Your search returned over 400 essays for "Patents"
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Are Patents An Encumbrance?

- Are patents an encumbrance. When a firm is articulating their innovation strategy, determining how to keep control of their intellectual assets is crucial. That is because companies who are heavily reliant on research and development inherent value in intangible assets and other intellectual property (IP) compared to material assets (Henkel and Reitzig, 2008). But, of course this varies between different industries in managing those valuable resources to a business i.e. pharmaceutical and biotechnology) heavily rely on patents (Thomas, 2003)....   [tags: Patent, Invention, Patent troll]

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Software Patents

- Software Patents Introduction For this essay we have been instructed to write an essay on the topic within a fairly investigative techniques that may & affinity with your comaker. My choice fell on patents where the emphasis is placed on ICT. In addition to the major developments that the past decades have occurred A lot has changed in the ICT world on the basis of patents. On this topic I have three good articles found (ACM), namely: The Patent holders's dilemma buy sell or troll Patricia S....   [tags: Copyright Software Patents]

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The United States Vs. The European Union: An Ethical Analysis of Software Patents

- The United States Vs. The European Union: An Ethical Analysis of Software Patents Introduction Patents have become a major part of technology in our society. The overall purpose of patents is to promote the disclosure of innovations so that others may make improvements based on those new technologies, while at the same time rewarding those who came up with the invention. They give the inventor of an innovation a monopoly of their innovation for a limited amount of time. After the time period has expired, anyone is free to use the innovation as they wish....   [tags: Patents Compare Contrast Essays]

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Patents Introduction ( Amber Mantel )

- Patents Introduction (Amber Mantel) A patent is “the exclusive right granted by a government to an inventor to manufacture, use, or sell an invention for a certain number of years.” ("The Definition of Patent," 2015) A patent helps keep the inventor safe from others stealing their idea and both marketing and profiting as if it were their own. Patents can be used for all types of things including but not limited to drugs, technology, and design. Once the inventor has decided their product, idea or technology is unique and would like to legally make it their own they can file for a patent....   [tags: Patent, Invention, Patent application]

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Checking the Validity of Patents in India

- India has sound systems in place to check quality of patents .validity of patents can be challenged under: Sec 25(1): Pre grant opposition: Under this section a patent may be opposed by any person anytime after the patent application is published but before its grant. The proceedings under pre-grant opposition are ex-parte . Sec 25(2): Post grant opposition: Under this section “any interested person” may oppose the patent within 1 year of publication of date of grant of patent .The proceedings under post grant opposition are Inter-partees Sec 64: Revocation of patent: Under this section a patent may be revoked any –time during the life of a patent by a person interested....   [tags: petition, infringement, opponent]

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Patents Laws & Economic Productivity

- The idea of giving creators a limited exclusive right to their intellectual property began in England in 1710. The “Statute of Anne,” inspired our Founding Fathers and was incorporated into the United State’s Constitution. There are three types of intellectual property. Trademark ™, Copyright ©, and Patents. The last two are more controversial because they both give the creator exclusive rights to their invention/writing for a limited time. They were meant to benefit both society and creator. Unlike copyright, patents further prevents another company from reverse-engineering the product and selling it for less....   [tags: intellectual property]

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Software Patents in Western Europe

- Software Patents in Western Europe Introduction The world is becoming smaller and smaller. It’s a catch-line cliché anyone who is familiar with the internet has heard a thousand times. Email provides nearly instant communication across the globe, massive files containing every imaginable piece of information are transmitted in the blink of an eye, and the World Wide Web makes it all accessible to the common individual with moderate computer skills. There is no denying it, just like the IBM slogan, the internet has changed the way the world does business....   [tags: Software Technology Patent Paperes]

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Why Genetic Patents Are Not Ethical

- Background In today’s world, the rapid progression of technology outpaces legislation which places restrictions on unethical behavior. Man’s control of nature through the use of applied science has permitted groundbreaking discoveries which can be used for the greater good or personal profit. After the human genome was completely decoded in 2003, research and pharmaceutical companies pounced at the opportunity to extract genetic codes and tests which could use a patient’s DNA to create personalized treatments or discover risks for various diseases....   [tags: Distributive Justice, Property Rights]

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The Requirements and Specifications for Product Patents

- A patent is an exclusive statutory right given to the owner to exploit an invention for up to 20 years or 25 years in the case of pharmaceutical patents. For the duration of the period, the owner has the legal right to prevent any third party from producing the patented product or to sue those who infringe his/her exclusive right. In other works, a third party can produce the patented product or use the patented process without permission from the owner. This is case even if the third party has come upon the patented product or process completely independently....   [tags: inventions, market, knowledge]

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Intellectual Property: The Patents

- Intellectual Property: The Patents Introduction While an ethical analysis in intellectual property may not be as interesting as the ethical analysis in human genetics, such as in human cloning, patents are the most relevant in the area of high technology, which is the most important industry in the Silicon Valley and arguably, becoming one of the most powerful engines in the growth of the U.S. economy. In fact, intellectual property, a once very sleepy and very boring subject, is one of the hottest topics of conversations today in the high technology industry....   [tags: Intellectual Property Patent Papers]

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Drug Patents

- Why do consumers purchase specific drugs for various ailments, sicknesses or diseases they might have. Why do physicians prescribe certain drugs over competitive drugs that may be available to the public. Why is it that most of us can easily name specific drugs that fit the many ailments of today’s society. On the surface the answer might be as simple as good TV advertising or radio commercials or even internet adds. The truth of matter is the major pharmaceutical manufacturers own the patents on these drugs and this gives them all of the marketing budget and muscle they need to promote the drug and control the pricing....   [tags: Drugs ]

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Drug Patents and Generic Drugs in Chile

- Patent rights, usually lasting up to 20 years before expiration, allow the pharmaceutical company which produced the drug, the right and ability to sell it. These patents create a temporary monopoly which allowing firms who paid for production to make a profit for their investment. Generally after the patent has expired, the drug is then mass produced under generic labeling, and is often much cheaper and accessible than was the patented version. But throughout the duration of the patent, availability of the drug has become a large problem....   [tags: fta, temporary monopoly, firms]

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Patents And Pharmaceutical Drugs : The Need For Change

- On the other hand, generic drug companies and those who want access to affordable drugs view it differently, arguing that brand-name companies abuse the patent law in order to keep their profits high. Clearly, the debate all stems around innovation as it the main reason pharmaceutical companies are allowed to patent their drugs. Pharmaceutical companies are allowed to patent their drugs because it encourages further medical research without the fear of competition taking an idea. A patent ensures that any company who invents a drug has exclusive rights over the production and sale of the drug for a certain period of time....   [tags: Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical industry]

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Copyrights And Patents

- Everyday businesses provide the world with products and services. People in general are just not self-sufficient. Who has time to make their own clothes, own meals,clean their own house, or even watch their own kids. Today’s every growing business world and advancements in technology make it extremely easy to obtain anything one could ever desire provided they have the money to buy it. Many people gained great success and wealth from their original product and business ideas. People have alsogained great wealth from borrowing, stealing or adapting from one “original” idea....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Patent Quality and Settlement Among Repeat Patent

- Professor Damien Geradin, from the Tilburg Law and Economics Center, says that patent trolls “are said to litigate frequently and for low-quality, “junk” patents, so we might be able to identify these firms through the assessment of patent quality measures” (Geradin 91). Like with the case of E-Data who filed suit against IBM. IBM had hundreds of e-commerce patents to protect their online business ventures. However, E-Data only needed one broadly interpreted patent to sue IBM for hundreds of millions of dollars....   [tags: e data, patents reform, ibm ]

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Software Patents and the European Union

- Software Patents and the European Union Introduction The European Council recently approved changes to the European Union’s Software Patents Directive that will lead the way to widespread patenting of software in Europe.[1] If the changes are ratified without modification, then the European Patent Office (EPO) will have the ability to grant software patents in much the same manner as the United States Patent Office (USPO). This will lead to many of the problems that have arisen in the United States....   [tags: Software Technology Europe Essays]

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Global Impact of Software Patents

- Global Impact of Software Patents Introduction: As companies and individuals expand beyond the domestic domain and venture into a global market, the issues of patents and copyrights become increasingly complex. The basis for a patent is to protect an implementation of some original idea in order to give the holder of the patent rights over their achievement. A copyright serves a similar purpose in providing the copyright holder with power of their own work. Many countries offer means to protect patented and copyrighted materials from being duplicated illegally....   [tags: Copyright World Copyrighted Essays]

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Crisis in Software Patents and Copyrights

- Crisis in Software Patents and Copyrights Introduction Gaining the knowledge and skills to provide computer technology products, services and software requires a significant amount investment of both time and money. The individuals who do such a work should receive financial rewards for their efforts. These rewards create an atmosphere of creativity and competitiveness that becomes a driving force of the economy of the world. The products of this creativity must therefore be protected and we call it intellectual property....   [tags: Intellectual Property Technology Essays]

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Software Patents and Piracy in China

- Software Patents and Piracy in China Abstract Software patents raise a lot of issues during the development of IT industry. As a legal action in protecting the ownership and intellectual property, software patents are applied to a wide range of codes, from source code, processes to OS, etc. It "provide exclusive rights to the patent holder to use and profit from the product or process in question." 1 This paper will discuss the general background and effects of software patents. After presenting its current law and situation in China and US, the Microsoft vs....   [tags: China Software Technology Essays]

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Software Patents Must be Eliminated

- Software Patents Must be Eliminated Software patents threaten to devastate America's computer industry. Patents granted in the past decade are now being used to attack companies such as the Lotus Development Corporation for selling programs that they have independently developed. Soon new companies will often be barred from the software arena--most major programs will require licenses for dozens of patents, and this will make them infeasible. This problem has only one solution: software patents must be eliminated....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Essays]

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Patents are Essential to the Modern World

- Patents are Essential to the Modern World A patent is the public disclosure of the invention and the best way of practicing the invention, in exchange for the rights to that information for a set period of time - twenty years. A patent permits its owner to exclude members of the public from making, using, or selling the claimed invention. This type of arrangement is a necessity for any type of scientific work. It allows other people to share in the ideas that have been thought and utilized by a company and/or individuals so that research is not unnecessarily performed twice....   [tags: Intellectual Property]

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History and Function of the Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC)

- American film began with Thomas Edison who “envisioned a kind of ‘coin-operated/entertainment machine’ in which motion pictures made by the Kinetograph would illustrate the sound from the phonograph.”(Cook 8) He owned a studio called “Black Maria” in New Jersey. In 1894, Edison named his company the Edison Manufacturing Company. When WKL Dickson started his company, the Biograph, he started the patents war simultaneously. Before the Biograph was formed, Edison and his company were successfully dominated the motion picture field....   [tags: films, american history]

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Great Inventions and the Patents for Them

- ... From the drawing, we still can find a lot of details about this machine. Unlike now, we have an eraser, if we draw something wrong, we can easily correct it. There is no eraser or “Ctrl+Z” in that century, if people write something wrong, probably they will force to do it again. From the notes, the first thing we can see is a wing with a very nice shape, and there is no sign of correction, so the writer either spent a lot of time on drawing these wings or he is really good at drawing thing. This note also shows the motion of the wing to demonstrate how it works and a person which wearing the machine to demonstrate how to use it, and the framework of the wing is very clear to see....   [tags: aircraft, leonardo da vinci, exploration]

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Comparison: Patenting Life by Michael Crichton and Decoding the Use of Gene Patents by John Calfee

- In “Patenting Life,” Michael Crichton argues that the government is mishandling the patenting office with the awarding of patents for human genes. Gene patenting is blocking the advancement of modern medicine and could be costing many patients their lives. The hold on research results in the discovery of fewer cures for modern diseases. The United States Patent Office awards patents to companies that discover cures, tests, and medical operations for human genes. These patents are in use to compensate these companies for their discovery and encourage them to advance their research and create more medical advancements....   [tags: human genes, medical issues, parents]

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Limiting the Extent of Patents on Information Technologies

- Limiting the Extent of Patents on Information Technologies      Abstract: In recent years, patent laws have been extended beyond physical inventions to cover techniques and methods employed by software developers.  Yet at certain point, processes are abstracted beyond the level specific implementations and must be considered to be ideas, to which patents do not apply.  Certain companies in the field of information technology, however, seem intent on pushing the extent of their patents beyond reasonable limits, effectively staking claims on ideas rather than implementations.  This paper concentrates on how CMGI/Alta Vista may be taking advantage of this area of the patent system.  I first...   [tags: Free Essays Online]

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The Problem with—and Possible Solution to—Gene Patents

- The Problem with—and Possible Solution to—Gene Patents Genomics research, despite the years of concerted effort already put into it, is only in its incipient stages—much of the promise of the field relies on innovations, discoveries, and applications yet to come. The vision of this future painted by Francis Collins, Eric Green, Alan Guttmacher, and Mark Guyer (Collins et al., 2003) hinges, as they point out, on the free exchange of information amongst researchers, which “necessarily entails consideration of the complex issues of intellectual property (for example, patenting and licensing) and commercialization” (p....   [tags: Science Biology Biological Genes Essays]

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Intellectual Property in The US

- Intellectual Property Intellectual property is an incredibly complicated facet of the law. In the United States, we have many laws in place to control and limit profiting from others intellectual property. The issue is not only profiting from others intellectual property, but not purchasing the property from the originator as well. We will discuss why it is important to protect this property as well as why it is tremendously difficult to regulate all these safe guards. “Intellectual Property has the shelf life of a banana.” Bill Gates Why Protect Intellectual Property “Protecting your intellectual property is crucial to your business.” (Hinson, 2014) When business have intellectual prope...   [tags: patents, technology, business]

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Issues Around Intellectual Property Rights

- Intellectual property rights (IPR) are extremely boring. This is a simple truth. There is nothing exciting about discussing copyrights, patents, trademarks, trade secrets. There is no such thing as an invigorating discussion revolving around the legal battles of Isaac Newton v. Gottfried Wilhelm. It just doesn’t happen. What does happen, however, are “invigorating discussions” revolving around sites like Limewire and megashare being shut down. A woman who was sued for illegally downloading ten songs was found guilty and forced to pay a fee of $10,000....   [tags: patents, innovation, copyrights]

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Software Patents, Copyright, and Piracy Issues in India

- Software Patents, Copyright, and Piracy Issues in India Introduction India has developed enormously in the field of science and technology. Information Technology has been one of the fastest growing sectors in the country and a major contributor to the economy. India's economy has boomed over the past decade due to Government's initiates. With it vast pool of educated population and its leading presence in the Software arena India is fast becoming a knowledge hub. This paper gives an overview of Patent, copyright and Cyber laws, software piracy issues, and analyses the economic benefits of reducing piracy and the ethical issues of piracy....   [tags: Computers Ethics Technology Essays]

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European Commission’s Proposal on Software Patents

- European Commission’s Proposal on Software Patents The European Commission should maintain and clarify its limitations on patents for software, to fight against American mega companies attempting to globally monopolize software, to avoid the mistakes the United States has made, and to potentially let Europe emerge as a software mecca, where software can continue to make significant advancements. This viewpoint can be supported with several ethical considerations, including Ethical Egoism, Utilitarianism, and Pluralism....   [tags: Technology Computers Essays]

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Software Patents and Copyright Laws Destroy Free Competition

- Software Patents and Copyright Laws Destroy Free Competition Introduction If Haydn had patented "a symphony, characterized by that sound is produced [ in extended sonata form ]", Mozart would have been in trouble. Patent - a writing securing to an inventor for a term of years the exclusive right to make, use, or sell an invention; or it may be the monopoly or right so granted[i]. The traditional rationale for patents is that protection of inventions will spur innovation and aid in the dissemination of information about technical advances....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Copyright Essays]

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Ethics and Intellectual Property

- Intellectual property is known as intangible property, or the product of human ingenuity and it is protected by law (Colorado State University-Global Campus, 2014). It was important to the founding fathers of the United States to ensure legal protection of intellectual property, and so the Copyright Clause was added as Article 1, section 8, of the Constitution. This clause authorizes Congress to pass laws to protect intellectual property and to allow the government to create a special kind of monopoly around intellectual property....   [tags: patents, Blackberry, fair use]

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Moral and Ethical Issues Behind Software Copyright and Patents

- Moral and Ethical Issues Behind Software Copyright and Patents Introduction Over the past twenty years, the number of software patent and copyright infringement cases has been steadily increasing. The reason for this is quite clear. Software development only gained momentum in the 1970s, when the need for more complex and sophisticated software and their potential for commercialization was realised.1 With increasing investments being put into developing software, more legal protection was sought to protect these investments....   [tags: Software Technology Technological Essays]

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The Good in Gene Patenting for BRCA1 and BRCA2

- ... Myriad Genetics has been able to isolate and research multiple genes in addition to the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and create tests to determine more about mutations. Myriad Genetics has expanded their treatment to many more cancers, including colon, lung, pancreatic, and prostate. The company has advanced their research over the years to be able to take care of many more patients. This shows one way the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene patents have helped scientific discovery. Rebecca Skloot writes about this issue on page 324 of her book, The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks....   [tags: research, growth, patents, profit, price]

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Chaining Open Source Software: The Case Against Software Patents

- Chaining Open Source Software: The Case Against Software Patents Software has become an integral part of our society. The economic success of our country depends on the success of the software industry. ``Open source' software, software which users are allowed to modify and redistribute, is a very important part of the software industry. Unfortunately, the increased use of software patents threatens the future of this type of software. The importance of open source software is evident in the number of people who make use of it....   [tags: Technology Essays]

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Responsibilities of a Nurse Practitioner Make It a Tough Job

- 1. A Nurse Practitioner is not an easy job. I want to become a NP because I work well with people and I love to help others. Nurse Practitioners treat and care for patients with health issues. “They get information from patients and also discuss their medical history. They also order x-rays and other tests and get the results of the patients that they are observing” (Morris) 2. “Dr. Loretta Ford and Dr. Henry Silver developed the first Nurse Practitioner program at the University of Colorado. They were developed to increase the number of health care providers....   [tags: patents, hospital, treatment]

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Family Feud in Anita Desai´s Clear Light of Day

- Until a child is eighteen years old, the parents have full responsibility. They provide a stable and loving environment for their children. As the leaders in a household, caring and loving parents also maintain the bonds that hold the family together. However, absence of loving parental guidance can create tension between family members. Anita Desai’s Clear Light of Day shows how war, specifically the partition of India, affects a particular family. The partition of Indian in 1947 created the separate countries of India and Pakistan, consequently ripping families apart....   [tags: patents, guidance, war, family]

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Preventing MRSA in Hospitals

- The role of nurses in the prevention of MRSA in the hospitals cannot be overemphasized. The prevalence of MRSA in hospitals calls for awareness and sensitization of all party involved in patient caregiving in the hospital. According to Wilkinson and Treas (2011), nurses take on many roles in the hospital: a caregiver, advocate, communicator, leader, manager counsellor, change agent and an educator. (Wilkinson &Treas. (2011) p.13.) The target of healthy people 2020 is to reduce MRSA and all other hospital acquired infection by 75% in the year 2020....   [tags: nurses, patents, infection]

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Human Gene Patents and Human Dignity

- Genetics will increasingly enable health professionals to identify, treat, and prevent the 4,000 or more genetic diseases and disorders that our species is heir to. Genetics will become central to diagnosis and treatment, especially in testing for predispositions and in therapies. By 2025, there will likely be thousands of diagnostic procedures and treatments for genetic conditions. Genetic diagnostics can detect specific diseases, such as Down’s syndrome, and behavioral predispositions, such as depression....   [tags: Genetic Engineering Essays]

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The Patent Of Patent Disclosure

- The patent system grants an exclusive right of manufacturing, selling, and profiting from a specific invention. It is designed with the purpose of providing advance research and development and to encourage broader economic activity; however, complete disclosure is required in exchange for the twenty year protection to become monopoly. The first aspect to be discussed is that whether such disclosure really does stimulate others or not. The concept of granting patent to new inventors is to provide an intellectual stimulated environment for others; however, whether such disclosure really does stimulate others is controversial....   [tags: Patent, Invention, Patentability, Innovation]

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The Invention Of A Patent

- For thousands of years people have been inventing and making advancements in every aspect of our lives. It is also crucial to these innovators that they be rewarded and recognized for their ideas, and that they cannot be copied by a third party. To ensure this, the patent was introduced into the world and now protects millions of inventions and processes from fraud. The importance of a patent to an engineer’s lifestyle is enormous, as many would not be able to make a living if it were not for the documentations and systems that are in place today....   [tags: Patent, Invention, Innovation, Patentability]

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Biotechnology in Malysia : Medicinal Patent

- ... According to Alavi (2003), most of the medical patenting was not held by local manufacturers but were by foreign companies such as Smithkline Beecham, Glaxo, Wellcome and Roche (M) Sdn. Bhd instead. However, Universiti Putra Malaysia owns an intellectual property in medicine. An example is antioxidant rich nutraceutical formulation with application number PI20050102. This neutraceutical product compose of three antioxidants; tocopherols, tocotrienols and gamma oryzanol that improve antioxidant status and reducing the risk of coronary heart disease....   [tags: medical devices, drug patent]

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Reasonable Settings Make The U.s. Patent System

- Reasonable Settings Make the U.S. Patent system Succeed As an intellectual property, patents can “exclude others from making, using, importing, and selling the patented innovation”, which protected by the United States Patent and Trademark Office. It must meet 5 primary requirements: patentable subject matter, utility, novelty, nonobviousness, and enablement.[1] The three types of patent are utility patents, design patents and plant patents. The patentee can keep the patent for a certain period of time....   [tags: Patent, Invention]

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Pharamaceutical Industry Patent Assessment

- Pharmaceutical Industry Patent Assessment Patents are a key element of Intellectual Property and provide a competitive edge to the pharmaceutical industry. The exclusive property rights provided by patents restrict competition in production and sales of medicine allowing companies to charge higher prices without concern for competition. The global standard of twenty years from the application date protecting the company’s significant research and testing investment. This is standard is important because it can take 10-15 years to develop a single product....   [tags: patent, rights, medicines, advancement]

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Patent Protection in Malaysia

- Patent protection in Malaysia is governed by the Patents Act 1983, and is obtainable by either or filing a direct national application or entering the national phase of a Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) application. There are two patent classifications that an applicant can choose upon application, the standard patent or design patent and the utility patent. With regards to Malaysian Patent Application Requirements, the applicant has to file the patent with the Intellectual Property Corporation of Malaysia (MyIPO), in Kuala Lumpur, or at the branch offices located in Sabah and Sarawak....   [tags: requirement, patent act, rights]

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The Treaty Of The Patent System

- The vast majority of human history has operated without any formal intellectual property rights. Indeed, the first patent system did not arrive until the 1400s, and the first U.S. patent was not granted until 1790. Throughout this time, lawyers, economists, and policymakers have debated whether patents are even necessary: for example, Jaffe and Lerner (2004) hone in on a notable episode of debate in the Dutch system at the end of the 19th century.[3] Even now, well-respected scholars make serious arguments for abolishing the patent system.[4] Thus our analysis begins not with a moot point, but an object of both historical and present-day interest....   [tags: Patent, Invention, Creativity]

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Apple Got Sued $ 626 Million After Losing A Patent

- Technology changes everyday and with new software constantly coming out, it raises the question who owns the right to use it. Copying other companies’ patents is a big issue and liability for corporations. They can get sued millions of dollars for infringing on their patents for the slightest reasons. In my article, Apple got sued for $626 million after losing a patent case to VirnetX. Apple was found guilty of infringing on VirnetX patents for iMessage, FaceTime, and other apple software that mostly involved around methods of real-time communications over the Internet....   [tags: Ethics, Morality, Patent troll, Patent]

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Beauty Pagents

- To most beauty pageants may seems like a waste of time and it may seem to be another way to make women feel inferior to one another. I, however, have come to find that this is one of the many myths which surround such an advantageous opportunity. Young women learn many valuable lessons which help them throughout their entire life. These lessons could range from such a variety of things, from being able to overcome shyness to raising awareness on a certain issue through a platform to also even possibly winning scholarships....   [tags: Pagents]

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How Do Patent Laws Influence Innovation?

- In Petra Moser’s scholarly essay titled How do Patent Laws Influence Innovation, she supports the claim that from a government’s perspective, innovation is essential to the study of patent law (Moser, 2005, pp. 7). With the government’s support of patents, it is likely to see that countries with strict laws enforced, great innovations are to be created. With that being said, Moser argues that countries under the pursuit of patent laws are engaging in a tradeoff between patenting and secrecy (2005, pp....   [tags: Patent, Invention, Law, Innovation]

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Issues on Patent and Copyright Laws In China

- Issues on Patent and Copyright Laws In China This site contains information on China's patent and copyright law. It goes on to discuss some ethical issues about China's lack of law enforcement on intellectual property protection. History of Patent System China’s patent system can be traced back to the late Qing Dynasty when China began signing international treaties. For example, on August 18, 1903, China and the United States agreed on a treaty on navigation and commerce. The treaty provided for a “reciprocal patent-granting arrangement whereby citizens of one contracting party could apply for and secure patent rights for their inventions in the other contracting party.”1 After the...   [tags: China Patent Copyright Essays]

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Software Patent Law

- Software Patent Law A patent can be defined as “a legal document granted by the government giving an inventor the exclusive right to make, use, and sell an invention for a specified number of years.” 1 These special rights are given to the inventor as a means of incentive to further advance technology. The origins of patents are unknown, though the distinction of the longest continuous patent system belongs to Great Britain. The British patent system originated in the 15th century, when the Crown first started dealing with the granting of privileges to manufacturers and traders....   [tags: Patent Laws Governmental Essays]

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From Stars and Stripes to Rising Sun: A Study of Patent Laws in the United States and Japan

- From Stars and Stripes to Rising Sun: A Study of Patent Laws in the United States and Japan Introduction There is no question that the United States and Japan are technological leaders of the world. They are two of the nations with the highest annual number of intellectual property patents granted.1 Both nations have achieved such great successes in the world of intellectual property as a result of a variety of reasons. Among these reasons is the encouragement of innovation and invention with monetary benefits in return....   [tags: Patent Laws Japan USA Essays]

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The Patent Process

- In patent protection, organizations are gaining knowledge in finding the protection it needs to secure their inventions. The question of who had invented the technology is the role Japan played in Fusion's international strategy and the public policy implications of the dispute. Power can mean several things to different people. For some, the more power they have, the more successful they feel and for others power served of no interest at all. To start off, the recommended course of actions to take in filing a patent to secure patent protection would include having a patent search with detailed patentability assessment, this would mean determining if the invention can be patented....   [tags: Law]

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Patent System in Australia

- The Patents Act 1990 establishes the basis of the patent system in Australia. Like other patent systems around the world, the grant of a patent is reliant on an alleged invention satisfying, among others, the criteria of novelty and non-obviousness. It is a common perception that the threshold for patent grant is lower than those of Australia’s major trading partners. Indeed, according to the legal interpretation of the statues, the body in charge of the Australian patent system, IPAustralia, maintains a lower threshold of novelty and inventiveness compared to the United States Patent and Trademarks Office (USPTO) and the European Patent Office (EPO)[1]....   [tags: Australian Government]

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The Impact of Noise on Patients in the ICU

- Noise is unwanted sound. Over the past 50 years, sound levels in hospitals have increased,1-3 with all studies exceeding the recommendations from World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines for Community Noise.4 In 2006 the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems began surveying patients regarding their perspectives on hospital care. This survey specifically asks about noise: “During this hospital stay, how often was the area around your room quiet at night?” In 2013, the responses to this question were included in the calculation of a Value Based Purchasing score, which is linked to payments from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services....   [tags: sounds, sleep, patients]

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The Hippocratic Oath of Killing Patients

- Pamela Bone, an American author, once said, “I'm not afraid of being dead. I'm just afraid of what you might have to go through to get there.” For terminally ill patients, euthanasia may be a choice for some. Being euthanized would end any suffering a loved one is forced to face while on their deathbed. It gives the patient the option to no longer prolong his or her last breath in agony, but rather under their own wish. It would be selfish to hold onto the relative only because the family does not want them to pass away, especially when the patient wanted to....   [tags: euthanasia, pamela bone, patients]

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Experimental Trials in Pediatric Patients

- Health professionals have an immense responsibility to their patients to perform their jobs ethically. In order for a person to be able to perform their job within ethical standards, it is important to be able to define ethics and what that term encompasses. Ethics is a set of moral principles that shape a person’s behavior and actions. Regardless of whether they are religious or based on the moral codes of a society, these principles help us determine what is right and what is wrong. However, sometimes knowing if something is right or wrong is not always an easy task....   [tags: Health Professionals, Patients, Responsibility]

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Appropriate Behavior of Doctors to Patients

- Throughout professional jobs dealing with medicine or humans in general like doctors, clinical psychologists or physical therapists, the main question is how much empathy or compassion, for example a doctor should have toward his/her patients. There are a lot of speculations toward this. Some people say that there is no time for empathy and should just get down to the facts at hand. For example, general doctors that do not specify in a certain area usually see a multitude of patients in a day, so they only have a set time they can interact with their patients....   [tags: Patients, Health Care, Doctors, Empathy]

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Patent System

- Can innovators in our society prosper with our current unruly system. One cannot simply eradicate our current patent system and have freeloaders use ideas without compensating the original person who held the idea. One also cannot enforced a strong law against patent infringers because it dissolves any person or entity moral in producing new innovation. John M. Golden (2010) in his article in Texas Law Review suggests the antidiscrimination approach to limit favoring one party over another in regards to patent remedies....   [tags: Texas Law Review, John M. Golden]

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Parents Are the Key to a Successful Education

- Education is a way for an individual to grow within him or herself to become more educated, and to thrive in life. In order to grow as an individual, you must first enjoy the adventure of planning, the thrill of accomplishment and yet be able to cope with the labors needed to succeed. Education provides an individual their path to a successful future, but only through hard work, dedication and determination is this achievable. Education requires a parent to mold a child into an individual that is capable of contributing effectively to society....   [tags: Parents, Education, family, ]

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The Parents' Role in School Shootings

- When children commit a horrible act such as a school shooting their parents often look for someone or something to blame rather than looking at what role they, as parents, may have had in the tragedy. The often targeted entertainers, video game developers, teachers, drug companies, and writers are rarely, if ever, responsible for such tragic outcomes and, unfortunately, often become victims as a result of lawsuits filed in an attempt to place blame on them. The parents of dangerous children must be scrutinized and sued alongside every other entity being blamed for the heinous crimes that children commit....   [tags: Blame The Parents for Mass Shootings]

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Urology and Transplantation: Nephro-urology patients

- ... The treatment options were conservative and/or dialysis. Duration of dialysis in weeks required for individual patient was also noted. Renal biopsy was performed in selected patients in whom no cause of renal failure was established. All patients were followed for a period of six weeks. The outcome of the patients who were followed up was recorded under three categories. 1. Recovered. • Renal functions return to baseline with/without dialysis. • ≥ 50% reduction in serum creatinine from the admission value....   [tags: diabetic patients, renal biopsy]

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Parents and Teenagers Unlawful Behavior

- In January of 2006, a tragedy happened when three adolescents, 18-year olds Brian Hooks and William Ammons and 17-year old Thomas Daugherty bludgeoned Norris Gaynor to death with a baseball bat. The three people also beat two other homeless men in separate attacks during the same night, one of which is caught on surveillance camera. Based on the incidence, a related debate has been raised on the necessity of the parents’ monetary compensation of the victims and their families. As the second rebuttal of the pro side, I firmly believe that parents of these teenagers should pay the consequences of their children’s dehumanized behaviors because of their failure of fulfilling the legally and mora...   [tags: Crime, Unerage, Parents, Children]

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Parenthood: Parents and Step Parenting

- A Parent is a person who sires or gives birth to and/nurtures and raises an offspring. Becoming a parent or carer is one of the most demanding jobs there is. There are different types of parenting such as biological parents and social parents. Biological parents are the parents who produce and provide the genetic material for a child. This parenting begins at the moment of conception. Social parents are individuals who care for a child without providing genetic material. They may be adoptive, foster, step or surrogate parents....   [tags: having a baby, biological parents]

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Incarcerated Parents and Their Children

- The challenges of children who grow up with parents whom were incarcerated at some point in their childhood can have a major effect on their life. The incarceration of parents can at times begin to affect the child even at birth. Now with prison nurseries the impregnated mother can keep her baby during her time in jail. With the loss of their parent the child can begin to develop behavioral problems with being obedient, temper tantrums, and the loss of simple social skills. Never learning to live in a society they are deprived of a normal social life....   [tags: Children of Incarcerated Parents]

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Necessities for Parents

- “As of 2014, there are an estimated 153 million orphans in the world” (Wiki Answers). This statistic is both saddening and frightening because all of those children who do not have parents are being exposed to life without someone to care for them and their basic needs. Growing up, it can be extremely difficult at moments to deal with parents and not question them from time to time. All children have some type of problem with their parents or legal guardians at one point in time or another. Parents are constantly being taken for granted because children do not always understand just how important their parents are when it comes to the role that they play in their life....   [tags: Orphans, World Crisis, Parents, Children]

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Should Parents be Licensed?

- In this paper I will argue that licensing parents is not only impractical but irrational. Hugh Laffollette, the author, argues many premises. However, many of his premises are assumptions and in the end are begging the question and not supporting his conclusion that licensing parents would help determine who is fit to become a parent and also that doing so would help children to become better adequate for adult life. Licensing parents would be a system that would be tedious and even hard to establish....   [tags: licensing parents, avoid harm]

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Patent Lawsuit over the Transcatheter Aortic Valve

- Medtronic (Minneapolis) and Edwards Lifesciences (Irvine, California) were not strangers in patent lawsuits. Edwards is specializing in the production of artificial heart valves and new hemodynamic monitoring technology, whereas Medtronic is specializing in the production of medical devices. In the past, the two companies have problems in patent infringement lawsuits over annuloplasty procedures and endovascular graft (1,2). However, currently another latest patent infringement lawsuit has been occurred and reported between Medtronic and Edwards Lifesciences....   [tags: Heart Valves. Hemodynamic Monitoring Technology]

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Euthanasia of Brain Death Patients: Is it Ethical?

- Euthanasia of Brain Death Patients: Is it Ethical. Euthanasia is a huge ethical dilemma within healthcare today. Many times it is unethical to euthanize a human being. However, I want to discuss the case of brain dead patients. Is it ethical to euthanize a person that no longer has a chance to live the life the used to have or even the chance to wake up ever again. Euthanasia should be ethically acceptable in a case where the person is diagnosed with brain death because it prevents the patient and the family prolonged suffering....   [tags: brain death patients, good death]

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Parents Should Not Decide Their Children’s Careers

- It’s the nature of parents to want the best for their children. They want to give the best clothes, the most nutritional food and what is the most important is the best education for their children. However, it is a little bit more complicated when it comes to decide what is best for their children’s education. It is very difficult to decide for the children’s education path especially when they are entering college or university, because at this age most children have not discovered their true identity and interest yet....   [tags: education, parents]

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Advantages of Living with Parents While Attending College

- Did you know about 60% of the college students live at home with their parents. According to the kark4 news today many college students prefer to stay at home than to stay in a dorm or rent an apartment.(kark4) There are many benefits toward living with family. The disadvantages of living in a dorm or an apartment are their finance problems, the influence of parties, having privacy and roommate problems, being lazy, not setting boundaries and goals, challenges of social life, being in relationships, not making the best choices, challenges of landlords, and the need for a job....   [tags: Living with Parents]

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Europe's Software Patent Law

- Europe's Software Patent Law Today in Europe, the issue of software patentability is a heated and controversial topic amongst the software industry. Currently Europe’s software patent law is unclear and inconsistent. There has been a wide spread effort by major players in Europe’s software industry and governmental bodies to try to formalize and disambiguate the law on the patentability of software. But up to know there has been very little progress in the formalization of this law. What has resulted is an ongoing controversy amongst the Europeans....   [tags: Patenting Economics Essays]

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Parents May Not Be Licensed

- ... In other words, LaFollette does not explicitly establish what comprises exactly the minimum amount of harm that makes the activity potentially harmful or very harmful. Instead, LaFollette only offers two scenarios in which children are harmed—abused or neglected—by their parents (184). In this paragraph, I shall argue that, without a precise definition of harm, either or both of these two scenarios may not actually be harmful to children, under certain circumstances. Although parental abuse is usually considered as being harmful to children, sometimes parents do abuse children unintentially for children’s good....   [tags: La Follete essay, Licencing Parents]

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Patients' Rights

- The practice of medicine in the 1960s saw a change in the doctor-patient relationship that ultimately cultivated the patients’ rights movement. Individuals sought to become proactive in the healthcare and the healing process of their bodies. Because the medical practice was evolving rapidly in technology and specialized care, patients’ healthcare and rights became a major concern that needed to be addressed. In 1973 the American Hospital Association published a patients’ bill of rights that provided the patient with most advantageous healthcare available....   [tags: patients’ bill of rights]

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Patent Reform Gives Protection for Financial Investements

- ... This initial investment can be recovered and if the product is desirable, business success is realized for the property owner. Modernizing Intellectual Property Although the need to protect R & D investment is recognized, there appears to be a need to modernize the laws around intellectual property. What if the original patent owner is unable to continue development in a timely fashion, or chooses to withhold development of a product. Should the patent remain with the owner for the full amount of time if they are unable or choose not to produce an item that has a significant potential to improve lives, public safety or advance technology....   [tags: property, product, trademark]

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What Do Children Owe Their Parents?

- Every child who has been placed on this earth was made by the choice of their parents, who were given the opportunity to procreate. As children grow up and become adults, their parents become elderly and are unable to take care of themselves. Grown children don’t owe their parents anything, but to have a relationship of honoring their parents with love and respect. Parents are role models who are the important key elements in a child’s development. Your parents were there to give you life, to take care of you and to teach you what is right from wrong....   [tags: Sociology, Family, Parents]

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Placebos Sould be Used on Patients Without their Consent

- The documented use of placebos on patients goes as far back as 1580 (Placebo Effect 58) and as the use of placebos on patients spreads more and more, a question arises. That question is whether or not the use of placebos on patients without obtaining their consent is an acceptable practice in medicine. The answer is that placebos should be used on patients without their consent. This will be argued by explaining why certain people think that placebos are unethical, why are placebos safe, and by comparing them with other forms of medicine....   [tags: medicine, endorphins, patients, ethics]

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Sensitization to Plant Food Allergens in Patients with Asthma

- Although hypersensitivity to fruits and vegetables is assumed to play a role in the etiology of asthma and deteriorating of symptoms in some asthmatic patients, however, little is known about allergy to some fruits and vegetables in patients aforementioned. The purpose of this study was to identify probable sensitization to eggplant, Shiraz grape, melon and mango among asthma sufferers. The study included 50 patients with moderate to severe persistent asthma and 50 healthy individuals with no history of asthma and other atopic diseases....   [tags: fruits, vegetables, asthmatic patients]

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Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric Units

- Examined in this essay will be two articles that investigate the experiences and characteristics of absconding patients from psychiatric units. The first, by Intansari Nurjannah, Mary FitzGerald & Kim Foster, was a yearlong case study that looked into the experiences of patients who had absconded from psychiatric facilities in Indonesia. The experiences were documented through 16 semi-structured interviews, focusing on qualitative information. The second journal article, written by Eimear Muir-Cochrane, Krista Mosel, Adam Gerace, Adrian Esterman & Len Bowers, was a study of the characteristics of absconding patients from a psychiatric ward in Australia through the analysis of statistical dat...   [tags: psychiatric facilities, absconding patients]

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The Impact of Social Media on Terminally Ill Patients

- 1. Introduction Social media is changing the way that doctors and patients communicate. It is reshaping health care with the help of modern technical innovations such as internet connectivity, smart phones, tablets, and desktops. This ranges from patient support groups to instant messaging (Aishwarya, 2012:[sp]). Media usage has evolved over the last few years and research in this field has shown how children’s psychological factors are linked to social media (Heim, et al, 2007:49). These factors suggest that the internet is a powerful communication tool that not only connects children with others but also empowers them by providing a learning environment and social support (Heim, et al, 20...   [tags: communication, doctors, patients]

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