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The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

- INTRODUCTION HIV/AIDS The Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first identified as a distinct new disease in 1981. In 1983 HIV was identified at the causative agent for AIDS. The mean time from HIV infection to AIDS is approximately 10 years. There is no effective medicine to cure it and the infected individuals do not recover: that is, they continue to be infectious throughout their lives. HIV infection is a complex mix of diverse epidemics within and between countries and regions of the world, and is undoubtedly the defining public health crisis of our time....   [tags: infectious disease, crisis, sexual intercourse]

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Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ( Hiv )

- ... What they all had in common was that something was interfering with the process that normally protected oneself with invading germs. According to the last detailed research on statistics, it was observed that in 2010, there were 34 million people affected with HIV. More than half of this population was said to be women and close to 3.5 million are children of the age 15 years old. Again in 2010, 1.8 million people died from HIV which is less that the figure during 2005 which was 2.2 million....   [tags: AIDS, HIV, Immune system, Blood]

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Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ( Aids )

- ... Therefore a person is most likely to risk infection via sexual contact, contaminated blood transfusions, using infected needles or from a mother to child during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Although HIV can also be found in other fluids, for instance, saliva and urine, the quantities are tiny and therefore is not enough to cause an infection. Though the HIV virus infects variety of cells, AIDS results from specifically targeting CD4 receptors on the surfaces of T-Helper lymphocyte cells, a key component of the human immune system....   [tags: AIDS, HIV, Immune system, Antiretroviral drug]

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The Human Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

- ... Their adaptation was passed on to their children and created a higher resistance to AIDS as well. After attachment to cell preferably with CD4+ HIV must now go into viral transcription. HIV-1 and HIV-2 are two distinct forms of the virus, which stem from different origins in the evolutionary tree. The split between the two forms occurred over 150 years ago. Both forms of the HIV virus come from the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) virus found in other primates. The two forms come from either 〖SIV〗_sm or 〖SIV〗_cpz....   [tags: virus, research, scientists]

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Aids : Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

- ... I have learned that AIDS is an infectious disorder that suppresses the normal function of the immune system. The virus attacks the immune system and leaves the body vulnerable to a variety of life-threatening illnesses and cancers. It is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, which destroys the body 's ability to fight infections. Specific cells of the immune system that are responsible for the proper response to infections T cells are destroyed by this virus. About 47 million people worldwide have been infected with HIV since the start of the epidemic....   [tags: AIDS, HIV, Immune system, Semen]

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

- “Deficient” is an immune system that cannot protect you from viruses, the flu, diseases, and the common cold. You cannot tell when someone is terminally ill, just like you cannot tell when someone is truly happy. When people lack the knowledge about AIDS and HIV, they seem to be ignorant about the situation other people are in. HIV and AIDS are not contagious, nor can you get it from hugging, holding hands, or kissing someone. Many people who are infected by this virus do not know they are HIV positive....   [tags: african americans, HIV, AIDS, sexual activity]

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Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

- Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). What is it. What causes it and why. Can I get it. How can I prevent myself from getting it. All of these questions can be answered. The main problem besides having AIDS, is not being educated enough to know how and why people are dying all over the world. Aids is caused by a virus called the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. A virus is one of the smallest “germs” that cause diseases. If you have unprotected sex or share needles or syringes with an infected person, you may become infected with HIV....   [tags: essays research papers]

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AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

- AIDS is the acronym used for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It is a disease transmitted through the blood. It is transmitted from person to person through sexual intercourse, blood transfusions, I.V. drug users, and from mothers to babies during birth. AIDS is a disease which breaks down the human immune system causing the body to become very susceptible to infection. The disease is brought about by the HIV-1 virus. HIV-1( Human Immunodeficiency Virus) can remain dormant for years and then begins to attack the bodies T- cells and white cells which help fight off infection....   [tags: AIDS Essays]

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Aids: Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

- AIDS: Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome I am doing a report on AIDS, I don't know much about AIDS but I will tell you what I know. I know that it is transmitted by sexual contact,blood,needles,children during/before birth. I also know it affects the immune system directly, It is caused by the virus HIV which they have no cure for either AIDS or HIV at the current moment, but they are doing serious research on them. I call it the "Generation X Disease" because it mostly affects my sex- oriented generation....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: AIDS

- AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a blood born disease that was first recognized in America in the early 1980’s, around the time Rock Hudson passed away. It is believed that it was first passed thru to humans by monkey’s in Africa. “The battle between humans and disease was nowhere more bitterly fought than here in the fetid equatorial climate, where heat and humidity fuel the generation of new life forms. One historian has suggested that humans, who first evolved in Africa eons ago migrated north to Asia and Europe simple to get to climates that were less hospitable to the deadly microbes the tropics so efficiently spread.” (Shilts, 5) “HIV may already infect one to tw...   [tags: AIDS disease]

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The Truth about Gay Cancer

- There are four letters, that when put together can spell out a lifetime of agony, despair, prejudice and constant indignation; AIDS. Over the years the disease has been called GRID, Gay Cancer and finally came the name that is commonly accepted today, AIDS. Multiple theories are present as to the origin of this deadly virus, all of them are unique but no matter what the origin or name, AIDS is a terrible epidemic that needs to come to an end. People have suffered long enough, and too many people have been discriminated against something that’s not entirely their fault....   [tags: Auto Inmune Deficiency Syndrome]

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AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

- For an epidemic that would explode to claim hundreds of thousands of lives, AIDS surfaced very quietly in the United States, with a small notice on June 4, 1981 in a weekly newsletter published by the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, alerting doctors to five unusual cases of pneumonia that had been diagnosed in Los Angeles residents over the previous few months. All the patients were homosexual men who had come down with PCP (Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia), a lung infection usually seen only severely malnourished children or adults undergoing intensive chemotherapy....   [tags: AIDS Essays]

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AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

- HIV and Aids affect more than roughly thirty million people worldwide. Race, sex and age have nothing to do with who can get this disease, however, the race with the highest number of infected people happens to be Caucasian males ages 25-44. About forty-five percent of the 641,000 AIDS cases in the U.S. have been white people. Blacks aren’t far behind with over 35 percent of cases, and Hispanics have about 20 percent of all cases. Asians have less than anyone does, with 1 percent. Of the estimated 30.6 million people worldwide living with this horrible, life-threatening disease in 1997, about 68 percent were living in sub-Saharan Africa....   [tags: AIDS Essays]

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Should College Students Be Tested For Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome?

- Should College Students Be Tested For Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Today, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is a horrifying epidemic that is grasping our younger adults. If more college students knew more about the exact effect of AIDS, then it wouldn’t be a huge epidemic as is now. College students need to be tested for AIDS so that they can inform other people of the opposite sex of the sexual background so that they don’t pass the deadly disease to them. Today with many of the college students being sexually active with people that they barely know, it is encouraged that students get tested for AIDS at least every 3 months for virus....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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Iron Deficiency Anemia

- Iron deficiency anemia is a secondary result of hemorrhagic anemia’s, as well as resulting from inadequate intakes of iron containing foods and impaired iron absorption (Marieb, Hoehn 642). About 20% of women, 50% of pregnant women, and 3% of men do not have a sufficient amount of iron in their body, making it the most common form of anemia (Medicine Plus).In addition, the blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells, which provide the body energy and a healthy color to the skin. As the name implies, iron deficiency anemia is due to insufficient iron....   [tags: Health ]

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Diagnosing and Treating Iron Deficiency Anemia

- Anemia is a condition in which your blood does not have enough healthy red blood cells. These cells play an important role because are the main carriers of oxygen to your organs. They take up oxygen from the lungs and release carbon dioxide back to the lungs. Without the red blood cells, you body wouldn’t get any oxygen or carbon dioxide and your body would slowly die. Anemia can be mild or severe. It can be so mild, that people go a long time without even know they have it. They’ll start to realize it the worse it gets....   [tags: Anemia, medical, ]

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The Truth about Vitamin D Deficiency

- ... Vitamin D insufficiency has been interfaced to various diseases and incessant conditions, including high pulse, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, pneumonic malady, and unending torment. We've seen prove that vitamin D insufficiency is connected with slumber issues, especially with daytime drowsiness. Another study inspected the connection between daytime drowsiness and vitamin D, and likewise thought of one of the significant danger elements of vitamin D lack: skin pigmentation. (Dr. Michael J. Breus, 2013) Scientists at Louisiana State University explored the relationship between vitamin D and daytime drowsiness considering two particular objectives....   [tags: daylight vitamin, key for solid bones]

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Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS)

- Introduction Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a genetic X-linked recessive disorder where affected males have mostly female sex characteristics or signs of both male and female sexual development. Individuals with this condition are genetically male; they contain both an X and Y chromosome (Barbaro et al., 2007). Mutations in the androgen receptor gene are what cause androgen insensitivity syndrome in individuals. This gene produces androgen receptors which are important to males. Without this receptor androgen will not be supplied to the body and that is a major hormone males need....   [tags: Health, Disorders]

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Fragile X Syndrome

- Background (576 words) The most common cause of inherited mental impairment is Fragile X Syndrome. Fragile X Syndrome is a mental retardation that affects social, learning and intellectual disabilities. It is a result of a change and mutation in a single gene, which can be pasted on to future generations. Symptoms arise when the mutated gene, FMR1, cannot produce enough of the protein, FMRP, that the body’s cells need to function. The symptoms can vary from each affected individual depending on how severe the gene mutation is....   [tags: Health, Diseases, Mental Retardation]

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Colony Collapse Syndrome

- The disappearance of honey bees is baffling scientists everywhere. Although most people see bees as useless annoying insects, they play an important role in the eco-system. Without bees, agricultural business would cease to exist, so it is vital that bees are saved. Currently, about one-third of the honey bees on the United states have disappeared. It seems that within a few days of having a good, healthy colony of bees, most of the adult population disappears. They can't even find any bodies near the hive....   [tags: honey bees, Neonicotinoids, pollen]

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What´s Prader-Willi Syndrome?

- ... The most common cause is the deletion of the part of chromosome 15 that is inherited from the father, occurring in 70% of cases. In 25% of cases uniparental disomy (UPD) occurs and two copies of the chromosome are received from the father and none from the mother. 5% of patients diagnosed with Prader-Willi syndrome have an ‘imprinting mutation’. This is a form of translocation and means that the sequences of the genes on chromosome 15 are altered. Prader-Willi Syndrome has two distinct stages....   [tags: mutation, irregular appetite]

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Korsakov's Syndrome in "The Lost Mariner"

- Korsakov's syndrome is a devastating impairment of recent memory that is caused by a thiamine deficiency which can result from alcohol abuse, mal-absorption, hyperemesis or starvation. Furthermore, other causes of Korsakov's syndrome also include heavy metal poisoning, head injury and tumors. A patient suffering from Korsakov's syndrome will most likely have an extensive pathology in the bilateral hippocampus and will actively exhibit confabulation. Confabulation occurs when a patient creates pseudo-memories about what happened during a forgotten episode....   [tags: European Literature]

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The Zellweger Syndrome

- Zellweger Syndrome Zellweger syndrome is one of four related diseases grouped under:” peroxisome biogenesis disorders” (PBD), and is the most severe form in the spectrum. These disorders are inherited conditions that damage the white matter in an affected person’s brain, and affect the metabolism of certain substances present in blood and organ tissues. Zellweger disorder is characterized by the failure of the body to produce properly functioning organelles called peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are small cytoplasmic organelles that play an important role in organ development....   [tags: peroxisome biogenesis disorders]

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Discovering and Living with Blooms Syndrome

- Discovering and living with Blooms Syndrome Blooms Syndrome Bloom’s Syndrome (BS) is also known as congenital telangiectatic erythema and Bloom-Torre-Mackacek syndrome. The syndrome was named after its founder Dr. David Bloom. Bloom, a dermatologist from New York was the first to describe the Syndrome In 1954. The syndrome is the result of an autosomal recessive disorder which is caused by mutated genes and unstable and irreparable DNA that has been re-arranged, damaged and created cell division....   [tags: genetics, disease, treatment]

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Eisenmenger Syndrome : A Heart Defect

- First and foremost, Eisenmenger syndrome was initially described in 1897 when German physician, Victor Eisenmenger, reported on a patient with symptoms of dyspnea and cyanosis from infancy that subsequently developed heart failure (Connolly, 2014). The postmortem description was revealed and a ventricular septal defect was discovered (El-Chami et al., 2014a). With that being said, this had been the first time that the link between a large congenital cardiac shunt defect and the development of pulmonary hypertension had ever been noted (El-Chami et al., 2014b)....   [tags: Heart, Blood, Lung, Pulmonary artery]

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Management of Acute Chest Syndrome

- Treatment of acute chest syndrome Acute chest syndrome occurs when there is a vaso-occlusive crisis in the pulmonary vessels. A combined treatment of oxygen, bronchodilators, blood transfusion, incentive spirometry, analgesics and antibiotics are usually required. The main goal of the treatment is to decrease the HbS concentration to below 30% and if the haematocrit is 30% or higher then an exchange transfusion is necessary. Transfusions given early can potentially halt progressive respiratory deterioration and can prevent further attacks when given long term....   [tags: Crisis, Pulmonary Vessels, Oxygen]

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Calcium: Helping Our Nerves Function

- ... Lesser-impact side effects involve muscle twitching, insomnia, and confusion. Toxicity: Although it is not common to take in excess amount of calcium, it certainly is possible. One common cause of excess calcium is the overuse of calcium supplements. Amounts greater than 2,000 mg a day may lead to hypercalcemia, which can occur from hormonal imbalance and milk alkali syndrome. Long-standing effects of too much calcium can lead to kidney stones, constipation, and reduction of iron, magnesium, zinc, and phosphorus....   [tags: damage, deficiency, bone, absorption]

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What Is Rett Syndrome?

- ... Apraxia restricts eye gaze and speech, and because of it as well as a deficiency in verbal communication skills, an accurate assessment of intelligence is difficult. (Turkington, Harris 2006). Most children are normal and healthy until about 6-18 months of life, when the symptoms begin to develop. As the damage to the nervous system begins to worsen, the child begins to lose their ability to speak, begins to have trouble walking or crawling and is shaken by seizures. Along with a loss of speaking abilities, the child has a lessened ability to express feelings....   [tags: symptoms, history, treatment, common]

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What´s the Turner Syndrome

- Introduction Turner Syndrome is a genetic disorder that is characterized by the absence of part or all of the second X chromosome in women. Women who have Turner Syndrome typically have short stature, sexual infantilism, congenital webbing of the neck, and cubitus valgus, which is when the forearm is angled away from the body at a greater degree than normal. A number of health issues accompany the absence of this X chromosome, indicating that a large number of specialists are needed in order to properly treat this disease....   [tags: genetic disorders]

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Genetic Disorders: Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome

- Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome is a very rare and serious genetic disorder that generally affects the heart, facial features, and skin of an individual. It is caused by a desultory gene mutation, which takes place in one of four genes. Those genes are known as BRAF, MEK1, MEK2, and KRAS. From research, it is also suspected there is a possibility that other genes are associated with the rare condition. This disorder holds multiple alternative names, a long history, obvious symptoms, extensive amounts of interesting data, and is lucky enough to be supported by numerous organizations that will stop at nothing to help....   [tags: Genetic Disorders]

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Overview of Color Blindness

- Description: Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is defined as the inability to see color or see color differences. The name color blindness can be deceiving because there is no actual blindness, only inability to see certain colors or any color at all. Color vision deficiency is a more fitting name for this disorder because it better defines the disorder. Color vision deficiency occurs when there is a problem with the pigments found in certain nerve cells of the eye called cones....   [tags: vision deficiency, monochromacy]

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Rare Disorders: Causes of The Lesh-Nyhan Disease

- Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (or disease), I believe the term is used interchangeably, is a rare disorder that is carried by mother and passed to son, and occurs because of a deficiency of the enzyme called hypoxanthinine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) [3]. It usually occurs in males and also has a high risk factor for gout because of the metabolic defect associated with the overproduction of uric acid [1, 2]. Uric acid is a waste product which is found in the blood and urine. Any excess uric acid can be released in the blood and can also build up under the skin, which in turn, can cause gouty arthritis or kidney and bladder stones [2]....   [tags: gene deficiency, X chromosomes, HPRT]

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

- Nutrition is a key component of an individual’s healthy well being. Many factors have a significant effect on nutrition and it is important to continuously maintain a balanced one. Having a good nutrition is one of the main defenses for an innumerous amount of illnesses and diseases that can harm the body. One would ask, “What is nutrition per say, and how do we maintain the balance of it?” Nutrition is defined as “the sum of the processes by which [a living thing] takes in and utilizes food substances.” (Merriam-Webster, 2011)....   [tags: Nutrition, Parental Responsibility]

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Neuropathology Of Down's Syndrome

- Neuropathology Of Down's Syndrome Down’s syndrome is the most commonly identified cause of mental retardation occurring in 1 out of 700 live births. In addition to mental deficiency, characteristics of the disease include epicanthic folds of the eyes, flattened facial features, unusual palm creases, short stature, open mouth, protruding tongue and poor posture. A twenty-two to fifty fold increase in risk of the development of leukemia along with congenital heart defects in forty percent of these individuals is also seen....   [tags: Medical Disease Health Essays]

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Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

- Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, commonly known as SARS, first came onto the scene in November 2002 in mainland China. The respiratory disease is characterized by fever and coughing much like flu. While at first the etiological agent was unknown, through persistent research scientists discovered it to be a coronavirus. This causative agent created history because it was the first time it has ever been found in the human population. This coronavirus raised many questions for scientists as to why the pathogen causes morbidity and mortality....   [tags: Biology]

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Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

- Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a mysterious phenomena that has managed to confound science so far. SIDS is defined as the sudden death of any infant or young child that is unexpected by history and in which a thorough post mortem examination fails to demonstrate an adequate cause (Hunt & Brouillette, 1987). It is the leading cause of death in infants in developed countries occurring at a rate of almost 2 per 1000 births. It most often occurs in infants between the ages of one month and eight months with the highest occurrence in the 4-6 month range....   [tags: Crib Death SIDS]

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a pattern of mental, physical, and behavioral defects that may develop in the unborn child when its mother drinks during pregnancy. These defects occur primarily during the first trimester when the teratogenic effects of the alcohol have the greatest effect on the developing organs. The symptoms associated with FAS have been observed for many centuries, but it was not until 1968 that Lemoine and his associates formally described these symptoms in the scientific literature, and again in 1973 when Jones and associates designated a specific pattern of altered growth and dysmorphogenesis as the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (Rostand, p....   [tags: Pregnancy Neurology Medicine Papers]

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) was found, named and treated in the late 1960’s. The term “Fetal Alcohol Syndrome” is used to describe a lifelong set of physical, mental and neurobehavioral birth defects associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Most women are not aware of the many complications that can occur during pregnancy. Many pregnant women continue drinking right throughout their pregnancy, ignoring the fact that they could damage, and pose problems to themselves and well as there fetus....   [tags: FAS Alcohol Pregnancy Infant Essays Research]

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a condition affecting children born to women who drink heavily during pregnancy. There are three criteria used to describe the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and to make a diagnosis of FAS. The first of these is a pattern of facial anomalies, these features include:  Small eye openings  Flat cheekbones  Flattened groove between nose and upper lip  Thin upper lip These characteristics can gradually diminish as the child ages, but it is important to note that diagnosis does not change because of this....   [tags: Papers]

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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) refers to a group of physical and mental birth defects resulting from a women’s drinking alcohol heavily or at crucial stages during pregnancy. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome was first named and treated in the late 1960's. This condition results from the toxic effect of alcohol and its chemical factors on the developing fetus. FAS is the leading cause of mental retardation occurring in 1 out of every 750 births. The frequency of FAS occurs about 1.9 times out of every 1000 births according to the latest figures, and minor effects can be seen in up to 20% of pregnancies per year....   [tags: essays research papers]

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The Importance of a Dog's Weight

- The Importance of a Dog’s Weight Dogs, also known as canines, can be traced back to the beginning of mankind. The word ‘canine’ is derived from the Latin word ‘canis’. Dogs have evolved from wolves and have become man’s best friend. Although dogs have changed very little over time, studies and researchers have proved that maintaining a dog’s health is more difficult now than in the centuries before. One of the most important health factors for a dog is its weight. Being overweight causes many threats to the life of a dog and there are many underlying reasons why a dog might be overweight....   [tags: veterinarian, cushing’s syndrome]

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Reciprocal Coevolution and Plant-Pollinator Interactions

- ... Due to certain restrictions, only specific species can act as a vector and that led to specialization of a relationship. It was more of a key and lock mechanism rather than a coincidental coevolution. Since the species that could not get to the specific flower, carried on until it found a suitable one. This therefore does not necessarily mean that either the flower or the vector altered their morphology just to increase the fitness. All of the above arguments are also thought to be the root of the mentioned ‘plant syndrome’ that specifies the pollinator response and the species that acts as a vector....   [tags: floral mechanisms, biology, plant syndrome]

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Prader-Willi Syndrome

- Prader-Willi Syndrom Prader-Willi Syndrome is a serious genetic disorder that begins at birth with no known cure ; causing mental retardation,short stature,low muscle tone,incomplete sexual development,and its main charecteristic,the desire to eat everything and anything in sight. Prader-Willi syndrome was first known as Prader-Labhart-Willi Syndrome after three Swiss doctors who first described the disorder in 1956. The doctors described a small group of kids with obesity, short stature and mental deficiency , neonatal hypotonia (floppiness) and a desire to constantly eat because they are always hungry....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Treatment Of Iron Deficiency Anemia

- ... Health care specialists at the University of California San Francisco’s Medical Center (n.d.) state that an average adult male stores up to 1000 mg of iron which is enough to last up to three years. Due to the large amounts of iron stored within the body, progressing to iron deficiency anemia usually is the result of large amounts of blood loss, most commonly in the gastrointestinal region of the body (UofCSFMC, n.d.). Normally, iron loss is scarce during iron metabolism because iron is conserved and recycled for use in heme and non-heme enzymes (Anonymous, 2001)....   [tags: Red blood cell, Iron deficiency anemia, Hematology]

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Deficiency Disease

- When all necessary nutrients are regularly consumed for the healthy growth and function of our bodies, is when a balanced diet has been achieved (Biology online, 2005). A healthy diet has 7 key food types which all contribute to a balanced diet, these components are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fibre and water (GCSE bitesize, 2013). A lack of any or one of these nutrients may lead to what is known as a nutrient deficiency, which may be followed by a deficiency disease. Scurvy is a deficiency disease caused by the lack of or minimalistic intake of vitamin C with our diets....   [tags: Nutrient Deficiency, Vitamin C]

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The Immune System and IgA Deficiency

- THE IMMUNE SYSTEM AND IGA DEFICIENCY - IGA’S FUNCTION IN THE BODY Immunoglobulin A, or IgA, is an antibody which is produced in mucosal linings and plays an important part in mucosal immunity. In the mucosal linings, more IgA is produced than all other types of antibodies combined. The amount of produced IgA contributes greatly to the total immunoglobulin production and around three to five grams of IgA are secreted into the intestinal lumen every day. IgA is divided into two subclasses, IgA 1 and IgA 2 and can also exist in a dimeric form called secretory IgA, sIgA....   [tags: immunoglobulin A, antibody, gammaglobulin]

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History of Down's Syndrome

- Down’s Syndrome is named after John Langdon Down, a British doctor who first studied and described the mental disorder. He discovered the disorder in Surrey, England while working at an asylum for children with mental retardation. He called people with this disorder Mongoloids because of the physical similarities of citizens from Mongolia compared to those affected by Down’s Syndrome. Later, the term “Mongoloid” was dropped and named after John Down when Jerome Lejeune, a French geneticist who tested children with these similar physical characteristics of Mongolians, found that 97% of those tested had an extra chromosome-21, with a total of 47 chromosomes....   [tags: Down's Syndrome]

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Patient with Nephrotic Syndrome

- From the results of the numerous tests carried out according to the patient history of frothy urine with a significant oedema over a maximum period of 5 days, the patient was diagnosed with Nephrotic Syndrome. This is condition that occurs due to leakage in the kidney filtration part leading to a large amount of protein leaking from the blood into the urine. This is mainly due to fluid retention known as oedema which is as a result of low protein level in the blood. It occurs due to abnormal functioning or a part of the kidney is affected (glomeruli)....   [tags: Nephrotic Syndrome]

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Down Syndrome : A Chromosomal Disorder

- Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder that occurs when a baby is born with an extra chromosome in each of their cells. It is the most common of the chromosomal disorders. One in every 691 babies is born with DS (Down syndrome) and there are approximately over 400,000 people living with DS in the United States today. Although it is not genetic, it has been proven that mothers older than thirty-five are more likely to have a baby with Down syndrome. Individuals with Down syndrome have varied cognitive delays, meaning that they learn and develop slower than the average person, but they are still able to live normal lives....   [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosomal translocation]

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The Problem Of Down Syndrome

- ... If translocation is found in a child with Down syndrome, it is important to examine the parents’ chromosomes, since in at least one-third of the cases, a parent may be a carrier of the translocation. This form of chromosome error is found in 3 - 4 percent of the individuals with Down syndrome. Diagnosis The child with Down syndrome is in need of the same kind of medical care as any other child. The pediatrician or family physician should provide general health maintenance, immunizations, attend to medical emergencies, and offer support and counseling to the family....   [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosomal translocation]

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The Genetic Disorder : Down Syndrome

- Down syndrome is a variance in chromosome 21 that manifests with cognitive delay, muscle hypotonia, characteristic facies, and short stature. (Glanzman, 2015 & Powell-Hamilton, 2012) The genetic disorder was named after the Physician John Langdon Down, who had originally in 1866 labeled those with the genetic abnormality as “Mongoloids”; Down indicated his choice of term for the children because of their appearance was allegedly similar to those from Mongolia and at the time it was believed that those who were of Mongolian decent were to have halted development....   [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosome]

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Symptoms and Treatment of Tourette Syndrome

- Today we live in a society were appearance is everything. From what you’re wearing to the brands you buy, and even how you carry yourself. In today’s society people are always ready to judge you based on your appearance; this ultimately means bad news for those diagnosed with TS, (tourette syndrome). It is the objective of this paper to teach and make aware of what TS is how it affects the person’s life and what we can do it about. After all TS affects 1 in 1000 to 2000 people. It is a syndrome that is found among all races that affects males, more than females....   [tags: tourette syndrome, tourettes,]

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2209 words | (6.3 pages) | Preview

Educating a Child With Down Syndrome

- It’s Wednesday and a mother just kissed her son goodbye as he walked into the classroom. The mother walks back to her car and proceeds to work. Her son has Down Syndrome, but attends a private school where special needs children have their own classroom. Her son Alex loves going to school to see his friends, like any child would. With having Down Syndrome, Alex has some rough days in the classroom. It’s 10:30am and Janice, Alex’s mother, receives a phone call. “Hi Janice, this is Mrs....   [tags: Inclusion Down Syndrome]

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3251 words | (9.3 pages) | Preview

Prenatal Alcohol Exposure And Development

- Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Development Brittany Blossfeld California State University, Fullerton   Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Development Consumption of alcohol by pregnant women can have serious and life threatening affects to their offspring ranging from death to devastating deformities. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are an umbrella of malformations and defects that can appear in the children of mothers who consumed high levels of alcohol during pregnancy. A fetus exposed to varying levels of alcohol is being exposed to a teratogen, which can be defined as any agent or substance that could potentially restrict normal prenatal development, leading to birth defects (Santrock...   [tags: Pregnancy, Fetal alcohol syndrome, Nervous system]

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1648 words | (4.7 pages) | Preview

Asperger 's Syndrome And Autism

- ... In some mild cases, they may not have language delays, this is one motive why the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders took out Asperger’s as a syndrome. They may have unusual speech patterns, have a rhythmic nature or lack inflection (Asperger 's Syndrome | Autism Society). People with Asperger’s usually have repetitive movements or behaviors and are clumsy. “They also might have trouble showing empathy with other people” (“Overview of Asperger’s Syndrome”)....   [tags: Autism, Asperger syndrome]

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1175 words | (3.4 pages) | Preview

All About The Hoarding Syndrome

- The Hoarding Syndrome is characterized as the "excessive collecting and saving behaviors that result in a cluttered living space and significant distress or impairment" (Frost and Hart, 1996).  Hoarding symptoms often begin between the ages of 10-13 (Mackin, Arean, Delucchi, & Matthews, 2011) but does not "discriminate in terms of age, gender, educational levels, or socioeconomic status" (Singh & Jones, 2013). However, researchers have found a very strong association between having a family member who has a compulsive hoarder and coming a hoarder yourself (Mayo Clinic, 2014)....   [tags: Hoarding Syndrome, Excessive Collecting]

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Research Stresses Risk Of Alcohol

- ... The author mentions the data of Health Canada that every year in Canada approximately 3000 or more babies are born with FASD. The author also mentions a research publication by Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology in year 2009, showing that alcohol consumption during pregnancy costs more than $5 billion a year to the nation. Lastly, author mentions an experience of mother- Jennifer Beer who was hearing about FASD from friends and other health care practitioners at the time of her pregnancy....   [tags: Pregnancy, Fetal alcohol syndrome, Fetus, Infant]

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1039 words | (3 pages) | Preview

Living With Down Syndrome

- There are many different types of children with a myriad of needs in our school system. Included within this group of students are those who are diagnosed with Down syndrome. There are more than 250,000 people living in the United States with a Down syndrome diagnosis (Genetics). Down syndrome is not a hidden disability rather it has physical attributes that can make the diagnosis obvious. Furthermore, individuals with Down syndrome and their families have to cope with multiple health issues, cognitive limitations, and the stigma of having a disability....   [tags: syndrome diagnosis, mongolism, chromosomes]

Term Papers
1842 words | (5.3 pages) | Preview

Description of Metabolic Syndrome

- Metabolic Syndrome (syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome) is the name for a group of risk factors that raises your risk for diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and other health problems, such as diabetes and stroke.2 It is characterized by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, low HDL, and elevated triglycerides. Some hallmarks of metabolic syndromes are dyslipidemia, central adiposity, and a predisposition to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus....   [tags: insulin, diabetes, metabolic syndrome]

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657 words | (1.9 pages) | Preview

Down Syndrome : Congenital Condition

- ... There are three different variations of the condition, all of which contain no behavioral or environmental factors that cause them. The first variation is Mosaic Down syndrome. This is when a child has an extra copy of chromosome 21. This is specifically caused by “abnormal cell division after fertilization” (MayoClinic). The second variation is Trisomy 21 which is the most prevalent cause/variation of Down syndrome. This is when a child has 3 copies of chromosome 21, and it is caused by “cell division during the development of the sperm or the egg cell” (MayoClinic)....   [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosomal translocation, Gene]

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1250 words | (3.6 pages) | Preview

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ( Fas )

- The Institute of Medicine Report to Congress (1996) described Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) as the following: “Of all the substances of abuse, including heroin, cocaine, and marijuana, alcohol produces by far the most serious neurobehavioral effects in the fetus”. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) was first introduced in the United States in 1973 by Drs. Kenneth Jones and David Smith, two pediatric dysmorphologists (Jones & Smith, 1973). Even with these ancient references, it wasn’t until relatively modern times that the medical profession took notice of the connection between prenatal maternal alcohol consumption and developmental difficulties in children....   [tags: Fetal alcohol syndrome, Pregnancy, Alcohol]

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2209 words | (6.3 pages) | Preview

Language Development in Individuals with Down Syndrome

- "Having Down syndrome is like being born normal. I am just like you and you are just like me. We are all born in different ways, that is the way I can describe it. I have a normal life"(Burke, C., n.d.). Where special education is concerned, one must always remember that exceptional learners are different, not less. In the following studies, the various strengths and weaknesses of the language and communication of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is reviewed and discussed. Language is defined as the method of human communication either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words, in a structured or conventional way....   [tags: Down Syndrome Essays]

Research Papers
2336 words | (6.7 pages) | Preview

Genetics Synthesis: Marfan Syndrome

- Marfan Syndrome Marfan Syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder mainly caused by defects in the gene FBN1 that codes for the protein fibrillin. Approximately 1 in 5,000 people are affected. Cardinal features involve the ocular, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular systems. There is a high degree of variability of this disorder, sometimes presenting itself at birth or later in childhood or adulthood. On one end of the spectrum is severe neonatal presentation with rapidly progressive disease, while on the other end isolated phenotypic features may be the only presenting signs....   [tags: gene deffects, attributes, Turner Syndrome]

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1506 words | (4.3 pages) | Preview

The Problem Of Down Syndrome

- ... A child could be diagnosed with down syndrome before they are even born. There are two different kinds of tests that could diagnosed a child with down syndrome during maternity. A screening test is available to show if an unborn baby at risk for down syndrome. Screening test can range from an ultrasound or blood test. Screening tests can also provide false positive when it comes to diagnosing a second trimester or older baby. The other type of test is a diagnostic test. An example of a diagnostic test is a chorionic villus sampling test....   [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosome, Medical test, Cancer]

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1315 words | (3.8 pages) | Preview

The Problem Of Computer Vision Syndrome

- ... According to Mark Rosenfield from his study, a review of ocular causes and potential treatment and the American Optometric Association “computer vision syndrome is a combination of eye and vision problems associated with the use of computer and any other screens”. Thus, also nicknamed digital eye strain computer vision syndrome it is a group of syndrome that affects the human vision due to the fact the eye get tired faster when the eye focuses a computer screen or phone screens without movement for a long time....   [tags: Eye, Retina, Computer vision syndrome, Optometry]

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1110 words | (3.2 pages) | Preview

Understanding Down Syndrome

- Understanding the Disease Down syndrome When an error occurs at chromosome 21 within in the genetic make of a human being, the person obtains distinct features such as slanted eyes, deeply creased hands, and a protruding tongue. At first glance this person may appear to be affected with some type of deformation, but they are often one out of the 4,000 people that are diagnosed with the disease Down syndrome. Down syndrome or DS is a chromosomal abnormality that frequently affects humans. Because the disease is genetic one can assume that it has been affecting the human body for years....   [tags: Down Syndrome, informative]

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1878 words | (5.4 pages) | Preview

Children With Down Syndrome May Be More Friendly

- ... A GP can support the child by dealing with general health issues. They can refer the child to hospitals and specialist when appropriate. The Paediatrician is a doctor specialising in the care of babies and children. GPs can refer children onto the Paediatrician, who can then offer advice and information on Down syndrome. They can also refer the child to specialist doctors and consultants. Specialist doctors and consultants are specialists who can help with certain healthcare needs that the child with Down syndrome may have....   [tags: Developmental psychology, Down syndrome]

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1212 words | (3.5 pages) | Preview

Down Syndrome : The Common Forms Of Genetic Birth Defects

- Down Syndrome is one of the most common forms of genetic birth defects. Usually, children born with this condition have some degree of mental retardation, as well as characteristic physical features. Many of these children also have other health problems. Each year in the United States alone, approximately one in every 800 to 1,000 newborns has Down Syndrome. This equates to approximately 5,000 children born with Down Syndrome every year. In the United States today, Down Syndrome affects approximately 350,000 people....   [tags: Down syndrome, Chromosome]

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1702 words | (4.9 pages) | Preview

John Elder Robinson's Diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome

- Asperger syndrome belongs to a group of childhood disorders commonly known as pervasive developmental disorders or PDD's. The disorder is recognized as a less severe case of autism. Children who have the disorder have a difficult time in social settings but excel in other areas of inteligence. The disorder is usually a lifelong struggle but has few cases where the patent recovers in adulthood. The disorder is not widely understood by the population but it is becoming a more well known disorder. There is currently no cure for this disorder....   [tags: Asperger syndrome, Aspergers, ]

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1472 words | (4.2 pages) | Preview

Understanding Autism Syndrome Disorders

- ... This can be done on an individual basis or in a group. By having therapy in a group they are giving the children to develop a positive relationship and a non-threating relationship with others, also they make the students feel comfortable in a safe environment. By having art and music as a therapy you are providing the children with visual and auditory stimulation. Music therapy is good for speech development and also helps with language comprehension. Songs can be used to teach the children how to speak and increase their ability to put words together....   [tags: behavioral syndromes, psychiatric analysis]

Research Papers
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Managing Pain From Irritable Bowel Syndrome

- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a large array of disorders described as abdominal discomfort and pain with changes in bowel. IBS is known for cramping, abdominal pain, bloating gas, diarrhea and constipation. The colon’s many nerves connect it to the brain and are partly controlled by the ANS, which reacts to stress similar to the heart. The ascending pathways dealing with pain consist of three different tracts: the neospinothalamic, the paleospinothalamic, and the archispinothalamic tracts....   [tags: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)]

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1536 words | (4.4 pages) | Preview

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

- Alcohol (wine, beer, or liquor) is the leading known preventable cause of developmental and physical birth defects in the United States. When a woman drinks alcohol during pregnancy, she risks giving birth to a child who will pay the price, in mental and physical deficiencies, for his or her entire life. One study (Phyllis Trujillo Lewis, MA, Philip A. May, PhD, and Virginia C. Shipman, PhD, 2007) asserted that “Numerous studies on alcohol-related birth defects have concluded that maternal drinking, compounded by other risk factors, leads to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)....   [tags: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Research paper]

Research Papers
2587 words | (7.4 pages) | Preview

Causes And Consequences Of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

- ... An example of what an undiagnosed child may go through is that they are punished for their behavior not being socially acceptable and those children may be thought as unintelligent because of their performance in school. Behavioral problems in the school system are typically dealt with suspension, detention, and scolding. With the disease, these things will not help because they are not being defiant, but instead they are only acting this way because of their predisposition. This can lead to a serious problem because going undiagnosed throughout their childhood can lead to more problems in adulthood....   [tags: Pregnancy, Fetus, Embryo, Fetal alcohol syndrome]

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1813 words | (5.2 pages) | Preview

Cri Du Chat Syndrome Description

- In 1963, Lejeune et al. introduced Cri du Chat (CCS), a rare genetic syndrome that results from a partial or total deletion on the short extension of the 5p (5p15.1—5p15.3) chromosome. This chromosomal loss results from a “de novo” mutation (parents have a normal karyotype) and causes altered brain development, resulting in microencephaly and delayed psychomotor development (Mainardi, 2007). Though CCS is rare, it is one of the most prevalent chromosomal deletion syndromes (i.e. incidence is 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live births) with slightly more females being affected, but with no significant differences pertaining to race or geographic area (Rodriguez-Cabalerro, 2010)....   [tags: genetic syndrome, 5p chromosomes, jerome lejeune]

Research Papers
2929 words | (8.4 pages) | Preview

Asperger 's Syndrome Is A Mild Form Of Autism

- Asperger’s Syndrome is a mild form of autism. People with Asperger’s are characterized by having highly impaired social skills, difficultly relating to others, a lack of flexible imaginative play, and they often have a preoccupation with a specific topic. It was not until the 1940s that Asperger’s Syndrome was discovered and labeled as being an actual disorder. In the past decade there has been a large amount of documented cases of Asperger’s Syndrome, labeling it as being an epidemic. There are almost double the amount of children diagnosed with having Asperger’s Syndrome then just classic autism....   [tags: Asperger syndrome, Autism, Sociology, Person]

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1173 words | (3.4 pages) | Preview

How Studies of Gitelman's and Bartter's Syndromes Have Helped in Understanding Calcium and Magnesium Excretion by the Human Kidney

- How Studies of Gitelman's and Bartter's Syndromes Have Helped in Understanding Calcium and Magnesium Excretion by the Human Kidney Identifying the causes of Gitelman’s and Bartter’s syndromes has greatly enhanced our understanding of ion transport by thick ascending limb and distal convoluted tubule cells. Bartter and Gitelman syndromes are renal tubular salt-wasting disorders in which the kidneys are unable to reabsorb sodium in the thick ascending limb of Henle or the distal convoluted tubule, depending on the mutation....   [tags: Papers]

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2186 words | (6.2 pages) | Preview

Children With Down Syndrome, By Katherine Horrocks, The Mother Of Two Boys

- The two media articles that I have chosen, discuss Down syndrome, one article is derived from a parent 's perspective and the other is from the perspective of an adult with Down syndrome. I chose the articles as the focus of attention is upon Down syndrome and each one discusses what is of relevance to each woman within their own lives; however the discourse and models present within the articles are diametrically opposed. I will examine the discourse and models present within each article with reference to the units I have studied thus far....   [tags: Disability, Down syndrome]

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1084 words | (3.1 pages) | Preview

Somatoform Disorder or Culture-Bound Syndrome: Manifestation & Symptom Expression of Han in Koreans

- One of the ongoing controversies about the relationship between culture and psychopathology has to do with the long-reported tendency of Asian psychiatric patients to primarily manifest and express psychological distress with somatic symptoms. Cultural differences in symptom expression have been the focus of studies on somatization. “Somatization is a term originally tied to a psychodynamic theory of illness causation in which psychological conflict was transformed or transduced into bodily distress” (Kirmayer & Young, 1998)....   [tags: Psychology, Anger Syndrome]

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2086 words | (6 pages) | Preview

Maintaining A Productive Life : The Learning Hurdles For Asperger 's Syndrome

- Maintaining a Productive Life: The Learning Hurdles for Asperger’s Syndrome Asperger’s Syndrome (ASD) is defined as a developmental disorder related to Autism and characterized by higher than average intellectual ability coupled with impaired social skills. People suffering from ASD can overcome this disease and live a normal, productive life by learning basic life skills, communication techniques, and developing meaningful relationships. These essential life skills are important to everyday life and need to be learned in order for these individuals to maintain a self-sustaining life....   [tags: Autism, Asperger syndrome]

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1461 words | (4.2 pages) | Preview

Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Syndromes and Genetic Testing

- The adenomatous polyposis syndromes The genetically defined adenomatous polyposis syndromes comprise familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), MYH-associated polyposis (MAP) and the recently described condition polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis (PPAP). Clinically, theses syndromes have significant phenotypic overlap and can be challenging to distinguish. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) Over 1000 different germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) located on chromosome 5q21-q22 have been shown to cause FAP....   [tags: adenomatous polyposis syndrome, genetic, mutations]

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1056 words | (3 pages) | Preview

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