Your search returned over 400 essays for "epistemological"
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Interaction of Epistemological Beliefs and Motivation

- Interaction of Epistemological Beliefs and Motivation Introduction There are reasons to think that a student’s motivation to learn will influence his or her epistemological beliefs and these beliefs will also affect said motivation. Before proceeding to look at these possible interactions we should look at contemporary theories of motivation and theories about students' beliefs about knowledge and knowing. Unfortunately there is still no broad consensus about either topic so we shall look at the prominent theories of today....   [tags: Psychology]

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Wylie's Perspective on Epistemological Privilege

- Evaluating the accuracy of potential knowledge is essential in developing an understanding of the world. According to the theory of situated knowledge, however, this process isn't as simple as observing from a neutral, unattached perspective. Rather, the theory suggests that your situation and past experiences heavily influence what knowledge you hold, why you hold it, and your likelihood of accepting differing information. If perspective indeed influences what knowledge you hold, it follows that there is the potential for some people to have more accurate perspectives than others....   [tags: Philosophy]

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Epistemological Development

- Everything in education is impacted by the perspective of a biblical worldview because educating a child is teaching them to know and find truth. According to Knight, “Much truth exists outside of the Bible, but no truth exists outside the metaphysical framework of the Bible.” (2006, p. 226). The concepts of the Bible are used to give a unifying foundation for all subjects taught. The Bible also becomes the integration point. All content knowledge is contextually interpreted with the Bible because God is the source of all truth and the one who unifies all truth in Himself....   [tags: Religion, Bible, Truth]

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Global Epistemological Skepticism

- ... In other words, circular reasoning is expelled from being proper justification, and foundational reasons are not sufficient due to the absence of a further reason. If both conditions are true, then the chain of reasons for any belief is potentially infinite or unlimited. The problem with infinitism is that an infinite number of beliefs, whether potential or not, do not exist. Humans have finite minds and finite lives, and eventually after being questioned numerous times there will be no more reasons that could be possibly formed to justify a belief....   [tags: the regress problem]

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First Generation Of Human Rights : An Epistemological And Ontological Review

- First Generation of Human Rights: An Epistemological and Ontological review The aim of this paper is to provide a brief analysis of the First Generation of human rights. Without the purpose of being redundant, an Epistemological, Phenomenological and Ontological overview on how these rights were constructed is necessary, in order to holistically understand all the possible implications that they had, are having and will have when being implemented. Despite the central argument of “relativity” vis-à-vis “universality” would be mentioned, the core premises of the discussion will try to use analytical approaches rather than mere descriptive ones....   [tags: Human rights]

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John Stuart Mills : An Epistemological Problem Of Science Or Morality

- Mills begins by letting his reader know that we have not learned anything from the Philosopher of the past. H does not believe that from Socrates to 1801 we made no progress in finding the greatest happiness. Mills beliefs are, we are the ones making our selves, that there is no apposing force like a god. We do this on the bases of a goal, which is different form Kant’s ultimate Goal. Al though he does believe that the only end to life is happiness, but this is a different from what Aristotle thought as the greatest happiness....   [tags: Ethics, John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism]

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The Philosophy of Language

- Over the course of the semester we have discussed several interesting philosophers and their theories on the philosophical issues such as, epistemological concerns, the meaning of life, and morality. One approach to the epistemological debate is the context of our language and the meaning of the words we use to claim one’s beliefs as true knowledge. In epistemology and the philosophy of language context seems to play a huge part in our understanding, meaning, and knowledge. Whether it be science, math, or religion, our language and its context is key to our understanding....   [tags: epistemological debate]

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Epistemological Turn in European Scientific Rationality

- Epistemological Turn in European Scientific Rationality ABSTRACT: If the 17th century could be considered the century of the reformation of science, the present century is one of counterreformation in every sense of the word. The ideology of this century can be seen in the titanic efforts to complete the development of science which foundation was laid in the 17th and 18th centuries, in the outright failures, and in attempts at reconstructing the foundation (e.g., Hilbert's formalization program, Gödel's incompleteness theorem, Charlier's theory of a hierarchic universe, Fridman's evolutionary cosmology, Newton's mechanics, relativistic and/or quantum mechanics in physics, the logical turn...   [tags: Science Essays]

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Questions On Epistemological Beliefs And Knowledge And Understanding And There Are Two Ways Of Knowing

- Epistemological beliefs refer to knowledge and understanding and there are two ways of knowing, which are called separate knowing and connected knowing. Separate knowing is a critical thinking approach, whereas connected knowing is an approach where an individual attempts to understand ways in which other people think and use this technique to understand their point of view. This study will look at the effects of students’ personal epistemological beliefs, - along with separate knowing and connected knowing - and their approach to thinking and learning and whether or not the students’ attitudes can influence academic performance or not....   [tags: Epistemology, Knowledge, Learning]

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Perry 's Epistemological Scheme Is Developed By William G. Perry

- Perry 's epistemological scheme was developed by William G. Perry, Jr. to show the system a student takes when learning a new concept. The idea is to learn to differentiate the rights and wrong with specific steps one takes to get to a good academic answer. The scheme is constructed of 4 categories: dualism, multiplicity, relativism and commitment. Each of the categories is different, yet they tend to show an intellectual development until reaching full commitment to a specific subject. The first category in the Perry scheme is Dualism....   [tags: Learning, Knowledge, Belief, Education]

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Philosophical Understanding and a New View

- Philosophical understanding Philosophy is the study of legitimacy, existence, and the manner in which things exist. Philosophy incorporates an immense range of topics and every person, place, thing, and idea has its roots implanted in it. Everybody has their own beliefs in life whether it’s from religion, morals, or in essence everything in general. Philosophers try to answer the unknown questions in life that everyone is wanting to examine and have the answers to. I never even thought twice about the world we live in, I thought that it was just life and that’s all to it; we live and we die....   [tags: metaphysical, epistemological, ethic, belief]

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In Defense of Direct Perception

- In Defense of Direct Perception ABSTRACT: My goal in this paper is to defend the claim that one can directly perceive an object without possessing any descriptive beliefs about this object. My strategy in defending this claim is to rebut three arguments that attack my view of direct perception. According to these arguments, the notion of direct perception as I construe it is objectionable since: (1) it is epistemically worthless since it leaves perceived objects uninterpreted; (2) it cannot explain how perceived objects are identified; and (3) it is ill-prepared to assign objective content to perceptual states....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Essays]

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Epistemology and the Material Environment

- Epistemology and the Material Environment ABSTRACT: This paper presents an epistemological approach to the investigation of material properties that is opposed to both phenomenalistic epistemology and recent linguistical and ontological accounts of matter/mass terms. Emphasis is laid on the inherent context dependence of material properties. It is shown that, if this is taken seriously, some deep epistemological problems arise, like unavoidable uncertainty, incompleteness, inductivity, and nonderivableness....   [tags: Philosophy]

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The Theory Of Psychology And Individual Psychology

- Philosophical Analysis Paper Without much debate, the field of psychology has continued to evolve as psychological schools of thought work hard to provide structure and guidance for successful treatment in the clinical setting. However, which schools of thought best capture the human experience. Furthermore, how are these psychological perspectives navigated through the philosophical framework. For example, cognitive psychology has heavily influenced Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) by providing a valuable framework for human behavior by detecting the faulty thought processing that allows the clients to discover the necessary coping skills to address their issues....   [tags: Psychology, Thought, Mind, Cognition]

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Indifference to Anxiety in Crane's The Open Boat

- Indifference to Anxiety in Crane's The Open Boat    In recent years, critical response to Stephen Crane's The Open Boat has shifted dramatically, focusing less on the tale's philosophical agendas than on its epistemological implications. The story no longer stands as merely a naturalistic depiction of nature's monumental indifference or as simply an existential affirmation of fife's absurdity. Instead, we have slowly come to realize a new level of the text, one that, according to Donna Gerstenberger, explores "man's limited capacities for knowing reality" (557)....   [tags: Open Boat Essays]

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Cartesian Dualism, Substance Dualism And Property Dualism

- The first three perspectives of philosophy of mind are of dualism. They are Cartesian dualism, substance dualism, and property dualism. Cartesian dualism is the view “That mind and body are completely independent of one another and interact causally,” (Vaughn 198). The major flaw of Cartesian dualism is that it is incompatible with science (Vaughn 206). It violates the causal closure of the physical, which affirms a physical cause for every physical effect and that nonphysical or mental causes are excessive (Vaughn 206-207)....   [tags: Mind, Philosophy of mind, Dualism, Consciousness]

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If A Tree Falls in the Philosophical Forest, Someone Managed to Undermine Descartes Ambitions for Epistemology

- To truly think about knowledge brings about some interesting thought. When asked to think about knowledge, most individuals concern themselves solely with what they know such as certain subjects, theories or facts. In the grand scheme of things, this way of thought is seemingly only minute or even superficial. As human beings, we do not always considered how we come to know what we know. We often place are acquisition of knowledge lower in a taxonomy of importance. All too often, individuals take knowledge and its power for granted....   [tags: Philosophy ]

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Segregation Is Not Necessary For Support Individual Instruction

- Their findings also support previous discoveries that segregation is not necessary to support individual instruction, which a student with disabilities can receive in a general education classroom. Morningstar, Shogren, Lee, and Born (2015) observed inclusive classrooms from six schools that were implementing schoolwide inclusive policies and practices. The researchers were observing instructional methods that supported inclusive practices, such as support of participation and learning. Morningstar et al....   [tags: Education, Special education, Teacher]

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Evaluating The Quality Of Qualitative Research

- The findings of qualitative research not only contribute to theoretical advancements, but they can also contribute to the developments of policies (Spencer, 2003). Moreover, while attempting to specify the best criteria of evaluating the quality of qualitative research, it is important to ponder upon two questions: who is assessing the quality. And what are the implications of this quality assessment. Established researchers as well as policy makers can assess the quality of qualitative research....   [tags: Qualitative research, Quantitative research]

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A Summary of Epistemic Relativism

- What if everything that you perceive— people, the world, the universe — was not as it seems. Relativism is the concept that points of view have no absolute truth or validity, having only relative, subjective value according to differences in perception and consideration. Defined narrowly, epistemology is the study of knowledge and justified belief. As the study of knowledge, epistemology is concerned with the following questions: What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge. What are its sources....   [tags: truth, falsehood, persepective]

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Constructivism, Educational Research, and John Dewey

- Constructivism, Educational Research, and John Dewey ABSTRACT: Schools are expected to transmit knowledge to younger generations. They are, however, also increasingly criticized for distributing so-called inert knowledge, i.e., knowledge that is accessed only in a restricted set of contexts even though it is applicable to a wide variety of domains. The causes of limited knowledge transfer are mostly attributed to the dis-embeddedness of learning situations in schools. Instructional procedures that result in learning in the sense of being able to recall relevant information provide no guarantee that people will spontaneously use it later....   [tags: Learning Education Essays]

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The Philosophy of Medicine

- The Philosophy of Medicine Philosophy of Medicine. In Arthur Caplan's 1992 paper entitled "Does The Philosophy of Medicine Exist?" he argues that if a philosophy of medicine existed it would be concerned with epistemological or metaphysical questions. Caplan states "The goal of the philosophy of medicine is epistemological" (71). Caplan adds "the goal of the inquiry is to understand what those in medicine think they know and why they think they know it" (71). In conversation with Professor Caplan he has recently stated that he still holds the conclusion of his paper: namely, that a philosophy of medicine does not currently exist.[1] It will be my general aim to look at the discussion that...   [tags: Epistemology]

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Fact And Truth ? Regarding The Difference Between Them

- <a href="">Sam Vaknin's Psychology, Philosophy, Economics and Foreign Affairs Web Sites Thought experiments (Gedankenexperimenten) are facts in the sense they have a “real life” correlate in the form of electrochemical activity in the brain. But it is quite obvious that they do not relate to facts. They are not a true statement. A question can be posed: do they lack truth because they do not relate to a fact or are the two facts disjointed. How are Truth and Fact interrelated....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Exploring Research Methodologies: Positivism and Interpretivism

- Exploring Research Methodologies: Positivism and Interpretivism Before a researcher can initiate a research project, they face the confusion and the range of theoretical perspectives, methodologies, methods, and the philosophical basis that encompasses them all. This seemingly meticulous structure for the research process is in fact aimed toward providing the researcher with a ‘scaffolding’, or a direction which they can go on to develop themselves to coincide with their particular research purposes....   [tags: essays research papers]

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The Philosophical Study Of The Nature Of Truth And Knowledge

- Ultimate Source of Knowledge Epistemology is the philosophical study of the nature of truth and knowledge. This branch of philosophical inquiry attempts to discover what truth and knowledge are, the process of how we obtain truth and knowledge, and the distinguishing differences between truth and falsity and knowledge and belief. The two opposing schools of thought of epistemology are rationalism and empiricism. Rationalism is the epistemological theory which claims that truth and knowledge stems from reasoning alone....   [tags: Immanuel Kant, Philosophy, Epistemology]

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Indians : Textualism, Morality, And The Problem Of History

- Although Tompkins’ stated goal in her essay Indians: Textualism, Morality, and the Problem of History is to recount a specific instance in her life where post-structuralism made historical research difficult, the fundamental theme is the discussion of the divergent approaches that come from academic inquiry and pragmatic social progress. Through a narrative about her life as a child in New York City, Tompkins begins her essay discussing the problems faced by modern Native Americans and the dehumanized perspective of them held of them by non-Native Americans....   [tags: Native Americans in the United States]

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Use of Qualitative Methodology in Public Health Research

- Research in multidisciplinary public health can be challenging. There can be serious tension generated among the participants in the research process concerning which approaches are best suitable for the research. Also, the choice of methods to be considered from a compendium of methods that best suits a study could be a herculean task to overcome owing to the differences in the interests and views of the various disciplines involved in public health research (Saks, 2013). This could result in a pyramid of research approaches where an approach is seen by professionals as more scientific and more relevant to public health than others....   [tags: Public Health Essays]

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Realism And Its Effects On Reality And Objectivity

- However, realists value views from both parts and form sort of a midpoint. They state that there is a real world ‘out there’, (which suggests that they are foundationalists) and it is possible to formulate causal statements about the world. Yet, not every social phenomena, and the connections between them, are clearly apparent. There are profound structures and deep rules that cannot be observed and what could be observed might offer a false image of those structures or phenomena and their effects (Marsh & Furlong 2002)....   [tags: Scientific method, Sociology, Epistemology]

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Ontological Arguments for the Existence of God

- In the fifth Meditation, Descartes presents his second argument for the existence of God. Descartes holds that existence is perfection and so, it can be a predicate for God. I will first explain what is the ontological argument for the existence of God. Next, I will discuss why Descartes decides to bring God into His method of philosophy. I will then try to argue that existence is a perfection and that as a predicate for God, existence reveal certain true about God. Ontological argument tries to prove the existence of God from a priori perspective, i.e., idea implanted in the human mind by God himself....   [tags: Theology ]

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The Philosophy Of Martin Barbero 's Work

- His intellectual references As well as his own theoretical and epistemological proposal is eclectic, Martín Barbero’s influences are an intellectual hybridity of some European and Latin American thinkers, mixing philosophers and writers and historians. Indeed, a vital contribution of Martin Barbero’s work is he introduces into the Latin American scholarly debate some authors and re-signifies them in relation to the specificities of the theoretical and epistemological perspectives in communication and culture within the regional debate....   [tags: Culture, Popular culture, High culture]

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Quantitative And Qualitative Research On Research

- Quantitative and Qualitative Research aims at establishing new information. It is a systematic approach of collecting and interpreting information aimed at improving the knowledge base (Suanders et al: 2009, p 5). Research strategy implies a broad orientation as to how to conduct any research. According to Creswell 2004(cited in Duffy & Chenail: 2008), research could be classified into quantitative research and qualitative research. At its simplest form, the former transforms human encounters into numbers while the latter transforms such experiences into words....   [tags: Scientific method, Quantitative research]

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Representationalism and Antirepresentationalism - Kant, Davidson and Rorty

- Representationalism and Antirepresentationalism - Kant, Davidson and Rorty (1) ABSTRACT: The notions of representationalism and antirepresentationalism are introduced and used in contemporary philosophical discussions by Richard Rorty to describe his and the neopragmatists' attitude toward traditional problems of epistemology. Rorty means that the history of philosophy shows that there are no final answers to the traditional questions about knowledge, truth, and representation; consequently, they should be rejected....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]

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Davidson's "The Folly of Trying to Define Truth"

- Davidson's "The Folly of Trying to Define Truth" Davidson’s argument against the possibility of defining truth draws upon the work of Tarski. However, Tarski’s assumption that the semantic conception of truth holds only for formal languages which are not semantically closed is not as plausible as it seems to be since it can be shown that this would result in the impossibility of formulating a theory of truth, because the epistemological presuppositions of formal semantics undermine any theory of representation of reality in which our cognitions can be true or false representations....   [tags: Philosophy Argumentative Papers]

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Difference Between Positivism And Interpretivism

- From the second-half of the nineteenth century, two major approaches to the study of reality have become predominant and part of an ideological conflict still lasting nowadays. The qualitative-quantitative divide plays at different levels, from the epistemological debate between positivism and interpretivism, to the ontological (constructionism vs objectivism) passing through the more methodological issues. The quantitative approach implicitly assumes the existence of an objective world, independently from our thought, a “res extensa” standing autonomously from the human reasoning (res cogitans)....   [tags: Scientific method, Quantitative research, Science]

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Classical Greek Philosophical Paideia in Light of the Postmodern Occidentalism of Jacques Derrida

- Classical Greek Philosophical Paideia in Light of the Postmodern Occidentalism of Jacques Derrida ABSTRACT: In his writings during the 60s and 70s, Derrida situates his doctrine of différance in the context of a radical critique of the Western philosophical tradition. This critique rests on a scathing criticism of the tradition as logocentric/phallogocentric. Often speaking in a postured, Übermenschean manner, Derrida claimed that his 'new' aporetic philosophy of différance would help bring about the clôture of the Western legacy of logocentrism and phallogocentrism....   [tags: Philosophy]

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The Battle for Control of Political Science Education

- The Battle for Control of Political Science Education Abstract Quantitative analysis, formal modeling, and other forms of hard science dominate the leading journals and research institutions of American political science. To justify a hard scientific approach to the study of politics demands elaborate philosophical argument. In particular, it demands answers to three questions: What is the character of political life (the ontological question). How and what can we know about politics (the epistemological question)....   [tags: Political Science Politics]

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Human Being Existence

- Since long before Plato philosophers have attempted to accurately describe the ways human being exist in relation to the world around them. Many different systems and meta-narratives were created by numerous philosophers as they used reason to determine what it meant to exist and how knowledge was possible. Most philosophers were acutely aware their philosophical arguments that provided either metaphysical or epistemological descriptive claims would necessarily lay the foundation for normative ethical positions....   [tags: existence, ethical system, Plato, Nietzsche, ]

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Two Points Against Naturalized Epistemology

- Two Points Against Naturalized Epistemology ABSTRACT: My aim is to raise two points against naturalizing epistemology. First, against Quine’s version of naturalizing epistemology, I claim that the traditional questions of epistemology are indispensable, in that they impose themselves in every attempt to construct an epistemology. These epistemological questions are pre- and extra-scientific questions; they are beyond the scientific domain of research, thus, for a distinct province of inquiry. Second, I claim that no naturalistic account can be given as an answer to the traditional question of justification....   [tags: Epistemology Research Papers]

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Design Of An Mba Program

- Sabanci University Faculty of Management, which opened its doors only in the fall of 1999 to its students, is a newly established institution, therefore so is the SU-MBA Program. Benefiting from being a relatively fresh program SU-MBA had the latest of information about the business world and comparative insights from other MBA programs, of which the number is quite large in the current market. The aim of this paper is to (1) compare and contrast the ontological and epistemological assumptions, (2) amount of experiential learning and (3) job opportunities created of the current and designed SU-MBA Program, also (4) to understand how it has positioned itself with other MBA programs....   [tags: MBA Business Administration Education]

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Literary Analysis : ' Frankenstein ' And ' The ' Willing Suspension Of Disbelief '

- Texts of the Romanticism era aim to emancipate the ideological values of the enlightenment in revolt to the products of the Age of Reason and exalted the limitless boundaries of creativity through the immeasurable capability of the imagination. The Romantic artist indulges in the gratification they can derive from the supreme faculty of the mind, allowing engagement of social and moral issues through what Coleridge saw as the ‘esemplastic power’ of the imagination. Coleridge’s Beliefs, as one of the earliest romantic poets, heavily influenced the idealized perception of subsequent Romantics artists....   [tags: Romanticism, Mary Shelley]

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The Principle Of Instantiation, The Contingent Nature Of Properties, And That Properties Are Coarse Grained

- Minimalists appeal to three principles: the principle of instantiation, the contingent nature of properties, and that properties are coarse grained. The qualified version of the principle of instantiation, which better guarantees sparseness, states that “a property exists only if [it] is exemplified by something in space and time”. This is compatible with the idea that properties are contingent. That is, their existence is not continuous and only instantiated. Furthermore, minimalism believes properties to be coarse grained, in the sense that two properties are the same if they are “necessarily coextensive”....   [tags: Ontology, Metaphysics, Nominalism, Idea]

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How the Body is Conceptualized and How it Relates to our Views on Death

- The concepts we as human beings have developed regarding perspectives of one’s own body have never remained static and universal. Our species is enduring the constant struggle for striving to know the processes of the human body and how they relate to our views of the meaning of life and subsequent death. The contemporary era of modern biomedicine is an amalgamation of the concepts of Cartesian duality proposed by René Descartes (1596 - 1650). According to Sheper-Hughes and Lock (1987) this separation of the palpable, organic body from the intangible, intellectual mind allowed for the pursuit of biomedical study and materialist doctrine adopted by Western medical practice....   [tags: Medical Research]

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Authors of It All: The Villains of Much Ado About Nothing and Othello

- Shakespeare’s Much Ado About Nothing and Othello feature comparably directorial villains in Don John and Iago, respectively. These characters may be the most direct link between two plays with many similarities. In the essay “Illusion and Metamorphosis in Much Ado About Nothing,” Paul and Miriam Mueschke claim, “The similarities between Much Ado and Othello […] are more numerous than are those between any other comedy and tragedy in the entire Shakespeare canon” (Mueschke, 65). That Don John, with his malevolent deceptions, is a sort of proto-Iago is not a novel concept, but Shakespeare’s different treatment of the two characters illustrates the plays’ greater philosophical differences....   [tags: Shakespeare, literary analysis]

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Writing and Technology: The Effects of Experimental Instruction in First-Year College Courses

- ... The one-way ANOVA of student’s average change in writing scores revealed a statistically significant main effect, Welch’s F(2, 15.6) = 21.98, p < .001, indicating that not all conditions at mid-semester preceded the same average score change at end-of-semester. The estimated omega squared (see Hays, 1981 p. 349) (ω2 = .428) attributed nearly 43% of the total variation in average score change to differences in mid-semester condition. I conducted post hoc comparisons, using the Games-Howell post hoc procedure (Games & Howell, 1976) to determine which pairs of the three condition means differed significantly....   [tags: education research, open systems]

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Jean Watson 's Caring Science And The Science Of Unitary Human Beings

- Jean Watson’s “caring science and the science of unitary human beings: a trans-theoretical discourse for nursing knowledge development is a scholarly article in which she intended to explore integration, convergence, and creative synthesis of caring science (CS) and the science of unitary human beings (SUHB); while maintaining the integrity of the theories. Of all the articles recommended to read for the philosophy course in nursing, Jean Watson’s article was the most challenging and intriguing article to read....   [tags: Nursing, Concept, Nurse, Logic]

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Canonical Model in the New Testament Books by Michael J. Kruge

- Bibliographical Entry Kruger, Michael. Canon Revisited: Establishing the Origins and Authority of the New Testament Books, Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2012. Author Information Michael Kruger holds a PhD from the University of Edinburgh. He has written a number of books dealing with early Christianity. In addition to being an accomplished author Dr. Kruger holds the title of Professor at the Reformed Theological Seminary. This is a traditional brick and mortar school with the added convenience of online courses....   [tags: holy spirit, roman catholics]

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Model-based Reasoning in Model-Checking for the Examination of Software Systems

- Challenging issues in theoretical computer science arise in connection with the problem of detecting undesired behaviours among software potential executions and removing them. Model checking (Baier and Katoen 2008), a leading formal method devoted to this purpose, enables one to examine computational systems by means of a formal model of the system and of an algorithm that searches throughout the model for desired/undesired behaviours. This paper analyses model checking as an instantiation, in the computer science field, of the model-based reasoning approach characterizing the examination of complex empirical systems....   [tags: Computer Science]

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Overlapping Methods or Developing a New Approach? Understanding Methodological Commonalities

- Grounded Theory (GT) and Content Analysis (CA) are widely known methodologies applied within multiple scientific communities, sharing a close background with social sciences. Each of these approaches has been developed and tested throughout distinct historical pathways, both shaped by different aims, results and theoretical constructions. Whereas GT belongs to what could be described as “inductive science”, CA is tagged under the motto of “deductive sciences”, assuming essentially different epistemological positions (Bernard & Ryan, 2009)....   [tags: content analysis,grounded theory,data exploration]

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The Use Of Drugs Based On The Best Judgement Argument

- When a state is neutral between different concepts of the good life, then it should not prohibit the use of drugs based on the best judge argument. Which says that people are the best judges regarding what is in their best interest in pertaining to the good life (Caney 463). Individual should be allowed to partake in recreational drugs because a neutral state allows them the autonomy to make decisions free from coercion, which helps shape a person’s personal identity. The first argument to support the idea that governments should not prohibit the recreational use of drugs based on the best judgement argument, is that for a government to truly be neutral regarding different concepts of the go...   [tags: Recreational drug use, Drug, Decision making]

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Analysis Of Posner 's ' Twilight Of Human Rights '

- Posner’s “Twilight of Human Rights” has a straightforward argument; human rights international law, has become a “regime” since World War II. However, is not a functional regime, since it has not been able to accomplish the main goals proposed in the major treaties. The aim of this brief is to provide a review of this central argument. For doing so, this paper will first tackle the theoretical and methodological strengths and weaknesses. The purpose of the above mentioned is to set a framework for doing an in-depth analysis of his theoretical and empirical arguments, which is hard not to agree with....   [tags: Human rights, Law, Rights, International law]

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Power Structures Subjugate People of Difference to Maintain Authority

- CONQUERING THE SLASHES [/] FOR DIFFERENCE When I speak of conquering the slashes for difference I refer to attempts at removing the divide that has historically barred people of color, radical academics and people of differences from doing what most have come to call cultural work. These slash obstruct, separate, divide, subjugate and question the authenticity of nonacademic work and operate as a knowledge-power machinery to maintain the status quo. The existing discourse about language, writing, power structures, history and representation intensified within the postmodern era, while attempts were being made to reduce the tension between what is considered as objective truth as against cul...   [tags: feminism, racial issues, ethnography]

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Book Report on Canon Revisited by Michael J. Kruger

- Book Report The book entitled Canon Revisited: Establishing the Origins and Authority of the New Testament Books written by Michael J. Kruger explains the canonical model by which the books of the New Testament were selected as the right word of God. The correctness of the canon has always troubled Christians; they have always wanted to know that the twenty-seven books of the New Testament are the rights ones. In his book, Kruger answers many typical questions asked by people in relation to the New Testament, its structure and its authenticity as God’s word....   [tags: christians, new testament]

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1029 words | (2.9 pages) | Preview

The Christian Religion Is A Rational Philosophy And Worldview

- The Christian religion is a rational philosophy and worldview. Based on reason and logic, it expresses truth. Rationality, an epistemological concept, is used by Christian apologetics to justify truth. I will explore the various foundations of Christianity and their contribution to belief. Each foundational source holds its own reasoning. Scholars of Orthodox Christianity embrace religious beliefs, principles, and views constructed from an interdependent combination of foundational bases, in their attempt to discern the superior logic of their faith....   [tags: Religion, Faith, Philosophy, Reason]

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Analysis Of The Book ' Cogito Ego Sum '

- “Cogito ego sum” - this is a famous quote from Rene Descartes. This quote means," I think, therefore, I am." His beliefs are considered to be epistemological and he is also considered as the father of modern philosophy. In his letter of meditation, he writes about what he believes to be true and what is not true. He writes about starting a new foundation. This meant that he was going to figure out what is true and what is false. He also writes about how he wonders if he is human and if what he sees is real or false....   [tags: Mind, Epistemology, René Descartes, Truth]

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723 words | (2.1 pages) | Preview

Preemptive And Preemptive, Ware And The Two Pretty Much

- 1. There are two terms referred to in the reading “preventive” and “preemptive” ware and the two pretty much are one in the same. Preemptive war is more of the idea that if a country knows that there is a threat, and wants to combat it by anticipating the attack by attacking first. An example of this form of warfare, is if the United States knew that Canada was going to attack the United States Border, the United States would attack first so it could eliminate the threat. While preventive is when you can for see a future attack or a threat that still has not formed, but can be eliminated by attacking before the threat is fully formed....   [tags: Laws of war, Jus ad bellum, United States]

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1338 words | (3.8 pages) | Preview

Analysis Of Descartes 's Meditations, By Rene Descartes

- In “Meditations,” Rene Descartes presents the idea on whether we can be certain we know what we think we know. To demonstrate this, Descartes presents three stages of doubt. The first stage of doubt he presents is the senses argument, followed by the dream argument and finally the voluntarist argument. Each stage of doubt is compelling since it shows that many of the information can easily be dubitable. After Descartes is finished analyzing what is dubitable and indubitable he begins to construct the proof of God’s existence....   [tags: Mind, Epistemology, Ontology, Existence]

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1272 words | (3.6 pages) | Preview

Indi A State Of Continual Change And Uncertainty

- E ducation in Australia is currently in a state of continual change and uncertainty. Over the past eight years, educational institutions at all levels have been engaged in widespread change, in response to mandated reform at a national policy level and strengthened governmental involvement in educational issues (Alexander et al., 2013; Lingard, 2013). There is not an area of education in Australia that has been left untouched by government reform. The curriculum, assessment, pedagogy and physical and financial resources have all been under focus of these reform efforts....   [tags: Education, Educational psychology, Design]

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6600 words | (18.9 pages) | Preview

Evaluation Of Principles And Theories Of An Issue

- 3.1 Introduction Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of an issue (Creswell, 2008). As a science of study about how research is to be carried out and the methods by which knowledge is gained (Redmen and Mory, 2009), research methodology is a systematic way to solve a problem with the aim to give the work plan of research. Methodology refers to a framework of principles and theories on which procedures and methods are based. Research methodology essentially works as the procedures by which researchers go around of describing, explaining and predicting phenomena....   [tags: Scientific method, Qualitative research]

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1003 words | (2.9 pages) | Preview

The Causes And Consequences Of The Death Penalty

- Happiness is the simple definition of the maximum amount of pleasure with the least amount of pain. Act Utilitarianism is the concept that as a person we will make decisions that produce at least much happiness as anything else at that given one time. Anything that provides mankind the most amount of general happiness is the morally right thing to do. Generally killing people is never considered the correct thing to do because it’s pretty obvious, you’re killing someone and it is most often morally frowned upon....   [tags: Murder, Capital punishment, Morality]

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708 words | (2 pages) | Preview

Is Knowledge Relative Because Epistemic Intuitions Vary?

- Is knowledge relative because epistemic intuitions vary. In a paper entitled Normativity and Epistemic Intuitions, Weinberg, Nichols and Stich (who I will hereafter refer to as WNS) have proposed a challenge for the “normative project” (WNS 2001: 2) of epistemology, a project which involves taking an analytic perspective on epistemology and thereby setting norms for how to pursue knowledge. One knowledge-forming processes that the this project is based on, as WNS point out, our “epistemic intuitions” (WNS 2001: 5), and it is from these intuitions that we may work out a normative account of epistemology....   [tags: Philosophy]

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1390 words | (4 pages) | Preview

Costello's Argument Against the Slaughter of Animals

- a valid comparison. Why/Why Not. We have closed our hearts to animals, Costello concludes, and our minds follow our hearts (or more strictly speaking, our sympathies). Philosophy, (Costello argues) is powerless in its ability to push society in the right direction as it fails to engage with one`s sympathies. Ironically, the burden is placed on something other than one`s rational dimensions, in which philosophy so frequently refers to. Our sympathetic imaginations, to which poetry and fiction appeal more than philosophy, should extend to other animals....   [tags: Animal Rights]

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824 words | (2.4 pages) | Preview

A Critical Review of Qualitative Methodological Approaches

- Introduction According to Markham, “The world might be said to be made up of that which is relatively measurable and that which is relatively unmeasurable. Different schools of thinking place different levels of emphasis on the very measurable and the very unmeasurable”. Qualitative research methodology unlike quantitative research is used to find out about people’s feelings, opinions, behaviours, reasons for behaviours, attitudes & beliefs. This paper aims to review and compare three of the qualitative research methodologies: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), Discourse Analysis (DA) and Grounded Theory (GT), and identify how they can be applied in coaching research....   [tags: Research Analysis ]

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1303 words | (3.7 pages) | Preview

Analysis of The Guide to the Perplexed

- One particular theme in the Guide to the Perplexed is Maimonides' theory of the attributes of Hashem via negativa. The definition of the phrase " via negativa" is to attempt to describe Hashem through what He is not and if one tries to describe God in term of what He is it will then introduce complexity of Hashem which is opposite His oneness. Those who study this theory pose some questions in order better to comprehend this lofty notion. How can one actually know Hashem via negativa. Can one discuss Hashem's unity and incorporeality without limiting His essence....   [tags: via negativa, maimonides, hashem´s unity]

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1908 words | (5.5 pages) | Preview

Descartes ' Natural Light By Rene Descartes

- Descartes’ Natural Light Rene Descartes’ natural light is his saving grace, and not Achilles’ heel. Descartes incorporates the concept of natural light within his epistemology in order to establish the possibility of knowing things completely without doubt. In fact whatever is revealed to the meditator via the natural light is considered to be indefeasible. The warrant for the truth of these ideas does not rely on experience or the senses. Rather the truth of the idea depends on viewing the concept through clear and distinct perception....   [tags: Mind, Epistemology, Perception, René Descartes]

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1695 words | (4.8 pages) | Preview

Implicit : A Social Constructivist Ontological Position

- Implicit in this research is a social constructivist ontological position. Social constructivism views human society as simultaneously subjective and objective; as human interaction creates and sustains an individual’s knowledge about the world. Furthermore ‘meaning is the product of the prevailing cultural frame of social … persons and groups interacting together in a social system form, over time, concepts or mental representations of each other’s actions. These concepts eventually become … is embedded in society” (Galbin, 2014)....   [tags: Scientific method, Sociology]

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1421 words | (4.1 pages) | Preview

Descartes' Correlation Between Mind and Body

- Rene Descartes once said, “There is a great difference between mind and body”. This statement comes from the idea that Descartes believed there were two substances that made up reality. One of the substances in reality Descartes called extension, or material being, meaning it takes up space. The other has to do with the mind, or thought, immaterial. This is called dualistic metaphysic’s. Descartes began his exploration on the material and immaterial by way of epistemological detour. This is simply finding out metaphysical truth by ways of epistemological analysis....   [tags: Philosophy]

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1005 words | (2.9 pages) | Preview

The Development of Karl Marx's Critique

- 1. Marx’s work, for the unfamiliar, has been usually reduced to The Communist Manifesto and/or to some abridged versions of Capital. This, of course, makes impossible a serious analysis of his work. A great deal of Marx’s contribution is not only outside his most popular books, but in the evolution of his though, in his intellectual path, in the dialog between his ideas. In paying attention to that, we are giving Marx his real importance. In this sense, it is crucial to describe and understand the context and the process which led to the development of Marx’s ideas, both in his earlier texts and in the later ones....   [tags: Comparison of Critiques, Political Economy]

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2122 words | (6.1 pages) | Preview

Social Epistemology: The Benefit of "We"

- Social Epistemology: The Benefit of “We” In many situations and events, many seek to find an individual to who will be praised for the success or criticized for the failure. Frequently, those in reflection ignore or either fail to recognize the collaborative efforts of many who initiated and developed such situations. A contemporary example is how most frequently blame President Barack Obama for negative events such as the current recession, and even simple things such as gas prices, welfare, ect....   [tags: epistemic dependence, epistemology]

Research Papers
2432 words | (6.9 pages) | Preview

Connecting Leadership Theory and Christian Ministry

- ... Spiritual leadership brings several concepts to bear in the process: vision, a sense of meaning, connection, and selfless love (Chen, and Yang, 2012). The servant-leadership model focuses on the leader maintaining a mindset to serve first, rather than lead first (Ekundayo, Damhoeri, & Ekundayo, 2010). The core value of servant-leadership is love, as illustrated by Jesus, who taught that leadership is not defined by position or place of authority, rather true leadership is based in love (Chung, 2011)....   [tags: organizational servant leadership]

Term Papers
1482 words | (4.2 pages) | Preview

Art And Vision : Paul Crowther

- Paul Crowther, Phenomenologies of Art and Vision: A Post-Analytic Turn, Bloomsbury, 2013, pp. 195,b/w plates 14, cloth Whilst Crowther’s readers and the philosopher himself consider Phenomenologies of Art and Vision: A Post-Analytic Turn to be primarily a contribution to the field of aesthetics, which develops further his philosophical writing about visual art, we conclude that the book does a lot more than that. Crowther’s main point is that, if visual art is to be understood in ways going beyond the spectatorial viewpoint alone, art must be examined within both the analytic and phenomenological traditions of philosophy (page)....   [tags: Art, Aesthetics, Martin Heidegger, Fine art]

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1157 words | (3.3 pages) | Preview

The Theory Of Phenomenology And Phenomenology

- The current article specifically uses a subtype of qualitative research called phenomenology. This methodology is designed to capture the meaning behind a phenomena, which in this case involves encapsulating younger siblings’ perspectives on older siblings sport participation (Allen-Collinson, 2009; Dale, 1996; Englander, 2012). More specifically, these researchers employed existential phenomenology methodology. Based originally on the philosophical works of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger, the amalgamation of existentialism and phenomenology brings to light a detailed and holistic description of the human experience from the perspective of the participants being interviewed (Blazo, et a...   [tags: Scientific method, Quantitative research]

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1587 words | (4.5 pages) | Preview

Feminist Empiricism And Feminist Standpoint Theory

- Feminist empiricism and feminist standpoint theory are two epistemological positions that are fundamental to understanding feminism and social review and research. The theories attempt to remove gender bias from research (Campbell & Wasco, 2000). Both theories enhance understanding of women’s suppression in the scientific process, but do so with different ideological frameworks and results. There are similarities and differences between the ways these two topics attempt to remove gender biases and strengths and weaknesses to these theories as well....   [tags: Scientific method, Science, Theory, Epistemology]

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1095 words | (3.1 pages) | Preview

The Rejection Of Proof And Reality

- A common adage applied and used by historians is that they ‘must find the truth’, and that there is one truth, one chronological series of events that they must endeavour to find and thus make sense of. Even the narrative style of history determines itself by drawing from the truth, drawing from tried and tested research methods, and from ‘reliable’ sources of information. But the historians style of narrative that draws on truth, was “developed in the cauldron of fiction… [and] becomes at once the sign of proof and reality”....   [tags: Novel, Fiction, Genre fiction, Historian]

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1363 words | (3.9 pages) | Preview

Perceptions of the Work Environment in Stenden University Hotel and Their Effect on Job Attitudes?

- In society there’s little room to escape working for a living. You need a job to survive, to succeed and be wealthy and ultimately happy. It could be in a multimillion dollar organization, a franchise, a family, or your own entrepreneurial company, whatever type of job it is, it is work. And because work is such an essential part of adult’s lives, its effect on our well being and happiness is logically large. Therefore it is pivotal not to perceive work as cumbersome and unsatisfactory but a place you have a positive attitude towards in order for its affect to be positive on whatever aspect of our lives that it affects....   [tags: Psychology ]

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506 words | (1.4 pages) | Preview

My Philosophy of a Constructivist Mathematics Education

- At what point does a student, in all intents and purposes, experience something mathematical. Does it symbolise a student that can remember a formula, write down symbols, see a pattern or solve a problem. I believe in enriching and empowering students’ mathematical experiences that fundamentally stems from a Piagetian genetic epistemological constructivist model that allow students to scaffold their learning through cognitive processes that are facilitated by teaching in a resource rich and collaborative environment (Thompson, 1994, p.69)....   [tags: mathematics, education, teaching]

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537 words | (1.5 pages) | Preview

Social Formation and Symbolic Landscape

- The tension of proximity/distance in Wylie’s ‘Landscape’ (2007, p.2) is derived from the opposing contentions of the philosophical and the rational. Of his painting of Mont Saint – Victoire, Cezanne wrote “the landscape thinks itself in me ... and I am its consciousness” (Cited in Wylie, 2007, p. 2). Wylie observed “Cezanne is not a detached spectator – his gaze enters the landscape, is entered by landscape” (Wylie, 2007, p. 3). In contrast, Wylie cites the argument of the historian and literary critic Raymond Williams where “the very idea of landscape implies separation and observation” (Cited in Wylie, 2007, p....   [tags: Art, Mont Saint, Cezanne]

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1660 words | (4.7 pages) | Preview

Anthropology and Beginning of Society

- The Cayapa Indians: The Cayapas Indians, specifically the Chachi are primary hunter-gatherers that provide scenarios that exemplify the division of labor resulting from pair bonding and male hunting bias. Additionally, Behavioral Regularities transforming into Institutionalized Rules regarding the incest taboo and elements of the African kinship model are present within Chachi society. Milton Atschulers studies of The Chachi are based on the underlying assumption of social control by law. Atschuler is characterized by a functional-realist epistemological approach, and as such he views law as a relationship based on social norms that are essentially agreements between communities....   [tags: Anthropology, Ancient History]

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2025 words | (5.8 pages) | Preview

Data Collection Methods and Analysis

- What ontological considerations and perspectives can be related to the methods compared. The comparison of two data collection methods will be done by looking at semi-structured interviews as well as participatory observations. What they both have in common is that they are executed qualitatively and it is therefore implied that much more focus on words and interpretation will be necessary when using these sorts of methods (Bryman, 2008; 366). This will also be reflected in the ontological as well as epistemological similarities....   [tags: home exam]

Term Papers
1481 words | (4.2 pages) | Preview

Using Testing An Existing Theory

- Research, is a process of building up a new concept or testing an existing theory (Cohen et al, 2000). Sikes (2003) adds that research is a method of investigating something intensively, carefully, closely and critically in order to discover a new theory or to confirm or reject previous assumptions. According to Kumar (2008), research increases our knowledge and understanding about social and physical aspects. It is conducted to establish facts and reach new conclusions. Alzheimer Europe (2009, p.1) report claims that “research is a general term which covers all kinds of studies designed to find responses to worthwhile questions by means of a systematic and scientific approach”....   [tags: Scientific method, Epistemology, Ontology]

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1523 words | (4.4 pages) | Preview

Difference Between Ontology And Epistemology

- When studying organizational theory, two different belief systems help to determine which theory stream that each individual person follows. These are a person’s ontological beliefs or epistemological beliefs. It is important to recognize how both Ontology and Epistemology apply to organizational theory, and for each person to decide where they fit inside these branches. First a person must decide and realize where their beliefs lie. Also it is important to understand what both Ontology and Epistemology mean....   [tags: Scientific method, Science, Epistemology, Theory]

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1344 words | (3.8 pages) | Preview

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