Your search returned over 400 essays for "empiricism"
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Constructivism, Empiricism, Rationalism, Positivism, And Positivism

- Knowledge Arguments For many years, philosophers have discussed the topics of knowledge, such as skepticism, rationalism, empiricism, and constructivism. While rationalism claims that our primary source of knowledge is reasoning, empiricism rejects it by claiming that we gain our knowledge by experience rather than reasoning. Skepticism, on the other hand, questions if we have knowledge at all because if we are not one-hundred-percent sure of something, we cannot say that we have knowledge of it....   [tags: Empiricism, Scientific method, Philosophy]

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David Hume On Empiricism

- Hume On Empiricism The ultimate question that Hume seems to be seeking an answer to is that of why is that we believe what we believe. For most of us the answer is grounded in our own personal experiences and can in no way be justified by a common or worldly assumption. Our pasts, according to Hume, are reliant on some truths which we have justified according to reason, but in being a skeptic reason is hardly a solution for anything concerning our past, present or future. Our reasoning according to causality is slightly inhibited in that Hume suggests that it is not that we are not able to know anything about future events based on past experiences, but rather that we are just not rationa...   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Use Of Empiricism Techniques Used By Many Factors That Affect The Understanding Of The World

- Have you ever wondered why we believe certain things to be true. What we believe to be true is heavily influenced by many factors. Beliefs varies geographically, socioeconomically, and among intellectual experts. For example, a boy raised in America may more likely share a Christian belief system, compared to if he was raised in Iran (he will more likely share a Muslim belief system). People generally spend time seeking out the truth, however, we use different methods. A scientist will most likely use empiricism techniques (the process of learning things through direct observation or experience, and reflection of those experiences)....   [tags: Empiricism, Scientific method, Logic]

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Rationalism vs. Empiricism: The Argument for Empricism

- There are two main schools of thought, or methods, in regards to the subject of epistemology: rationalism and empiricism. These two, very different, schools of thought attempt to answer the philosophical question of how knowledge is acquired. While rationalists believe that this process occurs solely in our minds, empiricists argue that it is, instead, through sensory experience. After reading and understanding each argument it is clear that empiricism is the most relative explanatory position in epistemology....   [tags: Philosophy ]

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Empiricism and Capitalism

- Empiricism is the theory that knowledge evolves from sense experience and internal mental interaction, such as emotions and self reflection. An empiricist obtains their facts based on close observation and experiment, which is ultimately a use of an inductive thought process. For empiricists, facts precede theories. Most empiricists are impartial, as well as objective observers of facts. A main belief in empiricism is that no one person could obtain knowledge of the world unless they were to experience and reason....   [tags: Economics]

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Empiricism and Rationalism

- Philosophy uses a term for empirical knowledge, “posteriori”, meaning that knowledge is “dependent upon sense experience”. (Markie, 2008, section 1.2) Yet, philosophical empiricism is defined in such an absolute way; which causes philosophical empiricism to be an inaccurate philosophical position from which to address all aspects of human life. Philosophical empiricism is defined as “the belief that all human knowledge arises from sense experience.” (Nash, 1999, page 254) Yet, medical empiricism is so far to the other extreme as to be insulting, while this empiricism is still said to be based on all sensory experience; only the scientific sensory experience is valued and counted....   [tags: philosophy]

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Feminist Empiricism And Feminist Standpoint Theory

- Feminist empiricism and feminist standpoint theory are two epistemological positions that are fundamental to understanding feminism and social review and research. The theories attempt to remove gender bias from research (Campbell & Wasco, 2000). Both theories enhance understanding of women’s suppression in the scientific process, but do so with different ideological frameworks and results. There are similarities and differences between the ways these two topics attempt to remove gender biases and strengths and weaknesses to these theories as well....   [tags: Scientific method, Science, Theory, Epistemology]

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Empiricism and Rationalism: Searching for God and Truth

- We live in a time where everyone is searching for a reason to believe in something, there have posters and advertisement stating that “Only Prayer Can Save America”. Well if prayer can save us then there is only one question left to be answered. Who are we praying to. What are we praying for. God is the almighty, the creator of everything and without him there would be no world and no us. But many people seem to question if He really exist. In the world there are many streams of philosophy that have argued the existence of God, Platonism, naturalism, Aristotelianism, realism, empiricism, and rationalism they have even tried to convince nonbelievers about the defensibility and validity of God...   [tags: Philosophy ]

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Empiricism Versus Rationalism: Descartes and Hume

- Rationalism and empiricism have always been on opposite sides of the philosophic spectrum, Rene Descartes and David Hume are the best representative of each school of thought. Descartes’ rationalism posits that deduction, reason and thus innate ideas are the only way to get to true knowledge. Empiricism on the other hand, posits that by induction, and sense perception, we may find that there are in fact no innate ideas, but that truths must be carefully observed to be true. Unlike one of empiricism’s major tenets, Tabula Rasa, or blank slate, Descartes believed that the mind was not a blank slate, but actually came pre-loaded, if you will, with ideas, which are part of our rational nature an...   [tags: philosophy, god, science]

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Rationalism vs. Empiricism

- Rationalism and empiricism were two philosophical schools in the 17th and 18th centuries, that were expressing opposite views on some subjects, including knowledge. While the debate between the rationalist and empiricist schools did not have any relationship to the study of psychology at the time, it has contributed greatly to facilitating the possibility of establishing the discipline of Psychology. This essay will describe the empiricist and rationalist debate, and will relate this debate to the history of psychology....   [tags: Philosophy]

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Knowledge Acquisition: Empiricism vs Rationalism

- For this critical analysis essay, I am writing on the following discussion post: "Rationalism is more via[b]le than empiricism in regards to knowledge. Empiricism may have the data and research to support its claims, but Rationalism strives to prove its evidence through reason. Using the example in our text book, the number 2 can never be greater than the number 3 - it is just plain illogical and does not make any sense to think or state that. Our reason for defending this claim is that using our priori, or from the former, states that we do not physically have to experience the number 3 being greater than the number 2 (the nature of numbers is gray area)....   [tags: Critical Analysis Essay]

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John Locke: Empiricism and Influencing Government

- The English philosopher and physician John Locke was an immensely important and influential figure during the enlightenment period. Perhaps his most important and revolutionary work was An Essay Concerning Human Understanding; written in 4 separate books; each pertaining to a section of his explanation. Its purpose was to “to enquire into the original, certainty and extant of human knowledge, together with the grounds and degrees of belief, opinion and assent.” However, John Locke influenced more than just the philosophy of human understanding; he also greatly influenced the way we think of government and religious toleration....   [tags: Human Nature, Philosophies]

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Rationalism and Empiricism

- Rationalism and Empiricism Rationalism and Empiricism are most likely the two most famous and intriguing schools of philosophy. The two schools deal specifically with epistemology, or, the origin of knowledge. Although not completely opposite, they are often considered so, and are seen as the "Jordan vs. Bird" of the philosophy world. The origins of rationalism and empiricism can be traced back to the 17th century, when many important advancements were made in scientific fields such as astronomy and mechanics....   [tags: Philosophy Epistemology Papers]

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Empiricism

- Empiricism I will explain in the following paper why I believe that realism and instrumentalism are erroneous approaches to science and why empiricism seems to be the more valid approach. I believe that truth is relative to language. The word theory in greek means "to be in front of". Our science is limited by our language, because we use our language as a way to construct our world. We use our language and theories to paint over the world what we think exists and while we use that language to create that reality, we paint over other "realitites", which we don't acknowledge, because we know no better....   [tags: Papers]

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empiricism

- Empiricism Empiricism by nature is the belief that there is no knowledge without experience. How can one know what something tastes like if they have never tasted it. For example, would someone know that an apple is red if they have never actually have seen one. Someone can tell you an apple is red, but, if you never have seen one, can you really be sure. Empiricists use three anchor points in which they derive their opinions from. The first of these points is; the only source of genuine knowledge is sense experience....   [tags: essays research papers]

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When Rationalism and Empiricism Collide: the Best of Both Worlds

- For a lengthy period of time, philosophers have been fiercely debating the classification of philosophical epistemology into two categories: rationalism and empiricism. Empiricism is the idea that knowledge can only be gained through obtaining facts via observation or experimentation, while rationalism is obtaining knowledge through logical reasoning . Though rationalism and empiricism are very viable methods of thought in philosophy on their own, these philosophical schools’ arguments become much stronger when used in conjunction....   [tags: Philosophy ]

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Pragmatism, Empiricism and David Hume

- Pragmatism, Empiricism and David Hume Pragmatism is based on the philosophy that ideas must be tested and re-tested, that experiences dictate reality. Pragmatists also believe in no absolute truths or values existing. David Hume argues that, “no proof can be derived from any fact, of which we are so intimately conscious; nor is there anything of which we can be certain, if we doubt this” (Treatise 2645). Hume’s empiricist ideals were roots to early pragmatic thought, by way of the theory that, in our reality, nothing is certain and everything that can be sensed must be constantly qualified to find a place in reality....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Scientific Empiricism

- Scientific Empiricism In 1513, Nicholas Copernicus, composed a brief theory that stated that the sun is at rest and the earth is in rotation around the sun. In 1543, just days before his death, Copernicus published this theory in On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. This theory was meant to dissolve the long lived belief in Ptolemyís theory which stated, "The earth was at the center because it was the heaviest of objects(Kagan331)." This was a common belief at that time, which supported the religious beliefs that the earth was the center of the universe and God in the heavens were surrounding the earth....   [tags: Essays Papers]

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Comparing the Approaches of Rationalism and Empiricism Towards a Theory of Knowledge

- Comparing the Approaches of Rationalism and Empiricism Towards a Theory of Knowledge Rationalism ----------- Rene Descartes was the main rationalist. He said he believed he had to doubt everything known to him to really understand knowledge. Rationalism first began in Ancient Greece with two extreme rationalists - Parmenides and Zeno. Rationalists believed in innate ideas - ones that are present at birth, in the mind. When Descartes started his thoughts, it was in the 17th century, during the rise of science....   [tags: Papers]

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Poe's Fall of The House of Usher Essay: Beyond Empiricism and Transcendentalism

- Beyond Empiricism and Transcendentalism in House of Usher      When Edgar Allan Poe wrote "The Fall of the House of Usher," two factors greatly influenced his writing. A first influence was John Locke's idea of Empiricism, which was the idea that all knowledge was gained by experiences, exclusively through the senses. A second vital influence was Transcendentalism, which was a reaction to Empiricism.  While John Locke believed that reality or truth was constituted by the material world and by the senses, Transcendentalists believed that reality and truth exist within the spiritual or ideal world....   [tags: Fall House Usher Essays]

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A Treatise of Human Nature: David Hume´s Philosophy

- It seems most appropriate, before having any mention of Hume’s philosophy, to briefly enunciate the concept of empiricism. Prior to Immanuel Kant’s solicitation of Transcendental Idealism, the schools of epistemological thought were divided into rationalism and the aforementioned empiricism. The former is the belief that knowledge is innate, and that logic and reason are the chief methods of acquiring that knowledge. Conversely, empiricists believe that knowledge is sensory, or experience, based; in essence, that human beings are tabula rasa....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Philosophy of Immanuel Kant

- There are different views about how we gain knowledge of the world, through our senses or through our minds, and although many say that it is one or the other I believe that although we gain some knowledge through sense data not all of our ideas come from these impressions. There are those who stand on the side of empiricism, like David Hume, and those who stand on the side of rationalism, like René Descartes; then there are also those who believe that one can have a foot on both sides, like Immanuel Kant....   [tags: rationalism, empiricism]

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Empiricism and Behaviorism

- the turn of the twentieth century, the field of Psychology found itself in a war between two contending theoretical perspectives: Gestalt psychology versus Behaviorism. With its roots within the United States, behaviorists in America were developing a theory that believed psychology should not be concerned with the mind or with human consciousness. Instead, behavior and the actions of humans would be the foremost concern of psychologists. Across the Atlantic, Gestalt psychology emerged by placing its criticism upon the methodology of introspection, especially by ways of disparaging behaviorism....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Explore the Uses and Limitations of the Scientific Method

- Use of scientific methods Scientific methods refer to calculated research methodology that identifies a problem, provision of relevant data and a process of formulating the hypothesis based on experiments. The scientific method also involves systematic observation and testing of a specific hypothesis. Scientific methods constitute essential science experiments. The systematic methods are, used to determine naturally occurring phenomenon. This is a useful tool in explaining specific questions while maintain the area of focus....   [tags: empiricism, scientific method, philosophy]

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The Theory Of Knowledge Is Derived From Sense Perception

- While empiricism is the theory that knowledge is derived from sense perception, there are varying degrees. Radical empiricists believe that all knowledge results from experience, while more moderate empiricists believe that experience is the basis of all knowledge except for analytic statements which are considered logical truths. Similarly, synthetic statements are considered by such empiricists as empirical truths. Empiricists stress the importance of observation. Unlike rationalists who believe in the existence of priori knowledge that can be deduced through reason, empiricists believe in posteriori knowledge, knowledge resulting from or dependent on experience, more specifically from sen...   [tags: Empiricism, Scientific method, Rationalism]

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John Locke And Plato 's Views On Knowledge

- Knowing where knowledge comes from was a huge focus for philosophers. However many of the philosophers argue on the origin of knowledge. Some believe that it comes from the senses and some believe that it comes from reason alone. Others can be somewhere in between or have completely other ideas. However, it is most interesting to compare opposing views on where knowledge comes from. John Locke and Plato are two famous philosophers who have completely opposing of their views on where knowledge comes from, but they have reasons behind their opinions....   [tags: Empiricism, Epistemology, Philosophy, Mind]

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To What Extent Can One Truly Know Anything?

- To what extent can one truly know anything. The ideal of knowledge and the extent of which one can posse has been a controversial point debated by numerous philosophers over a period of time. Beginning in the 17th century, traditional ideas were questioned by the new beginnings of science. Although many of the accomplishments during this Scientific Revolution were in astronomy and mechanics, very significant advances along the borders of knowledge were also taking place. The revival of skepticism, the view that we lack knowledge in some fundamental way, had many philosophers seeking answers....   [tags: Empiricism, Epistemology, Immanuel Kant]

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Romanticism Is Still Alive: Romantic Though, Expression ,and Action

- ... During the Romantic period the government was constantly trying to control how people thought and acted just like the government does in today’s modern society. The Romantics that were involved with these interested encouraged all people to follow their heart instead of their head when having to conform to the social norms. This has most definitely taken place to the extreme within the United States, as well as with our culture and future generation that promotes people to do what they want at their own will without any consequence or penalty for doing so....   [tags: nature, bible, empiricism]

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Adam Smith: A Brilliant Thinker from the Enlightenment

- The Enlightenment was during the eighteenth century, it had brought new ways of philosophy and new ways of thinking. The big idea of the enlightenment was taking old ideals and seeing how they can be improved and altered. Everything that was proved or discovered had to come through some sort of reason, either from experimentation or practical practice. The enlightenment had included many brilliant thinkers, in which one of them is Adam Smith. Adam Smith is considered the father of the science of political economy, he had thought up the idea of capitalism which had included the invisible hand theory, the idea of self-interest and laissez-faire, which states that businesses are free to act how...   [tags: capitalism, rationalism, empiricism]

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John Locke, George Berkeley and David Hume

- John Locke, Berkeley and Hume are all empiricist philosophers. They all have many different believes, but agree on the three anchor points; The only source of genuine knowledge is sense experience, reason is an unreliable and inadequate route to knowledge unless it is grounded in the solid bedrock of sense experience and there is no evidence of innate ideas within the mind that are known from experience. Each of these philosophers developed some of the most fascinating conceptions of the relationships between our thoughts and the world around us....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume on Human Being and Human Knowledge

- Hume is an empiricist and a skeptic. He develops a philosophy that is generally approached in a manner as that of a scientist and therefore he thinks that he can come up with a law for human understanding. Hume investigates the understanding as an empiricist to try and understand the origins of human ideas. Empiricism is the notion that all knowledge comes from experience. Skepticism is the practice of not believing things in nature a priori, but instead investigating things to discover what is really true....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume

- Locke, Berkeley, and Hume Enlightenment began with an unparalleled confidence in human reason. The new science's success in making clear the natural world through Locke, Berkeley, and Hume affected the efforts of philosophy in two ways. The first is by locating the basis of human knowledge in the human mind and its encounter with the physical world. Second is by directing philosophy's attention to an analysis of the mind that was capable of such cognitive success. John Locke set the tone for enlightenment by affirming the foundational principle of empiricism: There is nothing in the intellect that was not previously in the senses....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume on Miracles

- Hume’s empiricist ideology clearly informed his position on the topic of miracles. In the following, I will examine Hume’s take on empiricism. From this it will be possible to deduce how Hume’s empiricism played a prominent role in influencing his belief on miracles. First, what were the principles of Hume’s empiricism. Hume claims that everyone is born with a blank slate (tabula rasa). The tabula rasa receives impressions which are products of immediate experience. For example, the color of the computer screen I am looking at represents an impression....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume's Theory of Knowledge

- Empiricism (en- peiran; to try something for yourself): The doctrine that all knowledge must come through the senses; there are no innate ideas born within us that only require to be remembered (ie, Plato). All knowledge is reducible to sensation, that is, our concepts are only sense images. In short, there is no knowledge other than that obtained by sense observation. Remember that according to Descartes, what I know first and foremost are my ideas. It is only later that he seeks to know if the extramental world exists, and so he begins with his ideas and then moves towards real being (rather than vice versa)....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume and Future Occurrences

- Hume asked, "what reason do we have in thinking the future will resemble the past?" It is reasonable to think that it will because there is no contradiction in supposing the future won't resemble the past. But it is also true that is possible for the world to change dramatically and our previous experience would be completely useless in judging future experience. We want to say that past experiences have been a good predictor. We are compelled to do so and it is almost as if we can't help ourselves....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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John Locke's Theory of Knowledge

- I. General Notions Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes were not truly conscious of the phenomenalistic consequences of their theory of knowledge, which was based on empiricism. Both considered sensation as phenomenal presentations and also as representations of reality. Thus they still had something upon which to build an absolute metaphysics. With Locke gnosiological phenomenalism enters its critical phase. By considering sensations merely as subjective presentations, Locke gives us a theory of knowledge of subjective data devoid of any relation with external objects....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume's Theory of Knowledge

- Knowledge is gained only through experience, and experiences only exist in the mind as individual units of thought. This theory of knowledge belonged to David Hume, a Scottish philosopher. Hume was born on April 26, 1711, as his family’s second son. His father died when he was an infant and left his mother to care for him, his older brother, and his sister. David Hume passed through ordinary classes with great success, and found an early love for literature. He lived on his family’s estate, Ninewells, near Edinburgh....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume's Argument Against Belief in the Existence of Miracles

- David Hume was a British empiricist, meaning he believed all knowledge comes through the senses. He argued against the existence of innate ideas, stating that humans have knowledge only of things which they directly experience. These claims have a major impact on his argument against the existence of miracles, and in this essay I will explain and critically evaluate this argument. In his discussion 'Of Miracles' in Section X of An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding, Hume defines a miracle as “a violation of the laws of nature and as a firm and unalterable experience has established these laws”1....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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John Locke: Property Rights

- One of most historically influential political thinkers of the western world was John Locke. John Locke, the man who initiated what is now known as British Empiricism, is also considered highly influential in establishing grounds, theoretically at least, for the constitution of the United States of America. The basis for understanding Locke is that he sees all people as having natural God given rights. As God's creations, this denotes a certain equality, at least in an abstract sense. This religious back drop acts as a the foundation for all of Locke's theories, including his theories of individuality, private property, and the state....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Biases And Biases Of Research

- Biases in Research Researchers often feel pressure to produce results in scientific studies. Pressure is delivered by any entity, but this perception of pushing to produce, is solely controlled within the mind of the researcher. In order to have valid and reliable research, scientists are taught to be diligent, thorough, and self-aware enough to control for various biases. However, more often than not, there is no escaping one’s own mind or the resulting beliefs that reside within. Doctors, scholars, and students are posed to look toward the future by making their mark on the scientific community....   [tags: Scientific method, Science, Research, Empiricism]

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Understanding John Locke

- The first caveat to note is that Locke’s political philosophy is divided into two discernible eras – his Oxford period (1652-66) and his Shaftesbury period, when he was employed by Lord Anthony Ashley-Cooper (later Earl of Shaftesbury) from 1666-1683 through his final years following Shaftesbury’s death. The ‘two Lockes’ are somewhat distinguishable and should certainly be born in mind, even if one were to concentrate solely on his Two Treatises, and ignore his earlier thinking. Nonetheless, the Treatises, written in his later incarnation should be read not just as classics in their own right but as the mature culmination of Locke’s political philosophy into an original and insightful theory...   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Kant And Kant 's Philosophical Ideas

- During the 17th century there were 2 great philosophers who achieved great fame from their philosophical ideas. The two great philosophers during the 17th century are Scot David Hume and Immanuel Kant. David Hume was a British empiricists while Kant’s goal was to bridge the gap between rationalism and Empiricism. Kant was also influenced by Hume’s ideas of empiricism and he wanted add more ideas to it. In this paper I will be comparing and contrasting David Hume and Immanuel Kant’s philosophical ideas....   [tags: Immanuel Kant, Philosophy, Empiricism, John Locke]

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Rene Descartes is a Rationalist

- There is a distinct difference between rationalism and empiricism. In fact, they are very plainly the direct opposite of each other. Rationalism is the belief in innate ideas, reason, and deduction. Empiricism is the belief in sense perception, induction, and that there are no innate ideas. With rationalism, believing in innate ideas means to have ideas before we are born.-for example, through reincarnation. Plato best explains this through his theory of the forms, which is the place where everyone goes and attains knowledge before they are taken back to the “visible world”....   [tags: Rationalism vs Empiricism]

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Does Descartes Wax For Be Scientifically Rationalism?

- Does Descartes’ Wax Example succeed in proving rationalism. Through his meditations Rene Descartes brings up the idea of rationalism. Rationalism holds the belief that we are born with innate ideas and that we use reasoning to gain knowledge. Accordingly we later obtain knowledge through sense experience, as the information is justified by our reasoning and innate ideas. The foundations of rationalism are the ideas that we are born with, in addition to the information we obtain through reasoning and deduction....   [tags: Perception, Sense, Mind, Empiricism]

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Who Is The Only Source Of Knowledge?

- Albert Einstein said that the only source of knowledge is experience. Rationalists seek to discover knowledge through reason only considering that sensory experience is deceptive, therefore unreliable. Empiricists argue that experience is all we have to gather knowledge and we will have to settle for less certainty. Thus the great debate on whether or not experience is the source of all knowledge. John Locke argues that there are no innate ideas, all of us being a tabula rasa when we are born....   [tags: Empiricism, Epistemology, Logic, Philosophy]

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David Hume’s an Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals

- Hume was the first thinker to point out the implications of the "representative theory of perception." He had inherited this theory from both his rationalist and empiricist predecessors. According to this view, when one says that he/she perceives something such as an apple, what it actually means is that the one has in the mind a mental idea or image or impression. Such a datum is an internal, mental, subjective representation of something that I assume to be an external, physical, fact....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Descartes, Descartes And Locke

- The Existing of Material objects according to Descartes and Locke Descartes started his Meditations by doubting all his ideas and believes, and his goal was to acquire a certain foundation of knowledge. Descartes, a rationalist, believes in innate ideas, which are built into us naturally and not dependent or derived by experiences. As an example, Descartes believes in the existing of God, a powerful and perfect. Also, as a perfect God; he will not try to trick or deceive people by making them believe that they are sensing a physical thing when there is in fact no such material thing; therefore God is not a deceiver, who gives people the right ideas....   [tags: Ontology, Existence, Empiricism, Metaphysics]

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David Hume

- David Hume Hume, David, 1711-76, Scottish philosopher and historian. Hume carried the empiricism of John Locke and George Berkeley to the logical extreme of radical skepticism. He repudiated the possibility of certain knowledge, finding in the mind nothing but a series of sensations, and held that cause-and-effect in the natural world derives solely from the conjunction of two impressions....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Hume’s Reasons for Rejecting Miracles

- Hume’s Reasons for Rejecting Miracles One of the main philosophers in the debate about miracles is David Hume. I will start this essay with a basic summary of Hume’s argument. Hume’s argument is not that miracles cannot happen, but that, given the amount of evidence that has established and confirmed a law of nature, there can never be sufficient evidence to prove that a law of nature has been violated. He believes that miracles have no rational background. Hume was an empiricist, in other words, he believed that all knowledge is based on evidence that we gain through our senses....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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John Locke's Theory of Knowledge

- John Locke was an empiricist who believed that people could acquire knowledge from experience. Ideas acted as raw materials and by knowing the relation of the ideas, we got knowledge. All ideas are based on experience but knowledge can also be justified by intuition and demonstration. By sensation and reflection, we get sensitive, intuitive and demonstrative knowledge with different degrees of certainty and ways of evidence. In investigating the two main sources of ideas of Locke, we then will explain the two kinds of knowledge which based on reasoning by using suitable examples....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume's Anti Miracle Belief

- The problem of miracles is an ancient one that has persisted for most of human history, but that has been addressed with some depth only in the last few centuries. The great empiricist philosopher David Hume was one of the first to present an analysis of miracles that tried to explain why they are created (by human beings themselves, in Hume’s opinion) and why people are so ready to believe in them. This is an important field of study, as with greater knowledge of the character of physical law, one finds more and more (rather than less) accounts of miracles being touted as exceptions to natural laws....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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The Views of Locke

- The Views of Locke The life-blood of philosophy is argument and counter-argument. Plato and Aristotle thought of this as what they called dialectic discussion. D. W. Hamlyn JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704) Locke was the first of the British empiricists who held that our concepts and our knowledge are based on experience. He forms his system of knowledge with empiricist idioms, namely: all knowledge comes to us through experience. "No man's knowledge here can go beyond his experience." There is no such thing as innate ideas; there is no such thing as moral precepts; we are born with an empty mind, with a soft tablet ready to be written upon by experimental impressions....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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John Locke

- In this essay I argue that the late philosopher Locke has the most compelling theory of metaphysics. First, I explain Locke’s point that all humans are born as Tabula Rasa, in order to gain basic understanding of where Locke begins his theory. Second, I discuss how Locke argues how we obtain knowledge, empiricism and representationalism, and knowledge about the work varies between strong and weak inferences. Third, I will provide counter examples to Locke’s ideas, and will explain why these counter examples work for Locke’s theories provided....   [tags: metaphysics, Tabula Rasa, empiricism, knowledge]

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The Empiricist Journey of Young Goodman Brown

- The Empiricist Journey of Young Goodman Brown       In the late 17th century, John Locke was one of the most influential people of his age. He was a renowned philosopher who established radical ideas about the political, social, and psychological ideals of mankind. One of his philosophical ideas, which he is said to be the founder of, is British Empiricism. This idea holds that "all knowledge is derived from experience whether of the mind or the senses" ("Empiricism" 480). In any man’s life, there arises such a point in time where he comes to the realization that there is a sense of evil in the world....   [tags: Young Goodman Brown YGB]

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David Hume 's Copy Principle

- I believe that ideas are not innately formed within the mind. From the time we are born, we are surrounded by impressions of the world. Inspired by our own desire for self-discovery, we come up with concepts that derive from the experiences of everyday life. Not only can we create these ideas from external occurrences, but they can be created internally as well. All the same, the emotions that we feel in different contexts such as love, anger, sadness, even the general way we feel towards someone, are based on interactions....   [tags: John Locke, Empiricism, Mind, Idea]

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A Defense of David Hume's Moral Sense Theory

- In this paper I will defend David Hume’s Moral Sense Theory, which states that like sight and hearing, morals are a perceptive sense derived from our emotional responses. Since morals are derived from our emotional responses rather than reason, morals are not objective. Moreover, the emotional basis of morality is empirically proven in recent studies in psychology, areas in the brain associated with emotion are the most active while making a moral judgment. My argument will be in two parts, first that morals are response-dependent, meaning that while reason is still a contributing factor to our moral judgments, they are produced primarily by our emotional responses, and finally that each ind...   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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John Locke's Concept of a Persistant Self

- In this essay I will first explain John Locke’s statement, “whatever has the consciousness of present and past actions is the same person to whom they both belong” (278). Then I will elaborate on the criteria outlined by Locke to describe the concept of a persistent self. Following the flushing out of Locke’s reasoning, I will delve into David Hume’s concept of the Self as a bundle of perceptions. The juxtaposition of these two propositions of the nature of self will show that John Locke’s idea of persistent self is flawed when examined against David Hume’s concept of self as a bundle of perceptions....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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John Locke's Influence on the Founding Fathers

- The Founding Fathers of the United States relied heavily on many of the principles taught by John Locke. Many of the principles of Locke’s Second Treatise of Government may easily be discovered in the Declaration of Independence with some minor differences in wording and order. Many of the ideas of the proper role of government, as found in the Constitution of the United States, may be discovered in the study of Locke. In order to understand the foundation of the United States, it is vital that one studies Locke....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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1463 words | (4.2 pages) | Preview

David Hume's Argument on Passion and Morality

- Why is incest deplorable amongst humans, but not for dogs. What makes it acceptable for a man to kill a deer, but wrong if he kills another man. Why do these lines get drawn between humans and animals. David Hume has an answer to these questions. Though many philosophers, like Saint Augustine, argue that humans are morally different from animals because of their capability to reason, Hume states that it is passion and sentiment that determines morality. In his book, Treatise with Human Nature, Hume claims that vice and virtue stems from the pleasure or pain we, mankind, feel in response to an action not from the facts that we observe (Hume, 218)....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Hume's Ideas on Cause and Effect

- Hume and Cause and Effect Cause and effect is a tool used to link happenings together and create some sort of explanation. Hume lists the “three principles of connexion among ideas” to show the different ways ideas can be associated with one another (14). The principles are resemblance, contiguity, and cause and effect. The focus of much of An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding falls upon the third listed principle. In Section I, Hume emphasizes the need to uncover the truths about the human mind, even though the process may be strenuous and fatiguing....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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John Locke’s Theory of Personal Identity

- The question of personal identity is very intuitive, yet very difficult to define. Essentially, what makes you, you. John Locke was one philosopher who attempted to answer this question. He proposed a psychological theory to define personal identity. His theory does have some merit, but it is not a correct definition of personal identity, since there are some counter-examples that cannot be accounted for. My argument will prove that Locke’s theory of personal identity is false. Locke’s theory states that A is the same as B if and only if B remembers at T2 something done or experienced by A at T1....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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John Locke’s Theory of Personal Identity

- To understand Locke’s concept of personal identity it is necessary to understand what he means by identity and what he means specifically by personal identity. Locke states there are three substances that we have ideas of and that have identities. He defines idea in Essay concerning Human Understanding as “whatsoever is the object of the understanding when a man thinks” (Essay, chapter 1, section 8). That is to say that an idea, to Locke, is the basic unit of human thought. Identity is based off of comparison of these ideas in different times and places....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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2213 words | (6.3 pages) | Preview

The Bundle Theory by David Hume

- The mystery of consciousness has puzzled humans for thousands of years. We feel pain, hunger, and countless other perceived emotions that we know to be true. We are all aware that we are conscious; however, nobody has discovered whether or not the human body is organized in a specific way that leads to consciousness. The fact is that the existence of consciousness, the very essence of knowledge, is undeniable, regardless of the lack of a concrete systematic organization of facts to explain it....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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1369 words | (3.9 pages) | Preview

John Locke's Theory of Knowledge

- John Locke (1632-1704) was the first of the classical British empiricists. (Empiricists believed that all knowledge derives from experience. These philosophers were hostile to rationalistic metaphysics, particularly to its unbridled use of speculation, its grandiose claims, and its epistemology grounded in innate ideas) If Locke could account of all human knowledge without making reference to innate ideas, then his theory would be simpler, hence better, than that of Descartes. He wrote, “Let us then suppose the mind to be, as we say, white paper, void of all characters, without any ideas: How comes it to be furnished....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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1557 words | (4.4 pages) | Preview

David Hume: Vices and Virtues

- Hume: Vices and Virtues Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems such as those regarding existence, reality, knowledge, values, the human mind and language. “I think, therefore I am” is a famous quotation that attempts to define this study very simply, and the philosopher quoted was Rene Descartes, a 17th century Frenchman who is widely regarded as the Father of Modern Philosophy. David Hume was an 18th century Scotsman who is considered by many to be the most important philosopher ever to write in English....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume's Theory of Ethics

- David Hume is considered to be one of the big three British empiricists, along with Hobbes and Locke, and lived near the end of the Enlightenment. The Catholic Church was losing its control over science, politics and philosophy and the Aristotelian world view was being swallowed up by a more mechanistic viewpoint. Galileo found the theory provided by Copernicus to be correct, that our earth was not the center of everything, but the celestial bodies including the earth circled the sun. Mathematicians abounded....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Philosophy of David Hume

- "The human brain starts working the moment you are born and never stops until you stand up to speak in public." –( George Jessel ). One can say or try and dissect the brain and try to figure what’s going on inside of it and that’s what Philosophers today try to accomplish, but a question can be raised from this. Why is that why must the brain be dissected. This question is raised for the simple fact that Philosophers really want to know what’s going on the human brain. This can also go back to “knowing” and believing in something that can be proven as a fact....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume and Justice

- David Hume is considered a reputable and influential philosopher whose empirical approach provided a basis for a number of moral principles. Although the complexity of Hume’s expressive nature and intellectual thought is somewhat mindboggling to most readers, the importance of the account of justice can be seen as significant and of relevance to many values and morals in even today’s society. Hume’s discussion of moral virtues in his book An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals addresses the importance of justice in terms that relate to its sole foundation and further exemplification of moral distinctions....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Philosophy of David Hume

- Philosophy in itself is an unidentifiable subject matter because of the lack of specificity in the fields it touches upon. It is “defined” as a way for humans to strive for ourselves in this reality in which we live in. No one person has the answers as to who we are and why we are living. The value of philosophy changes in character as history changes, thus the meaning of philosophy is what we as individuals perceive it to be. Though subjective, there are core ideals that unite the beliefs of all philosophy, such as the idea of the self....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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The Mind Plays Tricks By John Locke

- In John Locke’s work he talks about how we obtain our thought and belief of the real world from our sense like smell, touch, sight. His argument is that you cannot get representation about everyday life through experience you need your sense to help find the truth of reality. In the reading above Locke talks about internal ideas, and those ideas being taken from particular things, this is stating that the mind plays tricks by creating stereotypes for us to compare ourselves to everyday in our reality....   [tags: Mind, Empiricism, John Locke, Philosophy of mind]

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John Locke's Philosophy

- John Locke was born in 1632. He earned his bachelor’s Degree in 1656 and a master's degree in 1658. In 1690 Locke’s An Essay Concerning Human Understanding appeared. From this came Tabula rasa. This then laid the foundation for environmentalism. Locke was an English philosopher who was regarded as one of the “most influential of enlightenment thinkers” and “important to social contract social” (Wikipedia). Locke died in 1704 never being married or having children. His theories are a part of what we practice today....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Rational Thought : Parmenides And The Atomists As Well As Their Conclusions About The Universal One

- Rational Thought: Parmenides to the Atomists Nature Philosophers in Ancient Greece spent a substantial portion of their time attempting to determine the fundamental building block, or essence, of the universe. They called this essence the “One” or the “Universal One”. The Monists (who were followers of Parmenides), and the Atomists formed two ideas on the One which affected the world in a noteworthy way. This essay will compare and contrast the ways of thinking demonstrated by Parmenides and the Atomists as well as their conclusions about the Universal One....   [tags: Reasoning, Logic, Philosophy, Empiricism]

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The Mind 's Eye, And The Paradox Of Sexual Freedom

- Because all individuals possess different sets of experiences and perspectives, their individual realities, or their interactions with and responses to their surroundings, differ accordingly. While the outside reality that exists independently from human interaction remains consistently unaffected by individuals’ perceptions, one’s individual reality can change and shift as a result of changes in perception that can be triggered by events, relationships, and interactions with others. Leslie Bell’s “Hard to Get: Twenty-Something Women and the Paradox of Sexual Freedom,” Oliver Sacks’s “The Mind’s Eye,” and Martha Stout’s “When I Woke Up Tuesday Morning, It Was Friday” collectively address th...   [tags: Mind, Perception, Sense, Empiricism]

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1539 words | (4.4 pages) | Preview

Bill Ellis : The Best Abilities And Theoretical Tools

- When it comes to the paranormal, Bill Ellis argues that folklorists have the best abilities and theoretical tools for distinguishing the experiences observed by an individual from the interpretations provided by a culture. Emphasis is greatly stressed on the significance of analyzing language choices used by the individual because they suffer the dilemma of telling “an ungrammatical experience, an experience for which there is a limited cultural belief language.” To use the convenient language the existing culture provides is to translate the experience within existing cultural values....   [tags: Sociology, Culture, Supernatural, Empiricism]

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1071 words | (3.1 pages) | Preview

Why Is La Llorona Is Popular And Influential Today?

- As a result, the issue of why La Llorona is still popular and influential today has three plausible hypotheses placed in consideration. First the idea that the legend is an aspect that upholds the culture, it is versatile and is able to change to fit different generations of ideals. Second is the idea that the legend is a cultural way of establishing ethics. Third that the consumer market is using the legend as a resource for profit in response to Halloween and so it is feeding the public the legend....   [tags: Scientific method, Theory, Empiricism]

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Movie Analysis : Film Companies Disney & Pixar

- In 2015, film companies Disney & Pixar came together to create a very popular motion picture film, Inside Out. This film reflects the core emotions of a young child throughout early childhood. Inside out stole the attention of many families with its comical, yet, realistic and relatable story line. Young Minnesota girl, Riley, faces a life changing event and has to learn to adjust. However, this adjustment is not very easy for Riley. In this paper, I will summarize the film, compare the film with empirical studies, and lastly, I will give my feedback....   [tags: Emotion, Feeling, Empiricism, Empirical]

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1492 words | (4.3 pages) | Preview

Enquiries Concerning Human Understanding by David Hume

- The way in which a concept comes to exist in one’s mind is itself a concept worth examining. Many philosophers have looked for the origin of thought in the human mind, and many different reasons for this origin have been put forth. As a philosopher, it is only fitting that Hume would propose his own framework for human thinking. For Hume, perceptions are developed either as the understanding of the outside world, or as recollections of these events or alterations of these memories within the mind¹....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism, 2015]

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1294 words | (3.7 pages) | Preview

The Philosophy Of Mindfulness Based Psychotherapy

- If a peer or colleague asked me for advice about using mindfulness techniques in clinical practice the first thing I would suggest would be a course or training in mindfulness, but I think I would actually suggest they take part in an 8-week MBCT course for themselves alongside doing some personal reading such as Pollak,, Pedulla, & Siegel, 2014 book. Sitting together: Essential skills for mindfulness-based psychotherapy. For years I have heard about mindfulness but the “definition” and experiences are different from person to person and is applied in various ways to therapeutic approaches....   [tags: Empiricism, Empirical research, Empirical]

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Post Decision Dissonance As A Decision

- Many people assume that once a decision has been made, the process is over; however, this is not necessarily true. There are several things that a person considers even after making the decision to acquire, consume, or dispose of a service or product. These considerations are referred to as post–decision processes. Consumers often times learn from their experiences and judge their satisfaction or lack thereof based upon thoughts. After making a decision, consumers are prone to evaluating it and many times, after doing so, they feel that the decision was not the right one....   [tags: Critical thinking, Knowledge, Empiricism]

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764 words | (2.2 pages) | Preview

Fayol 's Theory Of Management

- Introduction There is often great debate regarding the ‘best’ way to manage. The classical theorists, who were concerned with what managers ‘should’ do to achieve efficiency, created a list of principles of management that could, in theory, be applied to any organisation of any size/type. However, modern theorists, such as Mintzberg, often disagreed with this approach to management, saying that what managers actually do in real life is vastly different to the principles put forward by the likes of Henri Fayol....   [tags: Management, Employment, Empiricism]

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2052 words | (5.9 pages) | Preview

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