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Distillation - Distillation I. Introduction      The process of distillation has been used by humans for years to create alcoholic beverages. Distillation is the process of boiling a pair of liquids with different boiling points and then condensing the vapors above the boiling liquid in an attempt to separate them. One might suspect that the mixed two liquids of different boiling points could be separated simply by raising the temperature to the lower boiling point of the two liquids. However, this is not the case....   [tags: Organic Chemistry Distillation Water Essays] 1142 words
(3.3 pages)
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Description and Function of a Distillation Column - ... If we did not have these components separately we will be able to do the simplest things in our daily life. For example, gasoline and diesel are used to fuel engines in automobiles and higher vehicles.  Purifying mixture For example if a mixture is of oil and dirt we could distill the mixture which leaves the dirt separately. For example, if we have dirt in oil that we got from distillation of crude oil from its component we can purify it and make uses of the oil.  Desalinizing water In the gulf countries, industries distill ocean water into portable water because of the absence of lakes and natural resource of clean water....   [tags: uses in different industries]
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(5.5 pages)
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Distillation - Distillation Abstract This report outlines the steps taken to separate a 50:50 by volume ethanol and isopropanol side stream. The resulting separation must contain no more than 3% alcohol impurity in each product. A laboratory column, run at total reflux, was utilized to scale up to a forty foot high by one foot diameter column. The laboratory column allowed the team to determine vapor velocities and HETP values for the 0.24 inch Pro-Pakq packing. HETP is defined as the height of packing divided by the number of theoretical column stages....   [tags: essays papers] 4666 words
(13.3 pages)
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Oil and Plastics: The Use of Fractional Distillation in Oil Refinery - ... They can be reused much more efficiency, which gives them a much more clear advantage. Biodegradable plastics are made from biomass, which is very renewable resource. Biomass includes grass, trees and all organic material that decomposes. This probably includes animal fat, meat and some tissues. Biodegradable plastics take much less time to break down after being used, if they haven’t been recycled, of course. this means that it will get absorbed into the earth and there will no longer be plastics dominating landscapes....   [tags: chemico-technical products, manufacture] 1590 words
(4.5 pages)
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What´s Distillation? - Introduction This experiment was done to isolate an organic substance, eugenol found in clove oil of cloves, which is immiscible with water through a new technique called steam distillation. Utilizing the high vapor pressure-low boiling point of water in steam distillation, eugenol with its low vapor pressure-high boiling point is extracted from cloves and checked for its purity content. Theory Distillation is the separation of two substances based on differences in boiling points, as in when a certain substances vapor pressure (from here on abbreviated as just VP) reaches and equals to the applied pressure (here, applied pressure is the atmospheric pressure)....   [tags: substances, vapor] 854 words
(2.4 pages)
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Steam Distillation - Steam Distillation Purpose: To use steam distillation to purify heat sensitive, natural products, like essential oils. Procedure Please refer to: Williamson, Macroscale &Microscale Organic Experiments 4th Ed., pgs.98-109 Results Table 1.1: Steam distillation Drop # (every third drop) Temperature (ºC) Addition of 0.5 mL water 1 100.3 Water added 2 100.5 3 100.5 Water added 4 100.6 Water added 5 100.6 6 100.6 Water added 7 100.6 8 100.6 Water added 9 100.3 10 100.6 Observations: The residue was cloudy during distillation....   [tags: essays research papers] 438 words
(1.3 pages)
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A Humorous Distillation of Antigone by Maurice Sagoff - A Humorous Distillation of Antigone by Maurice Sagoff This poem is quite successful in getting the plot across to the reader. Unfortunatly, that is all he can get across because of his beleif that, "inside every fat book is a skinny book trying to get out." Sargoff cannot have character descriptions, themes, or any real detail in his "skinny book" because of his beleifs. Sargoff leaves off why Polynices should not be burried and why his brother, who is not even menchoned, can be burried....   [tags: essays research papers] 513 words
(1.5 pages)
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A Perspective on Super-Critical Extraction and Herbal Extracts - Super-critical extraction and Herbal extracts: A perspective The world is turning towards ‘alternative’, ‘complimentary’, ‘holistic’ and ‘integrative’ medical systems. The increasing interest in personal care particularly Europe and North America has seen many ‘Herbal Products’ on the rise. Changing trends have seen people turn to products from natural origin rather than synthetic origin. Products from natural origin are seen to be a part of a healthy lifestyle. These herbal products have phytochemical extracts as a major component....   [tags: distillation, methods, manufactuting] 1144 words
(3.3 pages)
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Women Slaves in Rum Distillation and Domestic Roles - Women Slaves in Rum Distillation and Domestic Roles Women slaves were also employed in rum distillation and domestic roles. Much like mill-feeding, women basically ran the rum distillation operations from cleaning machines to lifting and distilling. They were trusted more so than men to do this job because owners believed that women would be less likely to steal the rum and drink it themselves. However, a negative aspect of being employed in rum distillation is that owners would often substitute the alcohol for meat and other nutritious and essential dietary components, which could only lead to worse stages of malnutrition....   [tags: American History]
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1656 words
(4.7 pages)
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Oil & Plastics and Sustainability - How is this method used to help produce chemico-technical products (fuels,solvents, etc). The fractional distillation is when the crude oil get separated to a different parts, called fractions. The fractionating column is used to separate the crude oil, at the beginning the crude oil is heated at the bottom, that makes the hydrocarbon molecules to act very fast and separates from each other. Because the fractionating column have different boiling points, the consist in the crude oil allows to be separated using fractional distillation....   [tags: biodegradable plastic,PVC,fractional distillation]
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1567 words
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Distillation Column Controllability Analysis through Heat Pump Integration - From the aforesaid variables, the system approximated linearity and process gain matrices in each case are shown in Table 3. When temperatures were used as manipulated variables instead of heat variables, temperatures were already controlled by pre-existing control loops and then either used to control manually or sent as a set-points for automatic control, which changed the system from what it used to be when provisions were only made for control by heat inputs. Hence, it can be observed in Table 3 that the corresponding open-loop gains of two systems differed even when analyzing loops those other inputs variables....   [tags: Chemical and Mechanical engineering analysis]
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1167 words
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What´s Petroleum or Crude Oil? - – Preliminary Assessment 1 Part a Identify a mixture from one of the spheres of the Earth- Lithosphere – Petroleum/Crude oil Crude oil is a naturally occurring fossil fuel that has been used for many thousands of years. It is a flammable liquid found in most cases underground. Crude oil’s components are primarily hydrocarbons that have many variations; traces of other elements are also found in crude oil and also in some cases natural gas. The term ‘crude oil’ refers to oil that is unprocessed....   [tags: natural gas, fossil fuel] 1205 words
(3.4 pages)
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Viticulture: Cultivation of Grapes - Cultivation of Grapes The process involved in the cultivation, production and science of Grapes is called Viticulture. Grape cultivations one of the oldest cultivation in mankind after grains, that dates back to 7000 years during the Neolithic period. Viticulture originated from the Mediterranean region & spread across Middle East & Asia & gradually to the world. It’s in the records that the 1st grape harvest occurred 5400 B.C in region where present day Georgia & Armenia countries are called....   [tags: wine industry, fermentation, alcohol]
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1955 words
(5.6 pages)
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Polyethylene: Manufacturing Cycle and Environmental Impact - Manufacturing Cycle and Environmental Impact The most common form of polyethylene is petroleum based or olefins based; as before mentioned polyethylene compounds have a wide commercial applicability and are made from non-renewable resources (Harding, Dennis, von Blottnitz, Harrison, & S.T.L., 2007). Its manufacturing processes are regarded as energy intensive and release significant amount of CO2 and heat into the atmosphere (Broderick, 2008). Next a little more detailed description of polyethylene’s production processes will be presented, with a focus on the way the material inputs are extracted and synthesized....   [tags: Manufactutring Cycle, Environmental Impact]
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885 words
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Petroleum - Build or Burn - PETROLEUM – BUILD OR BURN CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES Petroleum is one of the three fossil fuels which consist of a mixture of hydrocarbons. Petroleum is used as an important source of energy worldwide. Approximately 90% of the petroleum which is extracted is used for energy. Petroleum is also important in the production of synthetic compounds such as plastics. Petroleum is not a renewable energy source like all fossil fuels so should not be used carelessly. So should we build or burn it. To make a valued opinion as to whether we should build or burn a few chemical concepts need to be understood which is discussed below....   [tags: Energy] 1046 words
(3 pages)
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The Effects of Hurricanes in Bananas Plantation - After receiving alarming news from the Cavendish Distilling Company or CDC, about their delicious Banana Elixir. It seems after Hurricane Floyd they lost the majority of their bananas’ and are now in need of an alternative source for a banana flavoring, to avoid bankruptcy. Luckily for the CDC, there is a known way to get the chemical that can be used in place of the oil from a banana. That chemical in this experiment will be known as isopentyl acetate. Isopentyl acetate is an Ester, an Esters are usually created from reacting a carboxylic acid with an alcohol, along this an acid catalyst....   [tags: Isopentyl acetate, banana elixir, destillation]
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991 words
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Crude Oil and Hydrocarbons - Crude Oil and Hydrocarbons Petroleum, also known as crude oil is formed from fossilized remains of marine plants and animals that settled on the sea floor millions of years ago. Petroleum consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons molecules including parrafins, aromatics, napthenes/ cycloalkanes, alkenes and alkynes. Hydrocarbons are molecules that contain hydrogen and carbon atoms that form various structures from straight chains to branching chains and rings. Hydrocarbons with low molecular weights, such as propane (C3H8) are in a gaseous form....   [tags: Environment, fossil fuels]
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1127 words
(3.2 pages)
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Analysing the Ethanoic Acid Concentration in Different Types of Vinegars - Analysing the Ethanoic Acid Concentration in Different Types of Vinegars Vinegar is a mixture of various acids, ethanoic acid being the most abundant. Most vinegars are made from a sugary liquid, this liquid is fermented to produce ethanol and then oxidised to form ethanoic acid. Different vinegars use different sugary liquids and this could lead to variation between the vinegars. My aim in this investigation is to discover whether the concentration of ethanoic acid varies between vinegars....   [tags: Papers] 3747 words
(10.7 pages)
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Highly Purified Water - Purified water should be prepared using potable water as feed water. Purified water is used as excipients in manufacturing pharmaceuticals and for equipment cleaning, especially product contact surfaces of non-sterile chemicals. Types of purification used to produce this water include Deionisation, Distillation, Ion Exchange, Reverse Osmosis and Filtration. Purified water must meet ionic organic chemical and microbial requirements. The components that produce, store and circulate purified water must be sanitised and monitored frequently to avoid bio films forming....   [tags: requirements, manufacturing pharmaceutical] 2270 words
(6.5 pages)
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Introduction of Petroleum - Introduction of petroleum: Petroleum is otherwise known as crude oil. It occurs naturally beneath the earth. Petroleum is also meaning of rock oil. The term petroleum is a generic name applied to the deposits of oil materials. Petroleum occurs beneath the earth. It is a flammable liquid and mainly composed of various hydrocarbons and its average composition is c 80-87%, H 11-15%, S 0.1-4%, N and O 0.1-0.55. Formation of petroleum Petroleum is evident from chromatographic, spectroscopic and analytical studies that a wide variety of organic and inorganic compounds is present in petroleum....   [tags: Oil] 506 words
(1.4 pages)
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Questions and Answers on an Investigation: Identification of Bacteria Through The Use of a Microscope, - 1. Explain the most interesting science concepts you learned from this investigation. The most interesting science concept we learned was that boiling one of our methods was proven the worst for us, but is the best way out of the three for purified water. This is scientifically proven because when in process of boiling the liquid changes state of matter, leaving behind the bacteria and the water evaporating leaving all unnecessary weight needed, also because most heat kills the bacteria. Ultra violet light on the other hand only kills the microbes, nothing else....   [tags: ] 1006 words
(2.9 pages)
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Is Triglyceride or Ethel Ester Fish Oil Better? - The Truth about Fish Oil The purpose of this report is to explore the controversial dispute between the quality of two different forms of fish oil supplementation; Triglyceride (TG) and Ethyl Ester (EE). Fish oil can be implemented into a diet by eating either fish or taking supplements. Fish oil is extracted from selected fish that contain highly beneficial healthy oils known as omega-3 fatty acids, two of the most important omega-3 fatty acids that are found in fish oil are Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)....   [tags: acid, body, vitamin] 652 words
(1.9 pages)
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Taking a Look at Moonshine - Moonshine is made from fermented grains or mash. The main ingredient is usually corn, and the product is called "corn whiskey." Other ingredients are used such such as yeast, malt, and sugar, and vary according to the taste of the distiller (Logsdon, n.d.). Elaborate stills are set up to produce the liquor. Only two steps, fermentation and distillation, are involved in the production (Stewart, 2103). During the fermentation process, the starches in the grain or fruit are broken down through saccharification into sugars and then the sugars are broken down into alcohol....   [tags: distilling and homemade spirits] 1902 words
(5.4 pages)
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Class A Purified Recycled Water - ... CSIRO are currently conducting tests on the purity of PRW (purified recycled water). These tests are extensive and should apparently determine if PRW is worth the billions of dollars that will be in the form of tax. From my research, if we ease on the costs of construction and maintenance for the recycling plants our federal budget should pass by. I believe the reason why nobody is moved by the thought of drinking their own sewerage is because they don't understand the level of treatment the water gets before being pumped back out of the station....   [tags: recycled water system, Queensland]
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680 words
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Petroleum: Fossils to Fuel - Petroleum; or crude oil (‘unprocessed oil’ that is taken from the ground), is a naturally occurring oily, bituminous liquid composed of various organic chemicals called hydrocarbons. Petroleum contains gaseous, liquid and solid elements. The viscosity (the ability of a liquid to flow) of petroleum varies from a liquid as thin as petrol to a liquid so thick that it will barely pour. The number of hydrocarbons present in each petroleum deposit determines the viscosity of the crude oil. Petroleum comes in two forms; liquid and gas....   [tags: Energy] 904 words
(2.6 pages)
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Uses of Essential Oils - Essential oil is one of the natural products that are used by humans for a long time ago. This oil is extracted from various plants which contain a variety of essences that produce difference fragrant. Clarke (2002) defines essential oils as the “volatile product that is extracted by a physical process from single natural plant species and that has an odors and the composition characteristic of an essential oil from that species” (pp. 86-87). Essential oil is extracted by the dry distillation process or wet distillation process....   [tags: natural beauty products for humans] 937 words
(2.7 pages)
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Contaminants in Drinking Water - "Contaminants in Drinking Water" Ground water is always under threat and attack because of the escalation of cultivation, urbanization and industrialization. Over one third of Canadians use ground water as drinking water. Ground water is water that is located and stored under ground's surface. It is used in many different ways; for example, agriculture, drinking and industrial processes. Water contamination is any changes to water's biological, physical or chemical properties that will make the water harmful, and unfit for drinking or using....   [tags: urbanization, pollution, chemicals] 1324 words
(3.8 pages)
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Topic Summary For Petroleum Paper - CHEMISTRY ISU: REFINEMENT OF CRUDE OIL My ISU will focus on Petroleum, a complex mixture of hydrocarbons that occurs in the Earth in liquid, gaseous, or solid forms. The term is usually restricted to the liquid form, commonly called crude oil, but as a technical term it also includes natural gas and the viscous or solid form known as bitumen. In its liquid and gaseous states, it is also known as Oil, or Crude Oil. Italicized are segments from my ISU or introductions to the planned topics. In my ISU, I plan to dedicate potions of my paper to the following aspects of petroleum....   [tags: essays research papers] 544 words
(1.6 pages)
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Bromination of Benzene Synthesis and Purification of Bromobenzene - BROMINATION OF BENZENE SYNTHESIS AND PURIFICATION OF BROMOBENZENE: PROCEDURE DATA TABLE Chemical Boiling point C Melting Point C Density g/mL Solubility Benzene 80.1 5.5 0.88 Slightly in H2O Toluene 110.6 -93 0.87 Slightly in H2O Bromobenzene 155-156 -30.8 1.50 Insoluble Dibromobenzene 220.40 87.31 0.96 Insoluble MATERIALS: Graduated cylinder Weight scale Buchner funnel Filter flask Rubber stopper Hot plate Thermometer Conical funnel Various size beakers Fractionating column (for reflux) Various sized round bottom flasks Distillation head Condenser Vacuum adapter Clamps and stands Test tubes PROCEDURE:...   [tags: essays research papers] 599 words
(1.7 pages)
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Toluene Hydroealkylation Process - TOLUENE HYDRODEALKYLATION PROCESS Toluene hydrodealkylation or hydrodealkylation of toluene (HDA) is a process that used to produce benzene. The reaction occurs as: Toluene + H2 Benzene + CH4 The process need toluene and hydrogen as a main reactor. Then, toluene and hydrogen are converted in a reactor packed with catalyst to produce benzene and methane. This reaction is exothermic and the operating conditions are 500 0C to 660 0C, and 20 to 60 bar of pressure. This process begins with mixing fresh toluene with a stream of recycle unreacted toluene, and the mixing is achieved in a storage tank....   [tags: reaction, benzene, catalyst] 868 words
(2.5 pages)
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Coal Tar Production - ... It is heavier than water. It is “practically insoluble” in water, whereas “all or almost all” dissolves in benzene or nitrobenzene (Budavari 1989). According to EPA 1994 & IARC 1985, CCT contains approximately 10,000 compounds which consist of 48% hydrocarbons, 42% carbon and 10% water. The chemical composition of coal tar depends upon the temperature of distillation (IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Hum. 1985, ). The high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is found in high-temperature (lOOO-1300°C) coal tars whereas low-temperature (400-700°C) coal tar contains high amount of phenols and tar acids....   [tags: characteristics, crude coal] 1072 words
(3.1 pages)
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Skin Disease: Psoriasis - ... There are various treatment options including topical, parenteral, physical and biologics available for psoriasis (Table 1) (Fairhurst 2005, Cather 2002, Ashcroft 2000, DANITONV, 1992). The topical application of drugs is the mainstay of treatment for mild to moderate plaque psoriasis and serves as a useful adjunct support to systemic therapy in severe disease (Ashcroft 2000, Katare et al, 2010). Among the various topical drugs available, coal tar is the drug of choice in the most of the developing countries and offers advantages of easy availability, economical, avoidance of systemic side effects and long remission periods (Thami 2002, US 6989247, 6927205)....   [tags: classification, treatment, therapy] 534 words
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Nature of a Diamond - The unique nature of diamond is heavily dependent upon its composition, crystal structure, and mechanical, thermal, and electromagnetic properties.1 Of those dependencies, composition exacts the most influence over the characteristics. Crystal structure is the repeating pattern of diamond’s composition, and each of the properties are the result of molecular interaction which is determined by composition. Therefore, composition is paramount in the determination of the qualities of diamond. Before its discovery, adamantane was known as decaterpene, the name applied by Decker to his tricyclic hydrocarbon....   [tags: essays research papers] 2442 words
(7 pages)
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Providing the World with Drinking Water in the 21st Century - Each day, over 5,000 children die from diarrhea-related diseases developed from unsafe drinking water. Approximately one billion people do not have access to clean drinking water; one billion people about equates to one out of every six individuals. The deaths resulting from unsafe drinking water are greater than the number of deaths caused by war. We all must work together to find new sources of freshwater so that everyone in the world will have adequate supplies of safe drinking water. This essay will outline current and future technologies that will be available to resolve this problem in the coming years....   [tags: Drinking Water Shortage]
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1050 words
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Muslim Technology on the Iberian Peninsula and Western Europe - The Moorish presence on the Iberian Peninsula lasted from 711 C.E. until 1492 C.E. While the rest of Europe wallowed in the Dark Ages, in Islamic Spain the flame of knowledge was kept burning by the Muslim invaders. While they possessed a vast body of knowledge in their own right; furthermore, they also posses writing from Greek philosophers as well as the library at Alexandria. Christians, Muslims, and Jews thrived under Muslim rule, exchanging ideas and knowledge that would be passed on to the rest of Europe during and after the Reconquista....   [tags: Military Technology ]
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Alcohol and Teens: The Effects of Teenage Drinking - When at a party, a student sees another teenager drinking a beer. Thinking nothing of it, the teenager picks up a large bottle labeled Vodka and beings to chug the contents of the bottle. The alcohol rushes through her body and she suddenly has a sense of feeling free and letting loose. The next thing the teenage girl remembers is waking up in a hospital bed to her mother crying by her bed side. The only thing her mom could say was “Honey, please wake up. Please be okay, I want you to be okay....   [tags: Essays on Underage Drinking]
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The Role of Entanglement in Quantum Information Processing - Entanglement plays an important role in Quantum Information Processing. It has wide applications in areas of Quantum cryptography, secure communications, teleportation and so on. All these protocols involve muti party entanglement which requires locally producing the entanglement and then distributing it to different parties. These multiparticle entanglement can be of various types depending upon its number of qubits. Interestingly upon distribution the states will interact with the environment and become mixed state or less entangled pure state....   [tags: cryptography, secure communication, teleportation] 796 words
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The Pros and Cons of Using Groundwater - We realize that extracting from groundwater has advantages as well as disadvantage, in order to provide advantages and disadvantages we first need to know what the meaning of groundwater. Groundwater which is known as aquifer is water that satiates the crevices and openings of rocks and residues that is positioned below the surface of the ground. A mask amount of the groundwater is protected because it is underground, therefore leaving it purely clean and exempt from the pollution on the earth....   [tags: Groundwater Depletion]
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The Elements and Health Benefits of Potassium - Potassium is an element on the periodic table that is symbolized by the letter K. The atomic number of this element is 19. At room temperature this element is a solid. Potassium can be found in two forms: either pure or compounds. Pure potassium is described as a soft silvery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and is very reactive in water However, Potassium forms many compounds such as Potassium chloride, which is the most common potassium compound (Gagnon, 1). This form of Potassium is especially used in fertilizers as a salt substitute....   [tags: atomic number, forms, chemistry]
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Risk Assessment for the Oil Refinery Industry - Introduction The industry that had been chosen to be discussed within this manuscript is the Oil Refinery. Since oil industry plays a vital function as the principal key resource for the fuel production within the economy of the world. While, the oil necessity continues to control the energy sector of the world, in addition it might require decades earlier than an innovative infrastructure for transportation, alternative energy supply distribution, and production is applied universally. Actually, the high prices of oil haven’t been the single purpose for great investments within the industry of oil refining....   [tags: hazards, employees, management] 1746 words
(5 pages)
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Water Shortage in the Middle East - Water is the main source of life on the Earth. It is vital for normal existence and functioning of organisms. Earth is sometimes called “water planet.” But, in fact, the number of freshwater is limited. “Only about 2 percent of the planet's water is fresh.” (How much water is there on Earth?) This water is not enough even to meet daily needs of mankind. According to World Health Organization, “a lack of water to meet daily needs is a reality today for one in three people around the world.” (2009) In the Middle East the situation is especially hard....   [tags: Environmental Science Ecology]
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Noble Gases: Properties of Each Element - ... The word neon comes from the Greek word νέον which means new. Neon is used in glow lamps, high voltage discharge tubes, and advertising signs, a few plasma tube, and refrigerant applicants. When used in these products the neon gives off a reddish-orange glow. Neon also gives off this color when used in helium-neon lasers. Other than that neon is not used except for a few commercial uses, one of those being fractional distillation of liquid air. Neon is created in the fusion of helium, oxygen in the alpha process....   [tags: chemical, reactivity, symbol, atomic] 1581 words
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Energy Sources: Renewable v. Nonrenewable - “Pollution from electric utilities cuts short the lives of 30,000 Americans each year”(Toxic Action Center). It could be possible to prevent premature deaths, lower the cost of energy to consumers, and reduce the dependence on fossil fuels like oil from the middle east. The most widely used energy sources are oil, coal, natural gas, hydropower, nuclear power, and wind power. Cliched as a too dangerous energy source, Nuclear energy is an important stepping stone in the United States and other countries looking to reduce their dependency on fossil fuels by reason of it’s cheap cost, less greenhouse gases, and other applications like in food and agriculture, medicine & scientific research....   [tags: environmental issues/concerns]
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Natural Gas, Petroleum and Byproducts - ... Mixed base – Mixed base is simply a form of crude oil which contains roughly equal amounts of paraffin and Asphalt, none being significantly greater than the other. The products in a mixed base crude oil are separated by fractional distillation WHERE DOES IT COME FROM. Formation of Oil Scientists have several theories on how oil and gas was formed but none of the theories have been effectively proven. Many scientists are of the opinion that the oil and gas deposits were formed from the decay of plant and animal remain....   [tags: crude oil, hydrocarbons industry]
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Polyethylene Terephthalate or Polyester Cloting - PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) Definition: Polyethylene terephthalate which is commonly known as PET is a type of thermoplastics polymers resins. When PET is used in fabrics then it is also called as Polyester which is just like a clothing fabric. PET is lightweight, economical, non reactive and shatterproof that’s why it is highly valued packaging material. Despite its name it does not contain polyethylene. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) consists of polymerized units of the ethylene terephthalate, with repeating units of C10H8O4 PET may exist both as invisible and also in semi colours....   [tags: degradation, color, properties] 1066 words
(3 pages)
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Crude Oil - Crude Oil Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbon molecules formed over millions of years when the remains of microscopic sea creatures trapped in sediments were converted by heat and pressure into crude oil. The most abundant of these mixtures are the ones containing hydrogen and carbon only. These hydrocarbons can take on a number of different forms, i.e. alkanes, alkenes and alkynes. They vary in size and shape and viscosity. By manipulating these chains of hydrocarbons you can create any number of useful substances as they are very adaptable....   [tags: Papers] 799 words
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America’s Dwindling Water Supply - Water shortage in United States is a potential problem. Today almost no one consider how serious the issue is. Water is the main resource of our living; we have it and do not realize how much water we waste. In U.S.A. there are over usage of water in irrigation, agriculture, industry and over usage in residential purposes. According to CBS News report (Strassmann, 2010), average American uses about 150 gallons every day, while Englishmen use 40 gallons, Chinese – 22 and Kenyan - 13 gallons....   [tags: Water Shortages in USA]
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The Dehydration of Cyclohexanol to Form Cyclohexene - The Dehydration of Cyclohexanol to Form Cyclohexene In order to dehydrate Cyclohexanol it is required that a dehydration agent, in this case phosphoric acid, be added and for the mixture to be distilled with the Cyclohexene being taken off between 343K and 363K. This reaction gives the formula: In order to keep the experiment at a manageable size 0.1 mole of Cyclohexanol was used along with 4cm3 of concentrated Phosphoric acid. 0.1 mole of Cyclohexanol x 100.2 = 10.2 100.2 0.962 = 10.4 cm3 However because the measuring cylinder only measured to the nearest 1cm3 ,10cm3 had to be used instead....   [tags: Papers] 610 words
(1.7 pages)
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Producing Drinking Water With Desalination Technology - Desalting refers to a water treatment process that removes salts from water. It is also called desalination or desalinization. Desalting can be done in a number of ways, but the result is always the same: drinking water is produced from brackish (somewhat salty) water or seawater. Desalting technologies can be used for a number of applications, but the purpose of this report is to discuss the use of desalting to produce drinking water from saline water for domestic or municipal purposes. Throughout history, people have continually tried to treat salty water so that it could be used for drinking and agriculture....   [tags: Drinking Water From Seawater] 1455 words
(4.2 pages)
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The Power of Aromatherapy - The Power of Aromatherapy Aromatherapy: Purpose Definition. Aromatherapy is the use of essential oils to help the mind, body, and soul. It has physiological, emotional, spiritual, and psychological properties (http://www.dawn21.com/MessageMag/Aromatherapy.html). Today, it is a science that includes three fields: esthetic, commercial, and clinical (http://www.dawn21.com/MessageMag/Aromatherapy.html). Some categorize it as a holistic or alternative science. This is an ongoing debate, and the answer depends on who you are asking....   [tags: Aromatherapy Research Term Papers]
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The Atmosphere and Oceans - The Atmosphere and Oceans The atmosphere is a cocktail of gases . The exact amounts of each gas vary as the amount of water vapour is variable. Name of Gas Amount in air % Nitrogen Oxygen Argon 78 21 1 The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is tiny (0.01%). The amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen gas are balanced and stay the same. Photosynthesis in plants converts carbon dioxide into oxygen. Breathing and burning convert oxygen into carbon dioxide....   [tags: Papers] 566 words
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Fluidized Catalytic Cracker - Fluidized Catalytic Cracking is a technology in petroleum refining where heavier petroleum fractions are converted to more valuable lighter fractions like LPG, gasoline and diesel. Introduction: In petroleum refining, crude oil is distilled at atmospheric pressure to recover valuable petroleum products like LPG, Naphtha, Kero, ATF and Diesel. The residual heavier fraction, which has little commercial value, is further distilled under vacuum to separate Light Vacuum Gas Oil (LVGO), Heavy Vacuum Gas Oil (HVGO) and Vacuum Residue....   [tags: environment, petroleum]
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Organic Compund: Propionaldehyde - Organic compounds are commonly found every day in every part of life. Propionaldehyde is a common organic compound also known as propanal, propaldehyde, and methylacetaldehyde with propanal being the most common alternate name. It is a clear colorless liquid at room temperature. Coming from the functional group of aldehyde, propionaldehyde has a C=O bond in replace with two hydrogen atoms, which would be the base propane molecule. The molecular formula is C3H6O, the structural formula CH3CH2CHO, the structure is found in figure 1 (end)....   [tags: propanal, propaldehyde, methylacetaldehyde]
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Chemistry: Gas-Liquid Chromatography - Extraction To obtain oils from plant materials steam distillation is typically used. Solvent extraction is also used to create a resinoid (resembling characteristics of resin). Solvent extraction is commonly used with volatile substances that may be lost with distillation. Solvent used are pentane, hexane, and mixes of solvents such as ethyl acetate and hexane which is commonly used in place of benzene (see Figure 2). Gas-Liquid Chromatography Gas-Liquid Chromatography is the process of separating complex mixtures into the components and measuring the individual components....   [tags: extraction, resinoid, benzene]
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What is Nitrogen? - ... It is non-metallic chemical element, tasteless and an odourless. Difficult soluble in water and cannot react easily with many other elements. A daily basis, most organisms consume nitrogen in their food. It makes up about 80% of the atmosphere, but oxygen gas only covering 20% of the atmosphere. It can be condensed to liquid nitrogen. The boiling point of nitrogen is at a temperature of 195.8 m and freezes at -9. 209 m. So nitrogen gas is very plentiful and common. It is the seventh most abundant in the universe....   [tags: fertilizer, compounds, chemical elements] 967 words
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Distilling Vodka - Vodka is one of the best white liquors ever made; however, have you ever wondered how to distill vodka in the privacy of your own home. If you are no stranger to home brewing wine and beer, then distilling vodka should be an exciting venture. Conversely, if this is your first shot at distilling vodka, consult with someone who is experienced in setting up a still. You can find the parts on home-brew websites, hardware and cooking stores. Moreover, you will need to consult other resources for exact heating times and proportions, as it is impossible to know what type or size still you will be purchasing....   [tags: Alcohol ] 515 words
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Free Essays On Shakespeare's Sonnet 5 - Analysis of Sonnet 5 Those hours that with gentle work did frame The lovely gaze where every eye doth dwell Will play the tyrants to the very same, And that unfair which fairly doth excel: For never-resting time leads summer on To hideous winter and confounds him there, Sap check'd with frost, and lusty leaves quite gone, Beauty o'ersnow'd and bareness everywhere: Then were not summer's distillation left A liquid prisoner pent in walls of glass, Beauty's effect with beauty were bereft, Nor ir nor no remembrance what it was....   [tags: Sonnet essays] 363 words
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Statement of Purpose on Master of Science in Chemical Engineering - The various processes and concepts involved in industries responsible for the production of innumerable day to day goods have always captured my fascination. The production and processing of chemicals form the crux of such industries. What started as a fascination has turned into a passion, and the next step in this journey is why i am aspiring towards a Master of Science degree in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING at PENN ENGINEERING specializing in {Specialization}. The growing demand for the production of such goods and the various constraints involved has motivated me to help provide the world with processes and techniques which are not only more efficient and affordable but also sustainable....   [tags: processes, techniques, academic] 528 words
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Conclusion of Midterm - Error Analysis In such a big lab, so many errors can occur and even one little one can ruin everything. One could have missed a procedure or done a procedure incorrectly. Another could have been using the incorrect amount of liquid or sludge. Someone could have lost a test-tube or labeled it wrong causing the results to be mixed. Using too much water in the solubility tests or not getting all measurements almost exactly accurate could be two sources of error. One big mistake could be creating a vacuum in the fractional Distillation part of the lab....   [tags: essays research papers] 608 words
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The Massospondylus Carinatus Fossils - ... 1.2 ) Dating and naming of the fossils The fossil was named Massospondylus (massōn, "longer") (spondylos, "vertebra") this name comes from the Greek. In 1854 by Sir Richard Owens 1.3) Description of main fossil/s found at the site Massopondylus carinatus, was a medium sized herbivore, had a small head and large eye sockets . large teeth and nostrils, its upper jaw jutted out beyond its bottom jaw and had a variety of tooth types. Scientists are not sure whether this animal was a herbivore or carnivore, but evidence from the stomach proves that it was a herbivore....   [tags: jurassic period, dinosaur] 596 words
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Camphor: A Diminishing Industry of Great Importance - Camphor: A Diminishing Industry of Great Importance Camphor, a member of the Family Lauraceae (Heywood, 1978), is much valued in different parts of the world, particularly in China. This prized botanical has been said to originate in China, but there have been references to Japan, Taiwan and East Asia in similar time periods. Camphor is abundant in mostly sub-tropical countries including India and Ceylon. The camphor tree also thrives in Egypt, the Canary Islands, Argentina, Europe, Florida, California, and Formosa....   [tags: Botany]
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The early petroleum industry in the US - The Early Petroleum Industry in the United States Ancient Egyptians used bitumen for embalming, the Assyrians used it in building, the Chinese for heating and lighting, and for centuries fishermen have used it to make their boats watertight. Naturally, man being what he is, was not content to let well alone, and soon petra- oleum (rock oil) and its associated products were being used in many delightful ways to cripple and annihilate his fellow men. The famous "Green Fire" was used in various forms for many centuries once it became known that when a mixture of petroleum and ground quicklime is exposed to moisture spontaneous combustion takes place....   [tags: essays research papers] 1792 words
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Lab Report: Effect Pollution has on Water - A. Question Being Addressed: The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between pollution and water while the physical properties of water are held fixed. I am going to compare the “polluted” water with the purified water and see if it changed in anyway. For this experiment, I’m going to use water containing sand and oil to get “polluted” water. Also, I am going to use two methods of separation of substances, distillation to remove the oil, and filtration to remove the sand. Then I am going to use activated charcoal to remove any dissolved substances in the water....   [tags: essays research papers] 478 words
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Biofuel: Ethanol Alternative to Transportation - Biofuel: Ethanol Alternative to Transportation For the past three decades Oil dominates the agenda of political discussion. With scares over price volatility, sizes of reserves, international imports and least of which are the environmental impacts due to carbon dioxide and other emissions. Various speculations and educated guesses place our total depletion of crude oil within the next 50 years and there is a general consensus between environmentalists that we steer toward a hydrogen transportation system given the projected work and nonexistent carbon dioxide emissions (Environmental Technologies class lecture, Santa Clara University)....   [tags: Politics Oil Essays]
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Characteristics of the Element Neon - Characteristics of the Element Neon Neon was discovered in 1898 by British chemists Sir William Ramsay and Morris W. Travers as a component of the most volatile fraction of liquefied crude argon obtained from air. Upon applying an electric current to it, the chemists found that it had an orange glow, and they decided that it was not argon, but rather a new element altogether. Neon is not a very common element, but the places it is most abundant in are the earth's atmosphere, and trapped within rocks in the earth's crust....   [tags: Papers] 331 words
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Alcohol Producing Yeast - Food and energy security have always been essential needs in various ways. This is due to their limited resources and their increasing demand by a growing human population [1, 2, 3]. At the same time demands of ethanol has been increasing since it is considered to be an alternative transportation energy source other than food consumption [4, 5]. Considerable attention has been given to ethanol production from various available sugar substrates such as molasses, sugar cane juice [6]; starchy materials like rice, millet, corn, sorghum, wheat, potato, cassava [3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10]; as first generation ethanol and cellulosic materials as second generation ethanol [11]....   [tags: Environment, Fossil Fuel, Crude Oil] 540 words
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Compare and Contrast: The Degree of Free Will Between the Creature from Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and Adam from Milton’s Paradise Lost - Introduction It is easy to regard Frankenstein’s Creature as the terror of all terrors. Look into horror fiction and you can easily assess the long-lasting impact of Shelley’s magnum opus. Halloween costumes in all sizes and hues, three cinematic adaptations, countless spin-offs…Stripping away the distillation of mainstream culture, however, it must be said that Shelley’s idea was more substantial than to create the stuff of nightmares. In the book, the monster is anything but the mumbling, shuffling oaf as depicted in the 1931 film....   [tags: Predeterminism, Moral Responsibility]
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I Want to Pursue My Master's Degree at Texas A&M University - “An innovator is one who does not know it cannot be done” - R.A. Mashelkar These splendid words of Dr R A Mashelkar have made a deep-rooted impact on my mind. He rightly states that great leaders fearlessly tackle challenges; they believe that nothing is impossible. These leaders are actually innovators who have immense passion in them to envisage solutions for perplexing problems. As a young, aspiring engineer, I find Dr R A Mashelkar’s philosophy, that the innovators have compassion in their heart and passion in their belly, very inspiring....   [tags: statement of purpose] 980 words
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The Central Theme of Southern History by Ulrich B. Phillips - Imagine a historian, author of an award-winning dissertation and several books. He is an experienced lecturer and respected scholar; he is at the forefront of his field. His research methodology sets the bar for other academicians. He is so highly esteemed, in fact, that an article he has prepared is to be presented to and discussed by the United States’ oldest and largest society of professional historians. These are precisely the circumstances in which Ulrich B. Phillips wrote his 1928 essay, “The Central Theme of Southern History.” In this treatise he set forth a thesis which on its face is not revolutionary: that the cause behind which the South stood unified was not slavery, as such,...   [tags: Phillips vs. Wright] 1616 words
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How Canada’s Three Major Exports Have Contributed to Canada’s Economy - Last year, Canada received 443 billion dollars in revenue from exporting goods throughout the world. Almost 54% of that was covered by Canada’s three major exports (Stat Can.) - mineral products, transportation items, and electrical equipment and machinery. While preparing theses resources for export may be difficult, it is worth it. This essay will review the large role exports play in Canadian economy by being a immense source of income, allowing Canada to maintain robust trade routes and relations throughout the world, and providing Canadians with many jobs....   [tags: Canada, Income, Economy, Exports]
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Action and Reaction: Henry David Thoreau's Influence on Edward Abbey - Walden and Desert Solitaire As similar as “Civil Disobedience” and The Monkey Wrench Gang are in terms of themes and activism, Thoreau’s influence on Abbey is most pronounced in the comparison of Thoreau’s greatest work, Walden, and Abbey’s personal desert meditation, Desert Solitaire. The publication of Desert Solitaire first drew critics’ eyes to Abbey’s connection with Thoreau, and it caused Abbey to be labeled “a road company Thoreau” by Clifton Fadiman (Cahalan 163). From that point in his career, Abbey was often equated with Thoreau, and though it took many years, Abbey “encouraged the use of ‘the Thoreau of the American West’ as a blurb on the hardback jacket of Beyond the Wall” (Cah...   [tags: literature, walden and desert solitaire]
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A Quick Look at Different Fuels and How They Work - ... You can still find them in cell phones, laptops, and other small devices, but until all tests and procedures are complete they will not be in vehicles or big equipment. The discovery of the hydrogen fuel cell was advanced almost directly from the natural resource of hydrogen and oxygen. Without these there would be no fuel cells. I believe this discovery will be a real breakthrough in society since the resources needed to fuel the cells are generally easy to come by. In my opinion, everyone eventually will convert to this in the future for better quality and more cost efficient in the long run....   [tags: history of chemistry] 899 words
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What is LNG and What are the Benefits of Liquifaction? - CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND What is LNG and what are the benefits of liquefaction. Natural gas is a major source of energy, but many towns and cities that need the energy are located far from the gas fields. Transporting gas by pipeline can be costly an impractical. As such, natural gas is condensed into a liquid at close to atmospheric pressure (maximum transport pressure set at around 25 kPa) by cooling it to approximately -162°C (-260°F) in liquefaction process. It is then called liquefied natural gas (LNG) and characterized as a cryogenic liquid....   [tags: natural gas, energy, resources]
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Eucalyptus Globulus' Effect on the Germination of Radish Seeds - The purpose of the project was to determine whether Eucalyptus globulus had an effect on the germination of radish seeds. It was hypothesized that Eucalyptus globulus would have a negative effect on the germination of the seeds and their growth. Before a seed can germinate it must first shed the seed coat, a protective outer layer that protects the seed from parasites, injury, and unfavorable temperatures. Inside the seed coat is the embryo which contains the root and first leaves of the plant, called cotyledons....   [tags: Plants]
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The Number of Volatile Compounds in Sea Buckthorn Juice - 3.1 Qualitative Analysis The total number of volatile compounds found in sea buckthorn juice varies according to published data [8-12] and this study reports the highest number of compounds found so far, but there is an annual variation. In 2011, a total of 74, 89, 72 volatile compounds were extracted from 3 varieties (Hergo, wild and Frugana) of sea buckthorn berries (figure 1 and 2, table 1). A significant decline in the number of volatiles was seen in the 2012 harvest with only 17, 39, 9, 20 volatile compounds extracted in four varieties of berries (Hergo, wild, Frugana, Askola), (figure 3, and table 1)....   [tags: chemical analysis]
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Mulit-Store Model of Memory vs. Working Memory Model - Compare and contrast the multi-store model of memory with the working memory model. This essay will firstly briefly describe the theories and important facts about the original multi-store model of memory (MSM) and the working memory model (WMM). This essay will then evaluate the key studies within these two models and explain the strengths and weaknesses of the main theories. The final part of this essay will be to examine the similarities and differences between the two models. The first issue that needs to be addressed however is what exactly is memory....   [tags: Memory]
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ROP Mechanism: Cyclic Ester Polymerization by Tin(II) Octoate - Introduction Polymerization of cyclic esters has attracted a lot of interest for the synthesis of biodegradabale/ biocompatible polymeric materials, such as polylactide, polyglycolide and also other polymer compound such as linear polycarbonate. Ring opening polymerization of cyclic ester compounds is better than step polymerization for obtaining high Mw polymers in a controlled “living” fashion, while avoiding the formation of by-products. Tin octoate (tin(II) bis(2-ethyl hexanoate)), Sn(Oct)2) is one of the most used initiator in the polymerization of cyclic esters....   [tags: Research Analysis] 1046 words
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The Effects of Off-Shore Drilling on Marine Ecosystems - The environmental impact of the planet is closely related to a problem that arose from the increasing use of Oil: the reduction of emission levels of toxic chemicals and so-called "greenhouse gases", and reducing oxygen levels. Man has caused disasters on ecosystems by killing large number of species of all kinds. Among the most serious disasters that threaten biodiversity are oil spills in the seas and oceans. The contamination by crude oil or refined oil (diesel, gasoline, kerosene and other products obtained by fractional distillation and chemical processing of crude oil) is accidentally or deliberately generated from different sources....   [tags: Environment, Environmental] 1765 words
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Analysis of Henry James' _Portrait of a Lady_ - Henry James’s novel Portrait of a Lady published in 1881, presents more than the portrait and the destiny of Isabel Archer transposing the ideas of the late nineteenth century in a strong and intense literary work. The elements of the American society from the last decades of the nineteenth-century meet the European society: America, natural, attractive by vitality and by novelty, and Europe, old and sophisticated, but artificial and decaying. The novel treats, in parallel, two key themes - in the foreground is Isabel Archer and her life story (Bamberg, 2003)....   [tags: Literary Analysis]
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Clandestine Drug Laboratories and the Fire Service - Clandestine labs pose a great risk, to the individuals producing these toxic concoctions they don’t realize how dangerous and volatile these chemical are. These chemicals cause three main types of harm. (1) physical injury from explosions, fires, chemical burns, and toxic fumes. (2) environmental hazards and (3) endangerment of the surrounding area/child endangerment. () The most popular drug produced by clandestine laboratories is methamphetamines. Methampheramines are made from cold medicines, herbal pills and nutritional supplements....   [tags: Drugs ]
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