accessible from materials derived from biological sources. Biomass is any organic material that has hold on daylight within the form of chemical energy. As a fuel it could contains straw, wood, sugarcane, wood waste, manure, and plenty of alternative byproducts from a range of agricultural processes. In its narrow meaning, it's an equivalent word to biofuel that is fuel derived from biological sources. The broader sense of bioenergy consist of biomass, the biological material used as a biofuel, as well as scientific, economic, social, and technical fields related to using biological sources for energy....   [tags: technology, environmental impact, agricultural]

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Genetically Modified Organisms, Not Genetically Modified People

- Genetic engineering is the process of transferring a gene from one living organism to another living organism. The objective is to add one or more desirable traits that the organism doesn’t originally have. An example is to transfer insect resistance traits occurring naturally in one plant to another that doesn’t have this trait. (reference 1) Example of how genetic engineering is carried out. Genetic engineering works by physically removing a gene from one organism with the desirable trait and inserting it into an other organism....   [tags: GMOs]

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Colic: The Leading Cause of Equine Death

- Many horses suffer from colic every year, aging from a few months to over 20 years old. It can be curable when treated in a sufficient time. However if too much time is passed, the most likely outcome is death. Colic is defined as an abdominal pain, more specific, pain induced by seizures of the colon. In the horse, colic is associated with intestinal ileus or inflammation (White and Edwards, 1999). When a horse is going through colic, and needs to go into surgery, equine laparoscopy is one of the more common methods used....   [tags: horse health]

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Science Fiction Becomes Reality in Today's World

- The world now is a part of reality where technology, once seen as mere science fiction, becomes increasingly close to our daily lives. From cars that move on their own to holograms only seen in movies, humanity is heading towards the so dreamed “future”. Within this new reality arising, solutions and alternatives to environmental stress caused in the world throughout human evolution are found in biotechnology; among these are various biomaterials and biotechnological processes that reduce environmental damage....   [tags: fossil fuels, energy, emissions]

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Ethanol as a Motor Vehicle Fuel

- Ethanol as a Motor Vehicle Fuel Human society has been utilizing the limited inventory of fossil fuel for approximately 100 years. Due to its limited stock and availability a continuous search for alternative sources of fuel has proposed several alternatives to consider. Some of the alternative method includes rechargeable battery, fuel cell, alcohol based fuel, etc. There are two major types of alcohol that has been used as fuel. These are Methanol and Ethanol. Five to ten percent of methanol has been blended previously with the gasoline in the United States....   [tags: fossil fuel, south america, brazil]

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Colic in Equine: Causes and Prevention

- In Equine, surprisingly Colic is severely life threatening, we as humans have colic as well but it is not nearly as life threatening as it is in horses. Horses diets have vastly changed as everything evolves, this being a horses intestines haven’t completely evolved to satisfy these changes being so horses are now at risk of colic since horses can’t vomit to get rid of toxins or indigestible food. As babies we can colic but it’s a fancy way of having abdominal pain, but in horses it can be anywhere from a simple upset stomach or a twisted gut, which can stop the blood supply and will kill the horse....   [tags: caring for horses]

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The Complications of Colic in Horses

- Colic is one of the most feared conditions horse owners encounter. However, the term “colic” refers only to abdominal pain without identifying the cause of the disease. Though, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is often the cause of abdominal pain, other abnormalities may also cause a horse to exhibit signs of colic. Some gastrointestinal causes of colic include intestinal displacement of a portion of the GI tract, blockage with feed material or a foreign body and inflammation [17]. The most common factors that may cause the pain associated with colic are spasms caused by contractions of the intestine wall, and distention from a buildup of fluid or ingesta that causes expansion of the intesti...   [tags: abdominal pain, gi tract, horses]

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Placental Ruminants and Herbivorous Marsupials of Australia

- Placental Ruminants and Herbivorous Marsupials of Australia The marsupial animal species that have evolved on the isolated continent of Australia are unique compared to the rest of the animal kingdom in many ways due to the harsh and distinctive environment found on the continent. The major area of marsupial biology that distinguishes them from all other eutherian mammals is their mode of reproduction. However, it can be said that there are many other areas in which unique differences can be seen between marsupials and eutherian mammals; one such area of adaptation is in the anatomy and physiology of digestion, which distinguishes them from many other similar animals worldwide....   [tags: Marsupials Australia Digestive Systems Essays]

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Promise of Ethanol and Biodiesel

- Biofuels, fuels that provide energy using relatively recent organic sources, have been around just as long as cars have. In fact, the first cars ran on peanut oil. Henry Ford, founder of a multimillion dollar American car company, planned to fuel his massively successful Model T’s with ethanol (National Geographic 2013.) However, this revolutionary idea was swept under the rug when the discovery of massive petroleum deposits kept gasoline and diesel cheap and affordable. As 2014 rolls around, consumers are starting see that the amount of petroleum in the Earth is shrinking and the same story goes for their wallets (Avro 2012.) Not only does burning gas and diesel empty out the wallet, it is...   [tags: renewable, sustainable fuel sources]

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Inventory Control System at Miller-Coors

- Inventory control is a big problem for many corporations and Miller-Coors is not the exception. The need to track four different activities is often over whelming. Miiler-Coors tracks their inventory by characteristic, inventory activities, recall products and traceability. Due to the many different brands of beer produced and each brand uniquely brewed inventorying by charactereristic is the chosen inventory style for Miller-Coors. To help with the forecasting activities are inventoried also. Beer is not produced on an assembly line and takes time for beer to go through the many stages required for a finished product....   [tags: activities, charactereristic, beer, system]

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The Process of Cheese Making

- Cheese making is a confounded procedure which shifts broadly with the diverse sorts of cheeses available. The essential standard behind all natural cheese handling is the coagulation & curdling of milk with the goal that it structures into curds and whey. Rather than the coincidental souring of unrefrigerated overlooked milk, today's system support the coagulating process by the expansion of a starter culture, which is a living state of tiny organisms, commonly bacterial, that processes lactic acid....   [tags: milk, proteins, coagulation]

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The Long History of Tea

- ... Chronic diseases includes cardiovascular disease(CVD), metabolic syndrome, cancer, and neurodegenerative disease and also arthritis(Haggi & Balentina, 1999). Polyphenols are well studied in terms of antioxidant in tea, it is abundant in the form of catechins. Which also exist as epigallocatechin(EGC), epigallocathechin-3-gallate(EGCG), and epicatechin-3-gallate(ECG). (Graham, 1992). EGCG found most compared to others, and it is de-oxidizing molecule which makes it effective in inhibiting DNA damage and tumour growth with antioxidant function(Anderson, Fisher, Hara, Harris, & Mak, 2001)....   [tags: most consumed beverage, green, black tea]

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Temperature and its Effect in Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions

- ... The first catalase ever to be noted as a substance was discovered in 1818 by Louis Jacques Thénard. He is the man who discovered hydrogen peroxide. He suggested that its breakdown was caused by a substance. In 1900, Oscar Loew was the first person to give it the name ‘catalase’, and also noticed that its presence was found in many plants and animals. Also, in 1937 the catalase enzyme from beef liver was crystallized by James B. Sumner and its molecular weight was worked out in 1938. (www.Chemistry explained.com; Chemistry Encyclopedia) Usually enzymes have three dimensional structure and always end with the letters 'ase'....   [tags: Cells, Chemistry]

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Brazil’s Bioethanol Initiative

- Brazil’s Bioethanol Initiative The OPEC oil embargo caused many ripple effects throughout the world, but few places set in motion a response as dramatic as the county of Brazil. Brazil, a sprawling oil-poor country in South America was hit especially hard by the drop in ready world oil supplies. The county was gearing up for the transition from an agricultural and subsistence economy, to an industrialized one in the early seventies. This was accompanied by an increase in oil imports to the nation from overseas....   [tags: Essays Papers]

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Classification of Beer

- Classification of Beer What's more refreshing on a hot summer day than a nice cold beer. Or how about drinking a nice cold one with some buddies after work at a local bar, sound nice doesn?t it. Beer has been around for many years and will probably be around for many more. A beer is any variety of alcoholic beverages produced by the fermentation of starchy material derived from grains or other plant sources. The production of beer and some other alcoholic beverages is often called brewing. Most every culture has there own tradition and the own take on beer, thus producing many different styles and variations....   [tags: Classification Essays Beer Alcohol Essays]

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Classifications of Beer

- Classifications of Beer What's more refreshing on a hot summer day than an ice cold beer. How about drinking a cold one with some friends at a local bar after a hard day's work, sounds satisfying doesn't it. Beer has been around for hundreds years and will be around for hundreds more. A beer is any variety of alcoholic beverages produced by the fermentation of starchy material derived from grains or other plant sources....   [tags: Classification Essay]

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Lab Test: Unknown Bacterium

- INTRODUCTION The purpose of this investigation was to identify an unknown bacterium. “At any time there are millions of bacteria living around, on, or inside us” (The Plague). Bacterium can’t be identified by merely looking at it. Many bacteria have the similar appearances in growth. “In most cases, detection is based on the reaction of an enzyme with a certain substrate” (Sigma-Aldrich). Identification is usually based on the results of the bacterium’s cells metabolic capacities. Some bacteria are harmless and are part of our normal flora....   [tags: Biochemical Testing, Illness]

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History of the Soybean

- History of the Soybean Before cultivation, wild soybeans grew abundantly in northeast China and Manchuria. As early as 2700 B.C. they were classified as one of the five principal and sacred crops, having both medicinal and food value. They have been cultivated for at least 4,500 years. However, they were not very popular. (They were said to cause flatulence!) During times of bad harvests in China, soybeans were one of the nine staples on which starving millions in the country depended. In the famine of A.D....   [tags: Essays Papers]

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Converting Switchgrass to Biofuel

- Introduction: People need energy, it’s a fact. We need it for our cars, for our televisions and for our iPods. We need it all the time, every day. The simple fact is though, we are running out. Carbon based fuels are being used at an alarming rate every day. And every day our demand increases as our society becomes more and more reliant on technology. There is only so much oil in the world though and when that is gone we need to look for alternative sources of energy. Sources like ethanol produced from Switchgrass....   [tags: Biology Ethanol Alternative Fuel]

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Yeast

- Yeast Yeast are a tiny form of fungi or plant-like microorganism (visible only under a microscope) that exist in or on all living matter i.e. water, soil, plants, air, etc. A common example of a yeast is the bloom we can observe on grapes. As a living organism yeast needs sugars, water and warmth to stay alive. In addition, albumen or nitrogenous material are also necessary for yeast to thrive....   [tags: Free Essays]

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