Your search returned over 400 essays for "deoxyribonucleic acid"
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Deoxyribonucleic Acid or DNA: Defining Our Life

- Deoxyribonucleic Acid or DNA: Defining Our Life Genetics is defined as the study of heredity. Heredity is controlled by genes, which aid in the development of a cellular organism’s definite characteristics. Such characteristics include sex, hair color, eye color, and countless other traits. Genes are composed of deoxyribonucleic acid, more commonly abbreviated as DNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid carries the genetic material for all cellular organisms. These molecules carry the information needed to direct many important processes that take place inside of the cell....   [tags: Biology Science Research Papers]

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DNA: Exploring Creation With Biology

- DNA is the basic substance in the life forms you see around you, yet it is a complicated concept. Your DNA determines the color of your eyes, skin, hair and enable functions such as your sight and hearing. DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid which contains the biological aspects that make everyone individually different. DNA is all contained in one molecule, and there are millions of tightly packaged DNA cells all throughout many life forms making it the building block of the DNA. In the late 1860’s, a Swiss chemist named Friedrich Miescher first identified DNA....   [tags: Deoxyribonucleic Acid, Scientists, Studies]

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DNA

- DNA DNA, or Deoxyribonucleic Acid, is described, in Encarta Encyclopedia as a genetic material of all cellular organisms and most viruses. DNA carries the information needed to direct protein synthesis and replication. Protein synthesis is the production of the proteins needed by the cell or virus for its activities and development. Replication is the process by which DNA copies itself for each descendant cell or virus, passing on the information needed for protein synthesis. In most cellular organisms, DNA is organized on chromosomes located in the nucleus of the cell....   [tags: Deoxyribonucleic Acid essays research papers]

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Structure of Nucleotides and DNA

- ... 1. The double helix is untwisted and the corresponding stands are unzipped. 2. The hydrogen bonds between the bases are broken freeing the floating nucleotides join with nitrogenous bases forming hydrogen bonds. This part of the reason for complementary base pairing. 3. Once the new nucleotide are bonded together by the enzyme DNA polymerase, which form complete strands opposite the original strands. 4. Finally, all the nucleotides are joined to form a complete polynucleotide chain using DNA polymerase....   [tags: deoxyribonucleic, molecule, bond]

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Chemistry of PNA Peptide Nucleic Acid

- Abstract For this report I chose to study PNA, or peptide nucleic acid, a biological polymer that was related to the biomedical field of research. I was very interested in this synthesized molecule because of its inimitable and remarkable properties, comparatively to other nucleic acids such as the more commonly known DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, and RNA, or ribonucleic acid. I also wanted to understand its uses and possible uses in everyday life. My main goal was to learn about the structure, significance, and clinical applications of PNA....   [tags: Biology Polymer Medical Biomedical]

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Uses and Advantages of Citric Acid

- An acid is a substance that produces H+ to form a solution that has a pH <7. It turns litmus paper red. It reacts with bases to form a salt and water. A weak acid is an acid that dissociates incompletely, releasing only some of its protons(H+). A strong acid is an acid that fully dissociates incompletely, releasing only some of its protons(H+). A base is a substance that can accept (H+) and releases(OH-) to form a solution that has a pH>7. It turns litmus paper blue. It reacts with acids to form a salt and water....   [tags: Acid, Base, Chemistry]

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Potent Drugs: The LSD or Acid

- LSD, or ‘acid’ by street name, is one of the world’s most well-known and most potent drugs. Its major component is Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, which is found in a fungus that grows on grains, such as rye, and some wild grasses. LSD is colorless, tasteless, and odorless. It is illegally made into crystal form first and is later converted to several different liquid forms, such as tablets, microdots, absorbable paper, gelatin squares, or capsules for distribution (Hoffman, page 56). Users call an LSD experience a “trip”....   [tags: effects, trip, Lysergic Acid Diethylamide]

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The Midwife’s Role in Informing Pregnant Women of the Importance of Folic Acid

- How the provision of information in the antenatal period can positively affect health and life style choices in the pregnant woman and her family. It is a recognised certainty that nutrition is a fundamental requirement to sustain a healthy lifestyle and is also extremely valuable when recovering from an illness or an injury. Nutrients are absorbed in the body and this physiological process is essential for homeostasis and ensuring equilibrium is sustained within the body as without enough food and drink the body will not function correctly (Edwards & Thomas, 2009)....   [tags: Importance of Folic Acid]

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The Effects of Acid Rain on Statues

- The Effects of Acid Rain on Statues Introduction ------------ During this investigation, I will use dilute hydrochloric acid as the acid rain and crushed calcium carbonate as the chemical of the statues. Then I will time how long it takes for the limestone powder to react until there is no more left when the acid is added to it. Rain contains acid naturally as it collects carbon dioxide from the air and makes carbonic acid. Rain normally has a pH of about 5.5 – it is slightly acidic due to the carbon dioxide dissolved in it....   [tags: Acid Rain Chemical Reactions Essays]

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The Effects of Acid Deposition on Humans and the Environment

- Acid Deposition One of the biggest environmental problems that needs dealing with in society today is acid deposition. It is largely caused by humans, and causes much pollution to the environment and harms people and buildings as well. Although there are minimal positive sides to this issue, the negatives far outweigh it and call people around the world to take action to reduce and even solve this problem. Coming in both wet and dry forms, acid deposition consists of acidic pollutants including nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides that have been deposited from the atmosphere to the surface of the earth....   [tags: Environmental Ecology Essays Pollution Acid Rain]

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Acid Rain

- Acid Rain Acid rain has become an environmental concern of global importance within the last decade. With the increasing environmental awareness of the "unhealthy" condition of our planet earth the concern about acid rain has not lessened. In brief, acid rain is rain with pH values of less than 5.6. When dealing with acid rain one must study and understand the process of making Sulfuric acid. In this project we will take an in depth look into the production of sulfuric acid, some of its uses and the effects of it as a pollutant in our environment....   [tags: Acid Rain Environmental Nature Essays]

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Chemistry and Effects of Acid Rain

- ... Acid rains cause great harm to the environment. It is very harmful to the animals and other living organisms in water. Most lakes and streams have a pH level between 6-8. When acid rains hit the water, pH level goes down and water becomes acidic. The soil of these lakes and streams have an ability to neutralize the acidity of the soil. This is called buffering capacity. However, if the pH level is too low, this neutralization is not strong enough to keep the balanced levels. When water becomes too acidic, it dissolves harmful substances from soil such as aluminum and releases it to water....   [tags: industrial revolution, greenhouse gases]

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The Reason and Response for Acid Rain

- ... Acid Rain is a type of acid deposition. Acid deposition is the augmentation of acidic amalgamations on the Earth’s surface. Also it's basically rain that has been made acidic by Sulfur DiOxide ( SO2 ) and other pollutants. Acid rain is formed by the release of Sulfur Dioxide ( SO2 ) and Nitrogen Oxide ( NO2 ) into the atmosphere. Then the chemicals are absorbed into the rainwater and create acid rain. Acid rain , mostly comes from the chemicals emitted into the air by coal fired power plants....   [tags: sulfer dioxide, pollution, erosion ]

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Fatty Acid Synthesis and Cancer

- Introduction Fatty acid synthesis plays a vital role in homeostasis within the human body. The process of fatty acid synthesis regulates energy metabolism and provides fuel in times of starvation1. This process also synthesizes biomolecules that are important to life during embryonic development and lactation in mammary glands2. An overproduction of synthesized fatty acids is implicated in disease states such as obesity, liver disease, and cancer3. The fatty acid synthase (FAS) complex performs a vital role in fatty acid synthesis....   [tags: homeostasis, biochemical reactions, experiments]

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Acid Rain and its Impact

- Rain is a major component of the water cycle as it is held responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on Earth. (EPA USA, 2014) It not only provides suitable conditions for various ecosystems, but also provides water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation. (Andrei, 2012) However, since the start of industrialization in the 18th century, humans have been abusing such important features of life and created acid deposition. (The Ledger, 2014) The pH scale is composed of values starting from zero, the most acidic, to 14.0, the most alkaline....   [tags: Rain, Water, Chemistry]

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Detrimental Effects of Acid Rain

- When sulfur and nitrogen oxides are emitted into the atmosphere they quickly oxidize and convert to gaseous acids, then return to the earth as acidic compounds in what is known as acid rain. On any ecosystem the precipitation falls one can see detrimental effects. When falling into a body of water it increases the pH decreasing fish population and biodiversity. Similarly on forest floor it increases the acidity of the soil weakening trees and other plants. Sulfur and Nitrogen oxides are emitted into the environment from both natural and manmade sources....   [tags: enviornment, emmissions, government]

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Effect of pH and Acid Phosphatase

- The practical was carried out to investigate the effect of pH on the reaction of the enzyme acid phosphatase. Of the many functions of proteins, catalysis is by far the most vital. When catalysis is not present, most reactions in the biological systems take place very slowly to produce at an adequate pace for metabolising organism. The catalysts that take this role are called enzymes. Enzymes are the most efficient catalysts; they can enhance rate of reaction by up to 1020 over uncatalysed reactions....   [tags: Protein, Catalysis,Reaction, Enzyme]

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Air Pollution and Acid Rain

- Air Pollution is not a new topic. It is a problem that we have noticed since the industrial revolution, when trees, houses and cars were covered in soot from the factories. People demanded change then, just as they are demanding it now. With all the talk of acid rain, global warming and ozone depletion it seems hopeless, but it isn't. Everyone can make a difference. After reading this you will understand the causes, effects and possible solutions to the problems of acid rain, global warming and ozone depletion....   [tags: Environment, Environmental Issues]

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The Success of Operation Acid Gambit

- Introduction Operation Acid Gambit was a successful joint personnel recovery mission executed on the 20th of December in 1989. The operation, largely considered a victory, was effective for several reasons. Joint recovery forces showcased excellent timing, obtained actionable intelligence, performed intense rehearsals, and integrated joint assets in extraordinary fashion. The operation was so successful that, Colonel James A. Ruffer, a major contributor to this effort, wrote, “Since WWII there had been not one rescue of an enemy held American prisoner, by U.S....   [tags: military, mission, planning]

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Folic Acid Supplementation and Pregnancy

- ... Genetic predisposition is also a factor in increasing the risk of NTDs. More than two hundred genes that are known to cause NTDs in mice have been found, but this data alone does not prove that the same genes exist in humans since human experimentation has not been conducted I this field (Greene, Stanier, & Copp, 2009). Studies concerning the diet and habits of the subjects that were used in these studies need to be done in order to show that FA supplementation influences the risk of women predisposed to NTDs....   [tags: birth defect prevention]

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What is Acid Rain?

- Acid rain has been proven to have damage forests, fresh waters and soils, killing insect and aquatic life-forms. It also causes damage to buildings and impacts on human health. Many people do not know what acid rain actually is. Acid rain is any form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, low pH levels, higher than normal amounts of sulfuric and nitric acid, occurs naturally and from man made sources. Forms when gases react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and other chemicals (what is acid rain?)....   [tags: precipitation, pH levels, damage]

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THe Acid Rain Debate

- Currently, acid rain is one of the global problems that human societies face. To solve the acid rain problem there must be an understanding of the effect of acid rain and the changes that could be made to the sources of air pollution that cause the problem. Understanding these things help leaders make better decisions about how to control air pollution and therefore how to reduce or even eliminate acid rain. In the early 1970s, no country had a policy to address this problem (Forster). Nowadays, most if not all countries follow the international policy issued by the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) (Forster)....   [tags: global problems, air pollution]

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Prevention of Acid Rain

- Acid Rain A consequence of air pollution is acid rain. Acid rain can also form as snow or sleet which contain relatively larger concentrations of acid forming chemicals, which come from pollutants from smoke of coal and chemical manufacturing. These combined with water vapor in our atmosphere to cause acid rain. Acid rain is a mixture of wet and dry deposited material in the atmosphere which contain a larger than normal quantity of Nitric and Sulfuric acid (What Is Acid Rain EPA). When any type of fuel is burnt a lot of different chemicals are released into the atmosphere....   [tags: pollution, catalytic converter, energy]

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Disturbances of Acid-Base Balance

- Disturbances of Acid-Base Balance If an acid-base disturbance shifts the pH outside of the physiologic range, various control measures are activated to resist the change in pH. Compensatory mechanisms try to preserve the normal 20:1 ratio of bicarbonate to carbonic acid to keep the pH at normal range. The body works to maintain normal ratios through a compensation mechanism using renal and respiratory methods (Crowley, 2010). Metabolic Alkalosis Metabolic alkalosis is seen by an increase in the concentration of plasma bicarbonate relative to the concentration of carbonic acid, which shifts the pH to the alkaline side of the physiologic range (case study- pH 7.5)....   [tags: Scientific Research ]

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Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Analysis

- Lysergic acid diethylamide is a hallucinogenic drug that was created in the 1930s. LSD has been used in many ways since the powerful effects of the drug were discovered. However, this drug is most commonly found used illegally. When sold, LSD can be found in several different forms and doses. Depending on the dose taken, the different short- and long-term effects can have more or less of an effect on the user. LSD mostly effects the brain. The drug changes some functions so greatly, the changed can may take years to fully recover....   [tags: drug addiction, lsd, hallucigenic drug]

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LSD: Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

- What is LSD. LSD is the most common hallucinogen, and is made from lysergic acid, which is derived from a fungus that grows on rye and other grains. It comes in several different forms, the most common of which is “blotter” paper. Blotter paper is perforated into small squares. LSD also comes as a clear liquid that can be ingested alone or put on a sugar cube or even in the eyes. Sometimes it is also found in thin squares of gelatin . What are some of the street names for LSD. Some of the street names for LSD are acid, rainbow, blotter, cheer, hawk, dots, and window pane....   [tags: drugs]

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LSD: Lysergic Acid Deithylamide

- Hallucinogens can alter the mind; it cause changes in mood and cause the user to have unusual thoughts. Hallucinogens do not always cause hallucinations, despite of the name; the user feels false sensations that they only experience. Hallucinogens induce the user to act and say things that they would normally not do. Lysergic acid diethylamide was the first synthetic hallucinogen that was discovered. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, better known as LSD and was first synthesized by Albert Hofmann on November 16, 1938....   [tags: Drugs ]

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The Acid Rain Program

- In 2004, the IASB attempted to address the accounting for emissions credits and allowances in International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) and issued IFRIC 3, Emissions Rights (IFRIC 3). IFRIC 3 required GHG emissions and credits to be classified as intangible assets and recorded at fair value regardless of whether the credit or allowance was purchased or issued. However, IFRIC 3 was met with significant resistance from the accounting community who cited that it resulted in a mismatch between assets and liabilities....   [tags: Environment ]

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The Importance of Vitamin C

- Vitamin C For my topic, I chose to write a paper on ascorbic acid, or as it’s widely known Vitamin C a micronutrient. I chose to explore this nutrient and its benefits of it, as well as how it is obtained to help regulate body functions. It will also include some aspects of the absence of this vitamin in the body. Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin, and it is needed to promote growth of the body. It is also one of the providers of antioxidants found in nutrients that the body uses to block free radicals (Medline plus 2013) Vitamin C is an important nutrient that helps sustain normal functions in the body along with other nutrients to help the body perform as it should....   [tags: ascorbic acid]

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Glycolic Acid

- Glycolic acid is a group of chemicals known as alpha hydroxyl acids or fruit acids. It is mainly derived from sugar cane, and hence it is a natural product. The citric acid found in oranges and other citrus fruits also come under the same division as glycolic acids. The glycolic acid acne treatment can be effectively used to treat some cases of acne. Glycolic acid is mostly used in cosmetic forms rather than industrial. It is usually used as a skin exfoliant and a moisturizer. Some proponents of glycolic acid state that the products which contain less than 10% concentration of glycolic acid is rendered useless....   [tags: Health ]

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Acid Rain

- INTRODUCTION: The dictionary definition of acid rain is “’rainfall made so acidic by atmospheric pollution that it causes environmental harm, chiefly to forests and lakes. The main cause is the industrial burning of coal and other fossil fuels, the waste gases from which contain sulphur and nitrogen oxides which combine with atmospheric water to form acids.” In Northern Europe and North America millions of trees have died because of the causes of acid rain. Some lakes contain so much acid that all the fish have died and the birds that relied on this fish for food have left....   [tags: pollution, environmental issues]

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Acid Rain

- INTRODUCTION The term acid rain refers to the process of deposition or precipitation of hydrogen ions with a pH value below 5.0, in the atmosphere. These acidic substances are produced by the pollutants on the earth that are airborne. These acidic precipitates will pour down as water droplets along with normal rain water whose pH lie between 5.0 and 5.6 creating hazardous effects on the living organisms of earth. HISTORY The cause of acid rain is mainly due to industrial pollutants. Acid rain was first reported during the Industrial Revolution in England in 1852.A Scottish chemist by name Robert Angus Smith discovered the same....   [tags: Environmental Science]

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Acid Rain

- Don’t you always wish to taste the fresh rain in April. Nowadays, you may want to think twice before doing something like that. The rain might turn out to be acid rain. You may be wondering what acid rain is. Acid rain looks, feels, and tastes exactly like normal rain, but it is very different and very dangerous. Acid rain is caused by a chemical reaction in certain substances. These substances originate from many pollution sources. The most abundant chemicals in pollution are sulfur dioxide and various nitrogen oxides....   [tags: pollution, informative, Environment]

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Acid Rain

- The world we live in today has become a nest for pollution, toxic waste and environmental deterioration. In order to improve our planet, acid rain is a main factor to be considered and must be controlled before the damage worsens. In order to understand what acid rain is, we must first understand the term “acidity”. Acidic is a way to describe chemical compounds and it is measured on the pH scale, a logarithmic measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in precipitation (1). This scale is numbered 0 to 14, where substances with values below 7 are considered acidic and the ones above 7 are basic....   [tags: Environmental Science, Informative]

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Acid Rain

- Not many things have the ability to kill fish, destroy economies, and deteriorate buildings, but acid rain can do all of that. This lethal precipitation originates from both natural causes and those made by man. It has the potential to destroy ecosystems, including aquatic life and forest life. In addition to harming nature, it can also cause economic problems. However, efforts are being made to minimize the negative effects of acid rain, and they’re working. Any form of wet or dry deposition from the atmosphere with nitric and sulfuric acid levels higher than normal is considered acid rain....   [tags: Environmental Issues]

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Acid Rain

- Acid rain Rain is a major component of the water cycle and holds responsibility for depositing most of the fresh water on Earth. (EPA USA, 2014) It is the provider behind suitable conditions for various ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation. (Andrei, 2011) Acid rain, or acid deposition, is a form of precipitation that posses a higher acidity than regular rain. (Seinfeld & Pandis, 1998) Acid deposition also includes other forms such as snow, sleet, hail, and fog (or cloud water)....   [tags: pollution, environmental issues]

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Acid Throwing

- Having your face disfigured and burned in a matter of seconds is not what any woman has in mind as a consequence when they refuse to go on a date with a man. Sadly, this form of violence or “Acid Throwing” is happening in the gender-stratified or “Caste” system countries. The intent of this essay is to inform the reader what acid throwing is; how and why it happens and provide several facts about this crime. Hopefully, one of these organizations will assist these women who have been victimized, and hopefully they can lead a normal life....   [tags: Violence]

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Acid Rain Speech

- ... The molecular shape is bent due to the lone electron pair at the sulfur atom. There are two resonant structures for sulfur dioxide. That means that the double bond between sulfur and oxygen can occur at both bonds. The 3 in the blue diamond of the chemical labels indicates that sulfur dioxide can cause serious or permanent injuries. The zeros in the red and yellow diamonds indicate that sulfur dioxide will not burn under typical fire conditions and is normally stable. Sources: http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/chemical/1554 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfur_dioxide Point 4: Nitrogen oxides There are multiple compounds that are made of nitrogen and oxygen....   [tags: Informative Speech]

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Sulphuric Acid Production Should Not Be Banned

- ... AB + CD → AD + CB Acids and bases can vary in strength. Their strength is determined by the amount of ionisation when reacted with water. Strong acids & bases are 100 % ionised in water, whereas weak acids & bases are far from 100 % ionisation. There are four types of neutralisation reactions that can occur between strong & weak acids and bases. 1. Strong acid + strong base  Salt + water e.g. HNO3 + LiOH  LiNO3 + H2O In this reaction, the products are always a salt and water. The salt, in a reaction between a strong acid & a strong base, always has a pH of 7.00....   [tags: environmental issues]

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Analyzing Citric Acid

- The most widely used method for synthesizing citric acid was discovered by an American chemist named James Currie in 1917 in order to contend with the lack of citrus imports caused by the First World War. This method requires the fungus culture “Aspergillus niger”. This mould is fairly common in nature but special strains are used by the major citric acid producing companies to increase the fungus’s production of citric acid. This method involves substances that contain glucose such as simple sugar or molasses being fed to the fungus....   [tags: Chemistry]

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Magnetized Wetlands and Acid Mine Drainage

- Magnetized Wetlands and Acid Mine Drainage Acid mine drainage is a problem that affects many states, specifically being an extremely large problem in Pennsylvania. Target ores often contain sulfides, which react with the air and water to form sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid, being one of the six strong acids, completely dissociates and dissolves harmful metals in the surrounding rock. These harmful metals include arsenic, copper, iron, etc. The dissolved metals sink to the bottom of ponds, rivers, and streams; this causes acid mine drainage to be a perpetual problem....   [tags: environmental issues, water contamination]

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Historical Development and Administration of Valproic Acid

- Historical Development Valproic acid has an analogue found in nature in the form of the valerian plant. This chemical was artificially synthesized in 1882 using the chemical in valerian as a reference. The chemical is a liquid at room temperature and was and was for a long time employed as a chemically inert solvent. Application for the drug was discovered as an anticonvulsant and antiepileptic drug in 1962 by the French researcher Pierre Eymard while he was comparing different compound for antisezure properties....   [tags: Breakdown, Usage, Effects]

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Acid-Base Chemistry Lab

- The purpose of this lab was to determine the pH and total acidity of grape juice and wine. A second purpose was to experimentally determine the pKa of a monoprotic weak acid, polyprotic weak acid, as well as, a free amino acid, alanine. Acids and bases were defined by Bronsted-Lowry in 1923, in which acids were described as substances capable of donating a proton and bases are substances capable of accepting a proton (Thompson and Dinh 2009). In addition to defining acids and bases, Bronsted-Lowry further classified acids and bases as being either strong or weak....   [tags: Scientific Research ]

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Problematic Issues Caused by Acid Rain

- ... The Acid Deposition Act is a program to research acid precipitation and to look at regions that were damaged due to acid rain. For example: Acid rain was first discovered around the lakes in the New England region of The United States. The Clear Air Act was created to control the emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. Over 100 power plants produced about 8 million tons of sulfur dioxide. Automobiles are one cause for acid rain. It pollutes the air when bad exhaustion comes out of the tails pipes of a vehicle....   [tags: air pollution, environmental issues]

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The Utility of Nucleic Acid Hybridisation and Nucleic Acid Probes In Molecular Biology

- The unique property of nucleic acids to pair with each other through complementary base pairing is the lifeblood of genetic engineering. A single strand of DNA can pair up with another strand of DNA or RNA if its base pairs are complementary to those of the other strand, under the right conditions of temperature and pH. This phenomenon is called nucleic acid hybridisation. It is possible to exploit this mechanism for the detection of one nucleic acid strand from a mixture of many other strands....   [tags: Molecular Biology]

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Domoic Acid Poisoning

- ... Domoic acid poisoning can’t be transmitted from person to person. Birds have been affected by this as well. They dove into streetlamps, crashed through glass windows, and attacked people on the ground. In 1991, beside the beaches of Monterey Bay, CA, more than 400 dead or dying seabirds were poisoned. Examination of the insides of the dead bird's stomachs showed high levels of domoic acid. Also, the birds had been eating anchovies from the bay. As well, examination of the anchovy gut showed that these fish had been eating the toxin....   [tags: toxins, red tide, algae poison]

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Investigation of Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid

- The purpose of this investigation is to record the amount of time taken for a reaction to occur when sodium thiosulphate is mixed with hydrochloric acid. The equation for this reaction is: Na2S2O3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + S + SO2 +H2O Sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3), after reacting with Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) produces yellow sulphur, which is the cause of the solution becoming cloudy. The amount of time taken for the reaction to occur is known as the reaction rate. The rate of a reaction can be commonly explained by Collision Theory....   [tags: Chemistry, observation]

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Acid Rain and Its Destructive Powers

- Acid rain is becoming a growing problem in the world and especially in the United States and it is due to pollution in the air. It is causing destruction to statues and buildings as well as cars and other outside objects. Acid rain has also been linked to problems with wildlife populations and health. However, there are things that we can do to help control the problem and things that can be done to help prevent it. Acid rain is produced in a few different ways, one is a natural way the naturally occurs in the environment when fires and marshes release sulfate and nitrate, and the other is produced from the chemicals and elements that we send into the air....   [tags: pollution, gases, fish]

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Operation Acid Gambit

- Introduction On the night of April 9, 1989, Kurt Muse, the man behind La Voz de la Libertad, would finally be arrested while trying to clear immigration at Panama City’s Omar Torrijos International Airport. It would take nearly two and a half days and the cancelation of all Panamanian visas to the United States by the State Department for the Panamanian Defense Force to finally present Kurt Muse to the world; as a spy for the United States government.1 Kurt founded La Voz de la Libertad, and used it to promote the over threw of Noriega....   [tags: Kurt Muse, Panama, United States, spy]

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Haematological Malignancies and Nucleic Acid Therapeutics

- It’s Not Just a Nucleic Acid - Aptamer conjugates,Systemic delivery would be advantageous and provide more clinical appeal, in spite of the above mentioned limitations, and it is now becoming more common to link the RNAi to compounds, such as ligands or peptides to achieve target specificity and nuclease resistance, thereby eliminating some of the non-targeted effects (Bhindi et al 2007). Aptamers represent a unique alternative in the ability to specifically target cancer cells. Aptamers have been developed that target both extracellular protein ligands, as well as intracellular proteins....   [tags: Biology, RNAi]

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The Importance of Deoxy-ribo Nucleic Acid

- Nucleic Acids are the sole reason we human beings are different from a banana, from an elephant, or from a chimpanzee. All living things in this world are unique because of the order of 4 bases arranged in different patterns to form DNA. DNA is the blueprint for every organism. The blueprint needed to build us resides in most of our cells. This information is a sequence of four nucleotides arranged in a specific pattern. For example, cows have 80% of a human's DNA. DNA provides the map of the proteins and genes we express in each individual, and without it, we would be a totally different person....   [tags: nucleic acids, dna, rna]

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What´s lysergic acid diethylamide?

- LSD is short for lysergic acid diethylamide.LSD is a hallucinogenic drug. It alters your thoughts and your perception of reality. It was invented by Albert Hofmann on November 16, 1938 in Sandoz laboratories in Basle, Switzerland. Albert thought it could be used as a circulatory and respiratory stimulant, but in 1943 he discovered LSD had very strong hallucinogenic properties. LSD disrupts how your nerve cells and the neurotransmitter serotonin interacts throughout the brain and spinal cord. LSD distorts visual judgment,sensations, moods and feelings....   [tags: drug, hallucination, risks]

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Does Concentrated Acid or Diluted Acid React Faster?

- Does Concentrated Acid or Diluted Acid React Faster. Plan I am going to carry out a reaction between Magnesium ribbon and Hydrochloric acid. The aim of this investigation is to work out which reacts faster, concentrated acid or diluted acid. I will judge if the reaction is fast or slow by observing the bubbles which occur during the reaction and also observe if the Magnesium has disappeared. Only the concentration of the acid will be changed - the Magnesium is a solid. Magnesium + Hydrochloric Acid Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl(aq) + H2 (g) There are four main factors which may affect rate of reaction....   [tags: Science Experiments Reaction Rates Essays]

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Forensics: Three Basic Aspects for Identification

- Introduction Forensics, is considered a science of the judicial system, where as evidence is obtained regarding criminal acts to determine the innocence or guilt of individual(s). There is a wide area of forensic studies; this paper will discuss three of these topics Digital Apprehension, DNA, and Interpol. Digital Apprehension is just as it says digital, meaning pictures and various technologic devices. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is an inherent identifying marker of cells be, human or plant; that is now a mainstay of criminal analysis....   [tags: Criminology ]

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The Legal and Social Issues Surrounding DNA Databanking

- Advances in Science and Genetic Research have significantly impacted the criminal justice system. With the development of programs aimed at utilizing biological or genetic samples collected from potential suspects of a crime, investigators are able to compare the samples against samples collected from the crime scene. One of the most widely-known programs, the Combined Deoxyribonucleic Acid Index System (CODIS), was developed as a law enforcement resource to compare new samples of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) against the registered DNA samples of “convicted offenders, unsolved crime scene evidence, and missing persons across local, State, and national databases” (Office of Justice Programs, 2...   [tags: Medical Research]

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DNA in the Forensic Science Community

- This paper explores deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) collection and its relationship to solving crimes. The collection of DNA is one of the most important steps in identifying a suspect in a crime. DNA evidence can either convict or exonerate an individual of a crime. Furthermore, the accuracy of forensic identification of evidence has the possibility of leaving biased effects on a juror (Carrell, Krauss, Liberman, Miethe, 2008). This paper examines Carrells et al’s research along with three other research articles to review how DNA is collected, the effects that is has on a juror and the pros and cons of DNA collection in the Forensic Science and Criminal Justice community. Keywords: deoxyribo...   [tags: Biology, DNA collection, DNA Evidence]

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Our Experiment to Separate a Mixture of Organic Compounds

- ... The inorganic salts favor the aqueous phase, but the organic compounds prefer the nonpolar organic solvent. By using a separatory funnel, two to three extractions of an aqueous-organic mixture is enough to methodically transfer the organic acid (benzoic acid) from the organic solvent (diethyl ether) to the aqueous phase. Initially, the organic carboxylic acid becomes a charged species after it is deprotonated by a base like sodium hydroxide, producing a carboxylic salt. After completing the extraction, an acid, such as hydrochloric acid, is added to the basic aqueous solution causing the sodium carboxylate salt to change back to the default carboxylic acid, which will precipitate out of...   [tags: acid, melting point, reaction]

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How DNA Helps to Solve Crimes

- Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been used to analyze and prove innocence or guilt of suspects of crimes with great accuracy. DNA is part of everyday life. It is the heredity material in humans and almost all other organisms. While being part of an investigation. DNA has helped to solve crimes. There is a couple ways that DNA left behind can be tested to solve a crime. Either if the suspect has been caught and or had his or her DNA tested, or if he or she has left behind any biological evidence. Which then needs to be tested to see if it matches the DNA found in the crime scene to his or hers DNA....   [tags: criminal justice]

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The Effect of Acid on the Neutralisation Point

- The Effect of Acid on the Neutralisation Point Aim to find how the concentration of acid affects the neutralisation point between acid and alkali. Preliminary work in my preliminary work my aim was to find out which indicator would give the best results in my neutralisation experiment to do this we used three different indicators and worked out which one gave us the result closest to the neutralisation point. We found that universal indicator gave us the most varied results and was the closest to the neutralisation point....   [tags: Papers]

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Finding the Ka of Ethanoic Acid

- Finding the Ka of Ethanoic Acid Aim: ==== To find out the Ka of ethanoic acid, chloroethanoic acid and dichloroethanoic acid. Procedure: ========== 1. The pH meter is calibrated, using a buffer solution of accurately known pH. 2. 20.0cm3 of 0.10M ethanoic acid was pipetted into a conical flask. 3. 0.10M sodium hydroxide solution was titrated using phenolphthalein as indicator, until the solution was just turned pink. 4. A further 20.0cm3 of the same ethanoic acid solution was added to the flask and was mixed thoroughly....   [tags: Papers]

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Proton Pump Inhibitors To Protect the Stomach

- Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are the drugs that reduce the secretion of gastric (stomach) acid. These drugs were introduced in the United States in the late 1980s. They have emerged as the standard of treatment for most acid-related disorders which causes dyspepsia. These disorders include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, which is marked by excessive amounts of gastric acid. “Proton pump inhibitors are also successfully used for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection and upper gastrointestinal bleeding” (Der, 2003, p....   [tags: gastric acid, dyspepsia, lansoprazole]

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Investigating the Concentration of Citric Acid

- Investigating the Concentration of Citric Acid Problem ------- I have been set the task of determining the concentration of a sample of citric acid, using only a 1.0 M solution of sodium hydroxide and any laboratory glassware that is required. I have also been given the RMM of citric acid as 210g and I have been told that one mole of citric acid will react with 3 moles of sodium hydroxide. My Experiment ------------- Using this information I have determined that the best way to conduct this experiment is to do a titration....   [tags: Papers]

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Discovering the Secrets of Soda

- Have you ever wondered what ingredients are are really inside soda and what effect it does to your body. Could there be ways companies make soda healthier but taste the same. The main ingredients soda have in them are sugar, caffeine and different acids that create the fizzy taste. Caffeine is added in soda as a stimulant. Stimulants increase activity happening in your brain. Stimulations have elevate your mood and your awareness. Caffeine has several good effects like increasing energy or mental awareness....   [tags: ingredients, acid, bones]

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Acid Rain - The Deadly Destroyer

- What is Acid Rain. Acid rain is a form of precipitation that falls to the earth as rain. For rain to be acidic it has a pH level of less than 5.6. The corrosive nature of acid rain causes widespread damage to the environment. The problem begins with the production of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, natural gas, oil and other kinds of manufacturing. When these pollutants are in the air, they react with water and other chemicals, to form sulfuric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid and other pollutants....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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How Acid Rain Causes Damage to Art

- ... When an acid oxidizes combines with rain, it makes rain more acidic than normal;-that is when you get acid rain. Acid rain problems have occurred all over this planet, but the problem that is most concerning to me is--------the damage acid rain causes to works of art, like statues and buildings. Works of art have been affected by acid rain in many different ways including enviormentally and economicaly/socially. Acid rain has damaged the enviroment in different ways. The Statue of Liberty was one of the most well known and famous monuments, but today, due to acid rain the Staute of Liberty has been experiencing some diffculties with maintaining its apperance....   [tags: statues, corrison, expense]

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Acid Rain's Effects on the Environment

- Acid Rain's Effects on the Environment Acid rain causes damage to limestone bulidings. Scientists are concerned that increased air pollution may cause an increase in the concentration of acid in the rain. If this is the case then it would increase the damage done to limestone bulidings. Acid rain is caused when we burn fuels. When we burn these fuels we make a gas called sulphur dioxide. This gas goes into the air. The sulphur dioxide reacts with the oxygen and then dissolves inot droplets of rain....   [tags: Papers]

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The Molecular Formula of Succinic Acid

- The Molecular Formula of Succinic Acid The relative formula mass is the mass of 1 molecule of succinic acid compared with 1/12th of the mass of an atom of carbon-12. This is obtained by adding together the relative atomic masses of the atoms within the molecule according to its written formula. However we do not know the exact formula: HOOC(CH )nCOOH Where n is a whole number between 1 and 4 So to calculate the relative formula mass I must use the formula m = n ×Mr and rearrange it to make Mr the subject Mr = m n However I do not know the number of moles for a given mass....   [tags: Papers]

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Biosunthesis of BMAA by Cyanobacteria in Responce to Nitrogen Deprivation

- 1.1 INTRODUCTION Β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) (figure 1) is an unusual amino acid produced by cyanobacteria and found in some species of cycads. C4H10N2O2 is the structural formula of this molecule with a molecular weight of 118,13. (NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM, 2008). Figure 1: Graphical representation of the molecular structure (structural formula) of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). BMAA is a neurotoxin found in the seeds of cycads such as Cycas circinalis. By consumption of these seeds originative of the cycad, BMAA made its way into the diets of humans by biomagnification....   [tags: Amino Acid, Cyanobacteria]

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Shaping a Generation on LSD

- The 1960’s wouldn’t have been the same without L.S.D., which changed the culture of America. The change happened due to the discovery of L.S.D. (acid) by a Swiss chemist know as Albert Hofman in November 16, 1938. The find was discarded for five years till Albert decided to come back to L.S.D. he thought that it held medical use but wasn’t yet explored toughly. During his research Albert absorbed acid through his hands by accident, this was the first time acid was ever felt by a human being. Twenty years later chemists all over the world are making the drug....   [tags: medcial, acid, drug]

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Effect of Acid Rain on Germination

- Effect of Acid Rain on Germination A seed is formed from the ovule of a flower as a result of fertilisation, and is then dispersed from the parent plant. If the seed lands in a suitable place, it will germinate. Germination is the growth of the embryo inside the seed, eventually growing into a mature plant. CONDITIONS NEEDED FOR GERMINATION OXYGEN - is used for aerobic respiration, which provides the energy for many chemical changes involved in the food reserves and making the new cytoplasm and cell walls of the growing seedling....   [tags: Papers]

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The Human's Impact on Acid Rain

- The Human's Impact on Acid Rain Acid rain is any precipitation that is acidic in nature. Rain is already slightly acidic in nature because as it falls, it dissolves some of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and falls as very dilute carbonic acid. This is not significantly harmful to the environment Even though the concentration of Nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides (which are the main causes of acid rain), are much less than the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the former gases are much more soluble and therefore have a much greater effect on the acidity of the precipitation....   [tags: Papers]

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The Effect of Acid on Sodium Thiosulphate

- The Effect of Acid on Sodium Thiosulphate Aim: My Aim is to see how concentration of acid will affect the time it takes for Sodium Thiosulphate to become cloudy and make a cross below it to disappear. Method: Apparatus Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Thiosulphate Distilled Water 250cm ³ Beaker- I need a beaker big enough to see the cross and although the 100cm³ would be perfect volume wise I would prefer to use a bigger one so I can fit the cross under it and also be able to pour the reactants into it without any spillage 100cm ³ Measuring Cylinder- I have decided to use this cylinder for the Sodium Thiosulphate....   [tags: Papers]

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Over Perscription of Proton Pump Inhibitoras

- Research is showing that the number of prescription proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are being over prescribed and growing during hospital stays. There are studies published that show opportunities for substantial cost savings in relation to PPI presription if there were some clinical guidelines used across the board nationwide. In addition to the hospital costs, discharged patients that continue this course of therapy may end up spending upwards of $100 monthly. In turn, the patients are spending multitudes of money on medications that may be more expensive than the alternative that is not being provided to the patient....   [tags: cost, stomach acid, hospital]

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828 words | (2.4 pages) | Preview

History of Acid Mine Drainage in South Africa

- The history and beginning of increased acid mine drainage: Mining has been a cornerstone of South Africa’s economy. It was the basis for which one of its main cities, Johannesburg, was built around. Today, gold mining in the Witwatersrand basin has been one of the main contributing factors to mining in South Africa. An estimated 98% of all gold mined in South Africa has been mined from the Witwatersrand basin. South Africa’s total mining reserves have an estimated worth of R20. 3-trillion, giving South Africa the fifth largest mining sector pertaining to GDP worldwide....   [tags: water, ecological, pollution]

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The Environmental Threat of Acid Rain

- In recent years, a great amount of attention has been focused on environmental issues. Nightly we are informed of yet another creature in danger of extinction. Still, despite this increased awareness, the problem remains. One facet of this overwhelming dilemma is the problem of acid rain. Pollution has caused acid rain, which is destroying the ecosystem. Acid rain refers to all types of precipitation -rain, snow, sleet, hail and fog that have a pH of less than 5.6. Pollution caused acid rain is destroying the ecosystem, but today new methods have been developed to deal with this danger to our society and earth....   [tags: Papers]

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Determining the Concentration of Sulphuric Acid

- Determining the Concentration of Sulphuric Acid Risk assessment · CorrosiveAs sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide are both corrosive, I will wear gloves, goggles and lab coat when performing the experiment · Eye protection must be wornIf any breakages occur I will carefully dispose of the glass in a suitable bin. · If any spillages occur during my experiments I will clean them promptly. Dilution of H2SO4 As the concentration of the sulphuric acid~10moldm-3, it is too concentrated for my experiments so I will dilute it to approx 0.05moldm-3....   [tags: Papers]

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The Sulfur Dioxide in Environment

- ... Its toxicity is large and has corrosivity and decomposability. “Sulphur is a highly noxious venom for people's health, although we can be more resistant than other creatures that live with us. For example, the level of 0,3 µg per cubic metre of air implies a potential risk for human health, but for trees, 0,2 µg is extremely dangerous. In 1956, the London smog (caused by sulfuric acid mist) led to more than 4700 deaths. The pollution of sulfur dioxide has direct effect on human beings and animals’ life....   [tags: toxic gases, acid rain]

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1029 words | (2.9 pages) | Preview

Is Triglyceride or Ethel Ester Fish Oil Better?

- The Truth about Fish Oil The purpose of this report is to explore the controversial dispute between the quality of two different forms of fish oil supplementation; Triglyceride (TG) and Ethyl Ester (EE). Fish oil can be implemented into a diet by eating either fish or taking supplements. Fish oil is extracted from selected fish that contain highly beneficial healthy oils known as omega-3 fatty acids, two of the most important omega-3 fatty acids that are found in fish oil are Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)....   [tags: acid, body, vitamin]

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The Problem of Acid Rain

- The Problem of Acid Rain WHAT CAUSES ACID RAIN When power stations, factories, houses and cars release pollution into the air it has chemicals in it called sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. SULPHUR DIOXIDE: Man-made sulphur dioxide comes mainly from burning fossils fuels in power stations. It then mixes with water in the atmosphere to make sulphuric acid, which will later fall as acid rain. NITROGEN OXIDES: Nitrogen oxides are also man-made and mainly come from car exhausts....   [tags: Papers]

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Preparation of Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid

- Preparation of Ethanol and Ethanoic Acid Introduction to report ---------------------- This report contains 5 practical experiments to produce ethanoic acid from ethanol. The first practical is the preparation of ethanol from glucose using yeast during the process of fermentation; this has been demonstrated in class. In this practical the glucose is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide by respiratory enzymes from the yeast. The ethanol solution will be between 5-15% and the ethanol will be separated from the yeast by filtering....   [tags: Papers]

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3009 words | (8.6 pages) | Preview

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