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The Use of Reinforced Concrete in Modernism

- The usage of concrete was explored by the Early Christian and Roman architects but fell out of use throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance period. The material was only fully explored again in the later half of the 19th century but only for mundane purposes where the material was cheap, easy to work with, and versatile, but most importantly it’s fireproof characteristic. In 1870, the idea of reinforcing the concrete was born; steel rods were to be inserted to increase its strength. Taking this principle, Ernest Ransome (America) and Francois Hennebique (France) both developed frame systems....   [tags: Ernst Ransome, architecture, concrete]

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Concrete Poetry - A Unique Genre

- Concrete poetry presents its readers with a unique and often confounding situation. In addition to using language or parts of language in non-traditional ways, concrete poetry also uses elements that are more commonly associated with visual art. However, concrete poetry is not visual art. It is still concerned, primarily, with the use of language, generally to communicate some meaning to the reader in a way that is undeniably linguistic in nature. Concrete poetry is therefore an especially unique genre that draws upon and incorporates many different concepts from a variety of disciplines in order to fill in the gaps left when traditional grammar and syntax are eschewed....   [tags: Concrete Poetry Analysis]

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Importance Of Compressive Strength Of Concrete

- 2.1 Introduction In a traditional way, a concrete mix is designed based on the code requirements and recommendations which uses the empirical values obtained from previous experiences. Compressive strength of concrete is determined by conducting standard uniaxial compression test on standard cylindrical sample specimens of ages 7 & 28 days, following the standard procedure and test values are reported in accordance with ASTM and ACI standards . If the strength value obtained from the test is less than the required strength after 28 days from date of placing of concrete, the entire process of concrete mix design has to be repeated until the required strength value is achieved, which is ti...   [tags: Regression analysis, Linear regression, Concrete]

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The Development Of The Concrete And The Arch

- From reading, discuss the development of both concrete and the arch. Include the important of each in the life of Rome and the results of their use. Introduction Ancient Rome was a civilization that thrived on cultural influences specifically with their elaboration and advancement of architectural designs. For instance, the Roman concrete was a composite of water, small stones, broken brick, limestone, and volcanic sand called the Pozzolana. With various recipes of concrete mixes, Rome developed arch designs in many of their architectural structures found in the Roman society....   [tags: Roman Empire, Ancient Rome, Concrete, Rome]

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Properties Of High–lime Fly Ash Concrete

- PROPERTIES OF HIGH–LIME FLY ASH CONCRETE ABSTRACT Fly ash is a waste product from coal based thermal power stations. About seven million tons of fly ash is being produced annually from these thermal power stations in Turkey. Concerted efforts are needed to make the material used to a great extent. These paper give the results of an investigation on the performance of fly ash concrete made with ASTM C class fly ashes from two sources. PC42,5 cement used in the experiments conforms to TS19 (Turkish Standards)....   [tags: Concrete]

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Development Of Concrete And The Arch

- From the reading, discuss the development of both concrete and the arch. Include the importance of each in the life of Rome and the results of their use. This class has examined the various accomplishments of ancient Rome, many that have been carried on throughout time and influenced numerous cultures around the world. Amongst those accomplishments were the development of concrete and the utilization of arches. This paper will examine the Roman development of both concrete and the infamous concrete arch that is utilized in many modern day structures today....   [tags: Ancient Rome, Concrete, Roman Empire, Arch]

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Construction Variables That Must Be Considered Before Concrete

- concrete slabs present many construction variables that must be considered before concrete placement begins. A slab pour requires efficient planning so that all of the elements that go into producing a high-quality slab are done in time (before the concrete sets) and done correctly. Knowing the right finishing tools to use and the right time to start bull floating and final toweling are essential to preventing dusting, scaling and craze cracking of the slab. You also need to provide a firm and stable base for the concrete slab by compacting the sub grade properly....   [tags: Concrete, Compressive strength, Rebar]

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Construction Variables That Should Be Considered Before Concrete Placement

- concrete slabs present various construction variables that should be considered before concrete placement begins. A slab pour need efficient planning so that all of the elements that go into producing a high-quality slab are finished in time ( before concrete sets) and done correctly. Knowing the right finishing tools that 's we need and the right time that we start bull floating and final toweling are main to preventing dusting, scaling and craze cracking of the slab. You also need to tool up a firm and stable base for the concrete slab by pressure the sub grade properly....   [tags: Concrete, Compressive strength, Rebar]

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The Roman Development Of Concrete And The Utilization Of Arches

- This class has examined the various accomplishments of ancient Rome, many that have been carried on throughout time and influenced numerous cultures around the world. Amongst those accomplishments were the development of concrete and the utilization of arches. This paper will examine the Roman development of both concrete and the infamous concrete arch that is utilized in many modern day structures today. Opus caementicium or Roman concrete is a synthetic construction substance that’s composed of an aggregate, a binding agent, and water....   [tags: Ancient Rome, Concrete, Arch, Roman Empire]

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The Properties Of Self Compacting Concrete At Different Curing Condition

- Al-Feel and Al-Saffar (2008) was conducted a study on the properties of self compacting concrete at different curing condition and their comparison with properties of normal concrete. Portland cement was used for the preparation of all mixes. Limestone powder was used at 8% of cement weight. Super plasticizer liquid used as concrete admixture. The SCC provided higher compressive strength of 30 % at 28 days as compared to that of normal concrete. Arabi et al. (2009) have adopted a statistical model for hardened properties of self-compacting concrete....   [tags: Concrete, Portland cement, Tensile strength]

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Concrete And Concrete Of Concrete

- In these cases, such as building a reservoir, a huge number of concrete trucks are generally brought in in a caravan, and they pour their concrete into the forms that have been constructed onsite. In some cases, this order will put a concrete plant out of commission for a period of time due to the demand, and as such it must obviously be coordinated ahead of time. Another appealing aspect of concrete, apart from the versatility, is the ease of procuring it. Concrete is not made with any fancy, hard to find materials....   [tags: Building, Construction, Fire protection]

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The History of Concrete

- It is common knowledge that steel structures revolutionized building design during the early 20th century. It is less well known, however, the impact concrete has had on building design - particularly in skyscrapers. Concrete is an old building material, dating well back into prehistoric times. Yet its application for building tall structures was only truly begun to realized in the early 20th century. Concrete systems in skyscrapers are a unique brand of structure. They incorporate many different elements, and have a variety of different requirements....   [tags: ancient romans, building design]

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Alternatives to Concrete

- Concrete today is considered by many modern engineers and architects as a more efficient and effective alternative to steel n regards to the creation of buildings, ranging from low-story apartments to neck-breaking skyscrapers. Through the rapid growth and development of the world's major metropolises and growing cities, concrete today has become one of the most important building materials to date. According to the World Business Counsel for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), “it has become the most consumed substance on earth, only superseded by water, with three tons for each person used annually” (World)....   [tags: Recycled Waste, Carbon Emissions]

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Fundamentals of Building Construction: The Concrete

- What is concrete. Concrete is a composite material used widely in the construction industry. Concrete is basically a mixture of cement, water, aggregates and admixture (sometimes). Cement is a fine gray powder that consists of oxidizes calcium, silicon and aluminum. The aggregate used is normally gravel, crushed stone or sand. Admixture is a solid or liquid substance that gives a certain characteristics of the concrete. The cement reacts with water chemically and binds the aggregates together through a process called hydration during hardening or curing of concrete....   [tags: cement, construction industry, powder]

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The Constituent Materials of Concrete

- Portland Cement Association (n.d.) stated that in the simplest form, a blend of paste, stone, sand and water is a concrete. Concrete is one of the fundamental building block of the civilization, contributing to all the structures across the world. Concrete can be viewed in details in term of its constituent materials, properties, durability and concrete mix design and quality control. Constituent materials are the fundamental materials required to produce concrete. The constituent materials of concrete consist of mainly three materials which are cement, aggregate and water, with admixtures included as addictive to alter the characteristics of the concrete (Scalenghe et al., 2011)....   [tags: Quality, Constituent Materials]

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Concrete for Water Retaining Structure

- Concrete for Water Retaining Structure Author: Aritra Pal; Entry No. 2013CEC8314 1.0 Introduction: The Aim of this study is to select a better choice of water tight concrete for the water proofing construction of water retaining structures like tanks, reservoirs, swimming pools etc. This paper includes the study of early age & later age properties of concretes with Chemical Admixtures & Supplementary cementecious materials, from the aspect of water tightness & durability. 2.0 Principle of Water Tightness: • Concrete should be dense & durable • Concrete must have the capacity to withstand hydrostatic pressure without water seepage....   [tags: waterproofing construction]

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Nanosilica and Microsilca in Concrete

- Introduction Concrete is most widely used material for various applications in this world. India is second largest producer of concrete in world. As this is used in various applications its base properties which are obtained by preparing concrete with required raw materials must be enhanced by adding some other material to it. There comes the role of admixtures by which one can extract required property from concrete. There are various two basic classifications of admixtures. Chemical and Mineral admixture....   [tags: silicon industry, cement mortars]

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The And Design Of Concrete And Brick Construction

- Some of the typical characteristics of aesthetic expressions associated with the early civilizations are architectural, engineering, sculpturing, painting, and music. The reason for architectural is because they used this and used engineering for projects. When these two were combined, it engaged the inventive use of the arch and the techniques of concrete and brick construction. The romans contributed these structural domes and stone-vaulted types of construction that enclosed close or vast areas of the inside space....   [tags: Ancient Rome, Roman Empire, Titus, Pont du Gard]

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Proportions and Strength of Concrete

- Contents 1. Introduction .....3-4 2. Proportions and Strength 4-5 3. Admixtures .......5 4. Aggregate . ...6 5. Cement ...7 6. Curing 7 7. Workability 8 8. Tests…………………………………………………………………………………9-11 9. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………...12 10. References…………………………………………………………………….........13 1. Introduction The Romans used concrete at least 500 years before the time of Christ, and they were probably not the only ones or the earliest ones. Although concrete technology has advanced a little since those remote days, it is still used in modern building projects - from foundations for giant structures, to nuclear power stations, to sky-scrapers in our cities, to garage and patio floors, r...   [tags: aggregate, mixture, portland]

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Design of Concrete Structure with

- Figure 3 11. BBS of a Beam Bar Bending Schedule of Columns The column’s reinforcement are not particularly similar on all floors, therefore all columns were studied floor wise. The columns are also divided in two phases per floor, similar to that of beams. The values derived from the STAAD.Pro results re percentage of steel and stirrup spacing. The percentage is multiplied with the gross area of section and the reinforcement area is achieved. STAAD.Pro aims at lesser number of bars with higher diameter, but it cannot always be sufficient, therefore the number of bars were calculated manually for all columns....   [tags: foundation, columns, reinforcement]

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Sustainable Development of Concrete Production

- Sustainable Development in Concrete Production According to the Department of Environment (Environ, 2007), sustainable development is defined as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. For example, the use of sustainable concrete in future developments leads to a more durable and economical structure, with significant environmental benefits. Concrete, a crucial material in building construction, is the world’s most produced material....   [tags: department of environment, sustainability]

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Characteristics of Reactive Powder Concrete

- Reactive powder Concrete 1. Introduction Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) was developed by P. Richard and M. Cheyrezy and was first produced at Bouygues’ laboratory in France2 early 1990s. In July 1997, the Sherbrooke Bridge in Quebec, Canada3, became the world’s first structure to be constructed entirely out of Reactive Powder Concrete. Due to its extreme low permeability it is also being used for containment of nuclear waste in Europe4. Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) is basically a special concrete where the microstructure is optimized by precise gradation of all the constituent particles to produce a maximum possible density....   [tags: modern construction materials]

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Challenges Faced With Concrete Justifications

- 2c RECOMMEND WITH JUSTIFICATION, NEW AREAS IN WHICH THE BUSINESS COULD BE EXPANDED WITH CONCRETE JUSTIFICATIONS (AC 2.3): After the exiting performance has been sustained, business organization can think for improvement and growth. In other words, after sustaining current position, firm can strive for future growth and improvements in performance. Growth of firm can be in any direction but more important is that growth in based on strengths or strong areas of organization. There are different alternatives for AdTaily to grow, summarized as under....   [tags: Strategic management, Management]

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Water Carrying Concrete Core

- ... As for discharging, it happens in a complete passive way without any external influence as 60% of energy is transferred by radiations and 40% by convection. Structure of concrete core Water pipes are directly casted in the concrete core of the slabs generally in the center of the concrete slab to benefit from the concrete thermal capacity characteristics or near to the ceiling as around two third of heat transfer occurs through the ceiling and the rest through the floor. Generally heat flows from the water pipes in the direction of the slab surface in case of heating and opposite in case of cooling....   [tags: pipes, efficient system]

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Structural Lightweight Concrete

- Structural lightweight concrete is a type of concrete made with low-density aggregate, typically with a density of 1440-1840kg/m3, in comparison to normal weight concrete which has a density of approximately 2240-2400kg/m3. The 28-day compressive strength is needed to be greater than 17MPa. These values are achieved by using lightweight coarse aggregate and normal weight fine aggregate, generally including pyro-processed shales, clays, slates, expanded slags, and expanded fly ash. (NRMCA, 2003) The primary use and advantage of structural lightweight concrete is to decrease the weight in a concrete structure, and doing that allows there to be a reduction in the size of structural elements and...   [tags: proportional mix, aggregate materials]

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Improving the Durability of Reinforced Concrete Bridges Using Hybrid Concrete Systems

- • Introduction and Background: Reinforced concrete deterioration induced by corrosion of steel reinforcement is considered one of the well-known and costly problems associated with concrete bridges (Sohanghpurwala 2006). The deterioration problems are steadily increasing as one or a combination of many factors such as poor design, inappropriate used materials, and severe environmental changes accelerate the deterioration process in concrete structures (Broomfield 2007). The durability problems of concrete bridges and its consequences are countless in terms of annual maintenance cost and service life....   [tags: civil engineering and construction]

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Fiber Reinforced Concrete and Its Application

- ...  The role of fibers in concrete is to bridge across the cracks that develop some post cracking ductility and to increase it toughness and types of loading. The uses of reinforced concrete help to increase the strength and ductility but it requires skilled labour.  BODY: Concrete is known as the most widely used structural materials in the world, because of this reasons concrete get cracked. The reason while concrete get cracked is because of the Economical , Structural or Environmental factors, but most of the cracks are formed because they can resist the tensile forces due to the weakness of the material....   [tags: construction materials, resistance]

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The Roman’s Extensive Use of Concrete

- THESIS STATEMENT The Roman’s extensive use of concrete is portrayed through their massive architectural feats. PURPOSE STATEMENT Through the critical analysis of works dealing with the concrete of Ancient Rome it is evident that Rome used concrete to build massive structures. INTRODUCTION What would our world be like today if we did not have concrete. Could we imagine a life of stone built houses. The ancient people of world did just that. But then in Rome concrete was invented and the Romans used it to construct an enormous amount of architecture....   [tags: Building and Construction]

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Concrete Bridge Project

- In the past, it is not much pedestrian traffic along the street because of the lower population. However, due to the population increasing in 1960-70s.The government considerate that the number of pedestrian traffic such as footbridge is so important, so the government have to increase the total number of all pedestrian traffic like footbridge. With the time changed, the safety and technical of bridge structure form has also changed and improved. Nowadays, almost footbridge in Hong Kong is made by concrete including prestressed concrete bridge....   [tags: Pedestrians, Tension, Architecture]

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The Atomic Model Is Not A Concrete Depiction Of An Atom

- The atomic model is not a concrete depiction of an atom. Scientists cannot base their models on actual observations because the atom is too small to be seen even with the most sensitive instruments. Due to this restriction, scientists have had to come up with a model that accounts for the observations that they make. As new observations are made, the atomic model evolves. The most notable contributions to the atomic model were made by Democritus, John Dalton, J.J. Thompson, Ernest Rutherford, and Niels Bohr....   [tags: Atom, Electron, Electric charge, Niels Bohr]

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The Article, Diversity, Community, Concrete Experiences

- The article, “Diversity in Early Childhood Education,” by Francis Wardle, was enlightening on how early childhood educators need to build a homogenous classroom environment that resembles the family and the community that children reside in. Educators and administrators need to evaluate the classroom environment to incorporate diversity in the classroom so, that young children can feel socially competent about their culture. It is essential for educators to assist young children to gain knowledge through classroom experiences an additionally by exploring their community to build tolerance of individual differences nonetheless we can all be friends....   [tags: Early childhood education, Childhood, Culture]

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The Empty Concrete

- The Empty Concrete Throughout the adventures of Concrete there are many times where he shows his loneliness in a story. The one story that I find this most evident in is "next Best". In this story Concrete goes through a number of let downs during the course of his day. The story starts off with Concrete having a surreal dream, a fantasy of Maureen and him being together. He admits his love to her. He is transformed into a human being by a god like structure that I believe was the Senator. Setting him free....   [tags: Papers]

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- According to major supplies, “Use of synthetic fibers for reinforcing concrete is continuously, increasing. The increase has been considerable since 1980, but slowed somewhat in 1990, a year of substantial construction cutbacks. Apparently the construction community believes there are advantages in the use of synthetic fibers in concrete.” (Schupack) Synthetic fibers are used to improve crack control in concrete. Some reports say that synthetic fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) would replace welded wire fabric in many slab-on-grade applications....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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Concrete 5: A simple CMS to Cement Your Website

- Summary: Concrete 5 can be considered as one of the best CMS after Joomla and Drupal, when it comes to PHP based CMS. This article would be discussing about Concrete 5 in a vivid manner. The website development in today’s world is highly dependent on frameworks. The developers of our times take open source content management system to be the magic wand which can help their clients to update, manage as well upload content without taking any external help. Concrete 5 is the new kid in the block when it comes to PHP framework....   [tags: Joomla, Drupal, website development]

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- RURAL PARADISE OR A CONCRETE JUNGLE. Over the course of the semester we have watched numerous movies (Heartland Reggae, The Harder They Come, Countryman, Dancehall Queen, Third World Cop, Rockers, and Land of Look Behind) that depict Rastafarians living in both the country and the city. Not knowing much about either Jamaican setting, I decided to take a closer look at both the urban and rural areas in which Rastafarians live and practice their beliefs. I wanted to see if the different settings had much influence on Rastafarians....   [tags: essays papers]

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Ando in the perspective of critical regionalism: Concrete Resistance

- Through this paper a comparative representation on the definition and background of the evolution of critical regionalism will be explored. Moreover through this essay, the arguments of how ‘Ando’s’ architectural approach is of a ‘critical regionalist’ manner will be examined significantly. The definition of critical regionalism is a direct approach to architecture that strives to oppose ‘placelessness’ and the apparent lack of identity and character in modern architecture through the use of building's geographical context....   [tags: Architecture]

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Analysis Of The Concrete Operational Stage Of Piaget Stages Of Development

- Brayden falls in the concrete operational stage in Piaget stages of development. I placed him in the concrete operational stage based on his logical responses to questions about conservation, his manipulation of variables, and his response to hypothetical situations. When I asked Brayden to explain the saying “Don’t cry over spilt milk”, his response was, “it means cheer up.” I also asked him to explain the saying “Better to light a candle than to curse the dark.” He responded “it means to not be afraid.” Although these answers may have not been correct, he still answered them by giving his own figurative explanations....   [tags: Theory of cognitive development, Jean Piaget]

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The Importance of Having a Concrete Concept in Product Advertising

- ... Aside from the concept, more than any factors of advertising, what we look at first about the information of the advertisement is the usage of the color. But, not to overlook the importance to having the concrete concept, every person has a different idea to decide which product to buy. For example, those who are more conscious about the grade or rank of the product would never choose the one which looks more reasonable but the other one which looks like more luxurious and vice versa. For this reason, selecting colors with the clear concept like who to sell or features which sellers really want to emphasize is also vital for them....   [tags: color, text, consumers]

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Self-Compacting Concrete

- Self-compacting concrete (SCC), also known as self-consolidating concrete, is a specialized high performance concrete that does not need to be compacted by vibration as it compacts into every corner and space of a formwork as a result of its own weight. The most laudable property of SCC is that it leaves no void in the formwork, and that too, without the need of mechanical vibration (De Schutter, 2007; Okamura & Ouchi, 2003; Hurd, 2002). SCC, therefore, has superior engineering properties that make it a highly versatile and immensely useful material for construction....   [tags: Product Analysis ]

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Animal Models Tested Provide Concrete Evidence

- Along with a toxic gain of function in the aggregation of the protein, T.F. Gendron states that there is also a loss of function due to the TDP-43 protein. This toxic loss of function occurs when the protein is concentrated in the cytoplasm among the aggregate forms and outside of the nucleus. As this happens it has been proposed that in patients with sporadic ALS, some of the unaltered TDP-43 in the nucleus binds to nuclear bodies allowing for the ability to disrupt transcription, leading to a loss of function in regards to the splicing mechanism of TDP-43 within the neuron (Lee et al....   [tags: DNA, Cell, DNA repair, Cytoplasm]

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Measuring Thickness of Concrete

- Measuring Thickness of Concrete Measuring Thickness of Concrete Elements Using Drilled Concrete Cores When doing construction one of the major concerns is that the work being done complies with the design specifications. In this ASTM test, C 174M-97, the thickness of a concrete pavement, slab, or structural element is determined by measuring the length of a core drilled from a concrete structure. This allows the contractor, as well as the owner, to see that the concrete is being poured to meet the requirements....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Arizona Concrete

- Arizona Concrete According to the Mine Faculty at the University of Arizona, cement is manufactured primarily from suitable limestone and shale rocks. Arizona had two dry-process cement plants in 1969, namely the Arizona Portland Cement Company plant in Pima County, near Tucson, and the American Cement Corporation plant at Clarkdale, in Yavapai County (52-53). The use of cementing materials goes back to the ancient Egyptians and Romans, but the invention of modern portland cement is usually attributed to Joseph Aspdin, a builder in Leeds, England, who obtained a patent for it in 1824....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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Pietro DiDonato’s Christ in Concrete

- Pietro DiDonato’s Christ in Concrete Pietro DiDonato’s Christ in Concrete is a powerful narrative of the struggles and culture of New York’s Italian immigrant laborers in the early twentieth century. Jerre Mangione and Ben Morreale, in their historical work La Storia, state that "Never before or since has the aggravation of the Italian immigrant been more bluntly expressed by a novelist" (368). A central component of this "aggravation", both for DiDonato as an author and for his protagonist Paul, is the struggle to reconcile traditional religious beliefs and customs with the failure of that very same faith to provide any tangible improvement in the immigrants’ lives....   [tags: Essays Papers]

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Note to Educators: Hope Required when Growing Roses in Concrete

- We live in a world that is always changing and as such creates inequality and suffering. Many people feel the need to change this and hope for a better world. Even though people have different religions and beliefs, we all have some hope,which motivates us to wake up everyday and make a difference in this world. Hope is what brings us together to fight for a common cause. As Duncan-Andrade explains throughout his article, “Note to Educators: Hope Required When Growing Roses in Concrete,” it is not enough to hope for a better future, especially for young people of color because hoping will not bring the needed change we expect....   [tags: Duncan-Andrade article analysis]

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Morocco 's Constitutional Referendum Brought Little Concrete Change

- Morocco’s constitutional referendum brought little concrete change to the overall government structure and does not even begin to remove significant power from the king. The same monarchial system remains with the pervasiveness of patronage and clientelism. In an attempt to appease the protesters, the king ignored many of the protesters fundamental requests. Keeping with the pattern of liberalization before democratization, the king granted a few rights to women, but did not change the way the government runs....   [tags: Democracy, Voter turnout, Voting, Election]

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Advanced Techniques in Construction in Sri Lanka

- ... Pre-stressing is where the slab is stressed before concreting and post tensioning is where the slab is stressed after the concreting. Over the last few years, post tension concrete has taken the world by storm. Most developed countries have already started using this technology and developing countries are slowly getting into the trend. Post tensioning promotes higher loading concentrations, longer spans, thinner slabs, lighter structures and rapid constructions. With the help of post tensioning, engineers can minimize, if not eliminate, shrinkage cracking....   [tags: concrete, engineers, tension]

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Using Lunar Soil for Construction in Space

- It is a well known fact that concrete is considered as the globally accepted construction material on earth. On the other hand, concrete in space was still mysterious when the researchers wrote this paper. However, some prior research indicated that there is possibility of lunar soil could be utilized as a construction material in space. A team of Master Builders, Inc. and Students for the Exploration and Development of Space (SEDS), a student group at the University of Alabama in Huntsville instigated such unique, ongoing, fundamental research program for concrete in space, particularly in moon....   [tags: materials, concrete, sources, environment]

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Anicent Roman Buildings and There Affect on Modern Day Architecture

- When people travel to government buildings you may notice that they look like european works, that is because they were influenced by Ancient Rome. The Romans developed unique techniques on buildings which were used in some of the most greatest achievements in Ancient Rome. One of the most influential buildings was the Pantheon which remained durable and lasted for years. Roman works are adapted from Greek architecture and made a major impact on modern buildings....   [tags: architecture, concrete, framework]

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Building and Construction Authority: CEMEX and Sustainable Construction

- CEMEX is a global building materials company. The company produces and sells cement, ready-mix concrete. At CEMEX, building materials are distributed in more than 50 countries worldwide [1]. It was founded innorthern Mexico in 1906 by opening the first cement plant whereby the world headquarters is also located in the city of San Pedro Garza Garcia. Within forty years, CEMEX could increase its production of cement to about 124,000 tons daily[2]. By 1989, CEMEX has become the top 10 cement producers in the world....   [tags: cement, ready-mix concrete]

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My School Activity: Chalk the Block

- ... I turned and there they were; both of my partners staring flabbergasted at my work, not making a single move to collaborate. I wondered how long they had been there, just staring blankly at my working hands. After a few seconds of frowning at their clueless faces, I stood up, gathered a couple pieces of chalk, and handed each a chunk. The original design on paper was resting right in the middle of the tile, so they got to work. I kept my focus on the specific segment of the painting I had already started, oblivious to what the other girls were doing until I finished my part and looked at the rest....   [tags: chalk painiting on concrete tiles]

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Modern Home Building A Team Effort Under The Direction Of A Professional Builder

- Modern home building is a team effort under the direction of a professional builder who uses the expertise of more than 30 different skilled trades working on a home at different stages of construction. Builders use a variety of efficient construction technologies to achieve unparalleled quality and performance. While the majority of new homes continue to be based on wood frame construction (a system that Canada has perfected over many years), the use of other, more recent systems is growing, including steel framing, insulating concrete forms and panelized wall assemblies....   [tags: Concrete, Compressive strength, Tensile strength]

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A Report On Coupled Infiltration And Filtration Behaviours Of Concrete Porous Pavement For Storm Water Management

- The purpose of the article “ Coupled infiltration and filtration behaviours of concrete porous pavement for storm water management” by Kuang and Fu (2013) is to examine the mass of the strained particles from concrete porous pavement (CPP) strains, test the infiltration rate, assess the effect of different maintenance conditions and the effectiveness of intervals between maintenance. To examine the mass of the strained particles, the researchers collected particles from nine CPP specimens then measured the thickness and mass of each particle....   [tags: Water, Water pollution, Hydrology, Stormwater]

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Modern Home Building Work Is A Team Effort Under The Direction Of A Professional Builders

- Modern home building work is a team effort under the direction of a professional builders uses the expertise of more than 30 different skilled Share working on a home at different stages of construction. Variety of efficient construction technologies used by builders to achieve unparalleled quality and performance . during the majority of new homes continue to be based on wood frame construction the use of other, more recent systems is growing like insulating concrete forms , steel framing and panelized wall assemblies....   [tags: Concrete, Compressive strength, Tensile strength]

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1429 words | (4.1 pages) | Preview

Paved Surfaces Of The Construction Of Cities

- The introduction of paved surfaces to the infrastructure of cities was an impressive development in history. Concrete paved roads are formed by first placing a layer of fine subgrade, then filling granular concrete overtop that. Compared to the dirt roads of past, paved surfaces have greatly increased strength. This increase in strength not only allows paved surfaces to last longer as roadways than unpaved surfaces, but also provide a safer means of travel for cars. With unpaved roadways, there is a greater chance for pothole or uneven roadway, which could provide massive issues for vehicles and could lead to accidents or wrecks....   [tags: Road, Concrete, Water pollution, Hydrology]

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1161 words | (3.3 pages) | Preview

Alkali Reactive Aggregates. What Happens When Alkali Cement is Low

- Considerable bad experience has been encountered when alkali reactive aggregates have been used.Low alkali cement is normally required to protect against disruptive Expansion of concrete which occurs generally due to alkali-aggregate reaction.(a chemical reaction between alkali’s in the cement and reactive aggregates.Another means of of controlling alkali-aggregate reactions is by the use of suitable fly ash or natural pozzolan.If a highly reactive aggregate have to be used then it is necessary to use a low alkali cement and a pozzolan....   [tags: type 2 cement, concrete, uniformity]

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The Impact Of Technology On Construction And Offer An Assessment Of How Beneficial One Specific Technology

- In the past, human invented many inventories that help people to run through their life easier and push us into the future. In case of construction methods, taller and more complex building is a thing that can guarantee that the construction methods have been developed by combining the technologies together with the way they work. There are many technologies that help improving the construction methods and also make our world evolved into a new period of time; For example, the elevators, lifting machines, and materials can solved the problems about the limited height of the building in the construction methods....   [tags: Construction, Building, Concrete, Fire protection]

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The Success Of The Roman Civilization

- The invention of concrete was the key to the success of the Roman civilization because it allowed them to have buildings, aqueducts for transporting water, and roads or bridges that brought in transportation. The buildings that were used in Rome were once made out of the simple volcanic rock and lime to form concrete. Concrete was able to work as a strong paste molding together to form buildings that were needed in Rome. Buildings in Rome that were made out of concrete were homes, coliseums, and even religious houses....   [tags: Ancient Rome, Roman Empire, Concrete]

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1115 words | (3.2 pages) | Preview

How Modern Home Building Work

- materials and systems. And to top it off, a new home is carefully crafted with attention to the details—both what you can see and what you can 't. Modern home building work is a team effort under the direction of a professional builders uses the expertise of more than 30 different skilled Share working on a home at different stages of construction. Variety of efficient construction technologies used by builders to achieve unparalleled quality and performance . during the majority of new homes continue to be based on wood frame construction the use of other, more recent systems is growing like insulating concrete forms , steel framing and panelized wall assemblies....   [tags: Concrete, Compressive strength, Tensile strength]

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1458 words | (4.2 pages) | Preview

The Significance of Nicknames in Italian-American Culture and the Novel Christ In Concrete

- The Significance of Nicknames in Italian-American Culture and the Novel Christ In Concrete Nicknames. They are something that everyone is familiar with in one way or another. However, most people have little, if any, personal experience with nicknames. In Italian-American culture, nicknames play a major role in everyday life. Nicknames are formed with a certain unspoken format, and they have a particular importance. In Italian-American culture nicknames, even though to others they may seem harsh and cruel, are terms of endearment and give a sense of belonging....   [tags: Essays Papers]

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Roman and Islamic Art and Architecture

- When walking around a city, you may notice that the architecture and art look similar to other works. Many of these designs have changed along the course of history and time whilst others have not. The designs that many people still see in society and day to day living is from two of the many cultures of the old civilizations, Roman and Islamic. The art and architecture forms from the Islamic and Roman cultures have many comparisons and contrasts between them. They, the Islamic and Roman nations, have both adopted from other cultures and have made their own discoveries in the art and architecture worlds....   [tags: culture, adopted, traditions, society, concrete]

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527 words | (1.5 pages) | Preview

Development Material: The Cement

- COCONUT SHELLS AS AGGREGATE REPLACEMENT IN CONCRETE INTRODUCTION Cement is world's most broadly utilized development material. The use of cement is expanding at a higher rate because of improvement in foundation and development exercises all as far and wide as possible. The climbing expense of development material is a matter of concern. The purpose behind increment in expense is popularity of cement and shortage of crude material. Thus the solid technologists must look for some temperate elective to the coarse total....   [tags: coconut shells, concrete, natural fibre]

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1444 words | (4.1 pages) | Preview

The Construction Of The Roman Empire

- Until these days, the wonders of Roman Engineering can still be appreciated not only on Italy but also on several parts of Europe. Thanks to the implementation of concrete and the the arch, the process of construction of great buildings and structures, such as aqueducts, was possible during the Roman Empire. One of the main reasons the Roman Engineers built the aqueducts and other buildings as extremely durable structures was that they believed that the Roman Empire would exist forever. Roman Engineering was mainly concerned with the improvement of the quality of life of the Romans, as it can be seen why the aqueducts were created in the first place....   [tags: Ancient Rome, Roman Empire, Concrete, Leat]

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723 words | (2.1 pages) | Preview

The Early Laws And Policy Establishing Roads

- The early laws or policy establishing roads originates in the law of the Twelve Tables, which dates back to approximately 450 B.C. Its specifications called for roads to be 8 feet in width in straight or tangent sections and 16 feet in curved sections, although the Romans prided themselves in building straight roads, regardless of the obstacles they faced. While many roads varied from these standard widths, They remained the rule for the majority of roads in the network. However, wider viae publicae roads were common in and around larger cities....   [tags: Ancient Rome, Concrete, Roman Empire, Augustus]

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1165 words | (3.3 pages) | Preview

Precast, Prestressed Contrete in Beam Design

- Beam design: The design selected for the beam element encompasses the use of precast prestressed concrete. Two symmetrical beams supporting a cast in-situ slab was used so as to provide longitudinal torsional restraint. All in-situ concrete and formwork shall be carried out in accordance to SANS 10100 specifications as described by the calculations attached herein. Precast design was selected since the beam can be produced under factory conditions and not necessarily cast on-site. Quality can be controlled and costs reduced since there is no need for complex scaffolding, and hence erection time and labour is lowered....   [tags: construction, support, calculations]

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Analizing Emily Dickinson's Poetry

- Emily Dickinson’s poetry goes where most poets refuse to go: the fear beyond death. Being surrounded by death, due to the Civil War it comes to no surprise that Dickinson would express such a morbid topic. However, it is the way that she expresses death that is significant. Her writings tend to go against her Puritan heritage by not suggesting an afterlife. In Dickinson’s poems, “I felt a Funeral, in my Brain”, “I heard a Fly buzz—when I died” and “Because I could not stop for Death” oblivion is the object to fear, not death....   [tags: abstract concepts with concrete images]

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Cementing A Critical Part Of Oilfield Drilling Operations

- Wellbore cementing is a critical part of oilfield drilling operations normally conducted a number of times during the drilling of a well. Cementing is completed by pumping cement down through the casing then back up the annulus between the casing and formation creating a hydraulic barrier between the casing and the formation in addition to protecting and supporting the casing. During latter times in a wells life cementing can also be conducted order to plug zones or entire wells that are no longer producing [1]....   [tags: Portland cement, Cement, Concrete, Alite]

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Power, Genius And Ruthlessness Of The Roman Empire

- Situated in the center of Rome for nearly 2 millenniums, the Colosseum is a remarkable example of the power, genius and ruthlessness of the Roman Empire. Built solely for the purpose of entertaining the public in the most brutal way, the building illustrates the unscrupulous nature of the Ancient Roman culture and stands as an immortal representation of the time period. It is an undoubtedly unique architectural monument and engineering achievement second to none, combining the advanced Roman building technique and pure esthetics that take your breath away....   [tags: Ancient Rome, Roman Empire, Rome, Concrete]

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1493 words | (4.3 pages) | Preview

History of the US Since 1865

- History of the US Since 1865 Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington (Rough Draft) Jazz music’s roots go deeper than most people could ever begin to imagine. Whether it is the influencing of other styles of music, the broadening of other media forms, or even the molding and shaping of the atmosphere of entire cities, jazz usually has a part in it. And with an impressive career spanning over 50 years, countless hits that are being replicated in numerous forms even today, and the pivotal part that he played in the Harlem Renaissance , it is almost impossible to talk about anything jazz related without mentioning Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington....   [tags: renaissance, sacred concrets]

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Development of Performance-Based Mixture Design Method

- CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 General Nowadays, the basic construction material is concrete which is used more than any other man-made material in the world to make pavements, architectural structures, foundations, roads, bridges, etc. Concrete is a construction material composed of cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate such as gravel, limestone, or granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand), water, and chemical admixtures (such as accelerating admixtures, air-entraining admixtures, water-reducing and set-controlling admixtures, finely divided admixtures, polymers for polymer-modif...   [tags: Construction]

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Three Gorges Dam

- Name:Three Gorges Dam Location:Located on Yangtze river in Sandouping,South China. Co-ordinates:30 49’ North 111 00’ South. Dam Type:Concrete Gravity Dam. Length of the dam:2.3 Km. Height of the dam:185 m Materials used are:Cement(10.82 million tons),Concrete(26.4 million cu.m),Rolled Steel (1.92 million tons),Timber(1.6 million cu.m). Construction Period:1993-2009 Construction Cost:25 billion US Dollars. Expected Life:100 years....   [tags: Yangtze river, south china]

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Structural Makeup of the Commercial Building

- Contents • Introduction • Site Analysis • Structural Make-up • Beam Calculations • Load Trace • Choice of Materials • Conclusion  Introduction This report will investigate the structural makeup of the commercial building we are working on as part of the Studio 2 module. The building has a single-storey basement that is to be used for car parking, with 5 upper storeys comprising of a café and open plan offices. This report investigates firstly the site that the building is situated on, secondly, the structural make-up of the building, thirdly the load trace and finally, materials used along with reasons for choosing them....   [tags: beam caculation, load trace]

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Construction And Demolition Of The Construction Industry

- Introduction 1.1 General Nowadays construction and demolition activity is taken up every other day so that there is need of raw material in the construction industry and need space for dumping the waste in to landfills. Out of 68.8 million Tonnes per year solid waste in India, 25% is of demolition waste. Rapid economic growth leading to urbanisation and industrialisation is producing waste, which is unfavourably affecting the environment. The percentage of India 's population living in cities and urban areas increased from 14% (1947) to 31.16 % (2011).Forecasting for building material need by the housing sector shows a shortage of aggregates to amount of about 55,000 million m3....   [tags: Recycling, Waste management, Waste]

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How the Stucture of Skyscrapers Was Started

- Supertall buildings are a relatively recent addition to the history of the cities around the world. Technology of the nineteenth century made their development possible. Steel, concrete and masonry materials have existed for a long time in the history of civilization but not in such a configuration. Masonry is the oldest material. Concrete in its present form is the youngest of these three basic structural materials of construction. Research shows that early societies used lime as a binding element in mortar....   [tags: framework, skill, materials, build, steel]

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764 words | (2.2 pages) | Preview

The Role of Limestone and Gravel in Buildings

- ... The east half of the basement is completely underground, while the west half is only partially underground with the top 1.8 m of the walls above grade. The buildings have an extremely high amount of thermal mass with large south and east facing windows. The building shells are poured concrete construction with 20.3 cm exterior walls, 30.5 cm flat roofs, and 15.25 cm basement slab floors. The windows are all located on the south, southeast, and east facing walls and made of low-E glass. The windows have aluminum frames with a thermal break and clear double pane low-E glazing units....   [tags: environment, engineers]

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1134 words | (3.2 pages) | Preview

Innovative Seismic Retrofitting of Bridge: A Perspective Study

- In recent year, Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) emerged as innovative material and has gain popularity due to its unique properties to the field of structural retrofitting. Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) is a special class of alloys, which can provide structures with smart self-centering capabilities to return to their original positions after large inelastic deformation. SMA will undergo with two phases under different temperatures: Austenite in the high-temperature phase while Martensite in the low-temperature phase....   [tags: Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)]

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Deep Foundation: Bored Pile Construction

- DEEP FOUNDATION Deep-foundation elements comprise piles and piers and are like slender columns buried in the ground. They are prevented from buckling because they are confines by the soil. Piles and piers transfer the load either to bedrock or to soil of high bearing capacity while passing through unsuitable soil. As previously stated, deep foundation are used where shallow foundation cannot be used because the topsoil is expansive or has a low bearing capacity or where the frost line is deep. They are also used in buildings that house items or instrumentation sensitive to settlement of shallow foundations....   [tags: civil engineering]

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The Four Stages Of Cognitive Development

- The four stages of cognitive development, according to researcher Jean Piaget include, the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operations stage, and the formal operations stage. Each of these stages contributes to an exceptional amount of advancements in a child’s cognitive development throughout their lives. To differentiate the thinking patterns between a three year old and a nine year old, one must first know which stage to put each child in, and from there, analyze the development of those certain stages....   [tags: Jean Piaget, Theory of cognitive development]

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736 words | (2.1 pages) | Preview

The Construction Process of Bored Piles

- BORED PILES CONSTRUCTION Bored piles construction is done using the suitable rotary drills depending on the diameter, depth, condition of the soil and construction method. Usually bore-holes are stabilized with a temporary or permanent casing. The common material used for the casing is steel and it is also normal called as steel casing. The length of the steel casing is also determined from the soil conditions that are discovered at the actual site. SETTING OUT The location of the bored piles must be set out and marked by the subcontractor’s surveyor according to the approved setting out drawings given by the Consultant....   [tags: civil engineering techniques]

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Ancient Greek and Roman Architecture

- Roman Architecture Roman architecture implemented many characteristics of Ancient Greek architecture. The Romans showed the influence of their engineering skills and secular monuments, while Greek architecture exhibited the influence of their gods and ideas of physical perfection. The use of arches, the dome and concrete permitted the ancient Romans to attain extraordinary achievements in the construction of imposing structures for public use. While showing the magnificence of the Greeks and their practical application, as well as their creativity, the Romans established architectural features that remain to this day....   [tags: columns, post, lintel, monuments]

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Climate and Urban Approach

- Climate and Urban Approach Analysis of the climate and urban geography of the area pointed out that, summers are to a certain extent hot and gentle, with cooling night gentle winds. The regular temperatures in July are 93° F whereas winter has an average temperature of 44° F in January. This brings cool temperatures and 17 inches rains in January. The city is outlined in a grid where tree lined streets create a shady environment. The area takes landscape and the water table is comparatively high (Louw)....   [tags: Architecture, energy efficiency]

Term Papers
1893 words | (5.4 pages) | Preview

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