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- Reflexes Reflexes are the newborns most obvious organized patterns of behavior. A reflex is an unlearned, inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation. A wide variety of reflexes are seen in the normal newborn. Here are a few examples of some common reflexes observed in the newborn. Babinski- When the soles of the newborns foot is stroked the toes fan out. Moro- When the crib is jared or the infant is startled the arms flare out and inward in response. Rooting- When a babies heel is stroked it turns its head toward the cheek that was stroked and opens its mouth....   [tags: Papers]

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Neonatal Followup Clinic Report on Infant Patient

- Michael was seen in the Neonatal Followup Clinic on November 14, 2013 at 4 months 11 days corrected age. As you may recall, Michael was born at 32 + 2 weeks gestational age with a birth weight of 1600 grams. His neonatal course was complicated by respiratory distress and CPAP for 8 days. He had some hyperbilirubinemia and rule out sepsis. There were issues with IV access and he was on TPN for 12 days and required a PICC line. He had cellulitis and excoriation of the right arm which resolved quickly....   [tags: hospital, diet, physical, infant, growth]

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The Role of Nature and Nurture on Infant Development

- Even though there are several theories on what a newborn infant is capable of, and not capable of, one thing is for sure-they are dependent on their environment for nourishment (food and love). There is a bevy of evidence to support both nature and nurture play equally critical roles in infant development. Unit five exhibits this with the use of an analogy in which it states: “To use a construction analogy, nature provides the materials to build a house, but if the construction crew doesn't arrive, the house doesn't get built, and the materials lie about in disarray.” (Michael S....   [tags: born in traits, quality nurturing environment]

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Baby : A Very Content Baby

- ... During her second month of life, Brianna was able to support her own weight with her legs and took interest in eating baby food. A month later, the baby tried rolling over and ate solid foods such as bananas. In addition, Brianna enjoyed listening to kid songs on TV and swimming. By the fourth month, she started lifting her belly off the ground, grabbing and holding on to objects, and started to attempt sitting. Following her happy personality, Brianna was laughing even more, however, she wouldn’t smile for strangers....   [tags: Infant, Breastfeeding, Developmental psychology]

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Height And Weight

- All babies come in different shapes and sizes, and all of them grow at different rates, in the text from Chapter Three under the topic of height and weight, it states that ninety-five percent of full term babies weigh between five and a half to ten pounds and are eighteen to twenty-two inches long. I was eight pounds, seven ounces and twenty-one inches long, which would make me fit into the ranges of an average baby. By four months, I doubled my weight weighing fourteen pounds, two ounces, and almost tripled my weight by my first birthday weighing seventeen pounds, fourteen ounces....   [tags: Infant, Breastfeeding, Mass, Child development]

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Art Child Development Center At The Charlotte Community Center

- ... Adding a new object such as a wire mixer and attaching it to the crib mobile as the baby watches it while drifting off to sleep, then the teacher later using it to mix paint, or cake mix, formula or even eggs in bowl so that baby is visualizing how the object is used or even attempting to use the object as a trajectory to strengthen visual skills even more as the infant grows. The teacher will introduce new objects every week and use that object throughout the week. • A study has proven the importance of strengthen visual infant visual skills....   [tags: Infant, Child development]

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The Effects Of Drugs And Alcohol On Children

- Introduction The use of drugs and alcohol has seen a dramatic increase within the United States in the last decade. Drugs like methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, and alcohol have become a norm in today’s society. Even more devastating,, is that there is evidence that drug and alcohol use are becoming more popular in the pregnant population. Drugs and alcohol can result with some severe effects in the normal population let alone that of the pregnant population. This paper will further investigate the kind of effects that methamphetamine, cocaine, and alcohol have on a baby prenatally and postnatal....   [tags: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Infant, Fetus]

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I Tested Stretch Reflexes And Cutaneous Reflexes Of A Healthy Individual

- ... The subject was instructed to relax and remain comfortable. The first stretch reflex to be assessed was the patellar muscle, which is also known as the knee jerk reflex. In order to test this reflex, the handle of a silverware knife was used. The knife was swiftly applied to the tendon right below the knee with enough pressure to illicit a reflex, but not enough pressure to cause pain. The next reflex to be tested was the biceps reflex. For this reflex the subjects left forearm was rested on experimenters forearms....   [tags: Reflexes, Reflex, Central nervous system]

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The Birth Of The Mothers

- ... This choice tends to be determined by the culture and community; experiences faced, and opinions of those who are close and education. (Lawrence & Lawrence, 2011) For mothers, feeding infants is just a portion of a relationship that has a variety of influences and needs. Mothers, consequently, tend to respond in ways they did not plan for in the whole experience of feeding an infant. This experience beats the statement ‘breast is best’ in ambiguity in ways that cannot be captured. (Liamputtong, 2011) From an Infant Feeding Survey conducted by the NHS Information Center, figures published in 2012 for the 2010 survey showed that the proportion of infants who were breastfed at birth in the...   [tags: Breastfeeding, Infant, Breast milk, Baby bottle]

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The Nurse Should Explain What The Apgar Score Is

- ... A low Apgar score provides a warning signal that the baby may have hidden problems. A score from 0 to 3 are unresponsive, pale, limp, or may not have a pulse with these newborns they would need resuscitation. So the response to the parents to explain the above 7 to 10 score and let them know it is very good and that their newborn is healthy. First the nurse would let them know that this is normal for their Newborn. Nurse would then explain to the parents that the first stool that is passed by the baby is call meconium and the color and texture is black and tarry and it has no real odor to it....   [tags: Infant, Childbirth, Pediatrics, Milk]

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William Blake's Infant Joy and Infant Sorrow

- “Infant Joy” from “Songs of Innocence” by William Blake is a simple song that highlights the joy of childbirth from a mother’s perspective. The mother asks the child what she should name the newborn child. The newborn names itself Joy, because that is all it knows. In contrast “Infant Sorrow” from “Songs of Experience” by William Blake is a simple song that focuses on childbirth from the infants perspective. It is a much less pleasant experience compared to that of the mother’s. The newborn struggles as it leaves the comfort of its mothers womb and enters the world....   [tags: infant joy, william blake]

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The Implications Of Infant Neglect

- ... Let’s explore a situation of a teenage, African American, drug and alcohol addicted, mother who lives in poverty with her mother and five younger siblings, in a neighborhood that has no major grocery stores and the family has no vehicle, her baby, also suffers from Fetal alcohol syndrome and Meth withdrawal. All these disparities put the infant at risk, some more than others, however the combination of them all adds a stressor that intensifies everything. This teen mother does have several strengths that are helpful as well, for instance, she has a place to live, family support, and a mother who provides for her and her baby which alleviates an abundance of stress until she can take care...   [tags: Pregnancy, Mother, Disability, Infant]

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Infant and Toddler Neglect

- Infant and Toddler Neglect Out of all different forms of abuse, infants and toddlers are more likely to suffer from neglect (Connell and Scannapieco, 2006). Severe consequences to children are the after effect of them suffering from neglect (Connell and Scannapieco, 2006). 71 % of children that are reported endure neglect based on CPS findings (Nicklas and Mackenzie, 2012) and one fourth of the children abused are less than 4 years old (Malik, Lederman, Crowson, and Osofsky, 2002). Neglect, a passive form of abuse, can cause detrimental effects physically, emotionally, mentally, behaviorally, and relationally to both infants and toddlers....   [tags: Infant, Toddler, Development, Suffer, Neglect]

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Child Development: Ealry Infant Attachment

- (Early infant attachment is an important phenomena to study as it is connected to later child development). Early infant attachment is linked to cognitive, social, and emotional development (Pallini, Baiocco, Schneider, Madigan, & Atkinson, 2014). These three developmental aspects are significant in one’s later mental process capabilities, the relationships formed later in life, as well as their psychological stability. The attachments formed with caregivers in infancy are vital. Bowlby stated, “It is our first relationship, usually with our mother, that much of our future well-being is determined” (O’Gorman, 2012)....   [tags: maternal-infant attachment]

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Infant Sensory Development

- Have you ever wondered exactly how infants perceive the world around them. If infants are exposed to certain foods in their prenatal development and are exposed to the food through their mother during breastfeeding after birth, will they remember that particular food later on in their life and prefer its taste to other foods. Is their sense of smell acute after birth or is it acquired over time. How do infants use the sense of touch to form relationships and learn about the fascinating world around them....   [tags: infant's experiment, linguistic communication]

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Will Use of Stimulants While Pregnant Affect the Infant?

- Stimulants are considered as a drug and are commonly used today. The question is will use of stimulants while pregnant affect the infant. A pregnant woman can be prescribed stimulants (Antidepressants) because of them being depressed and stressed out about everything that is occurring in their life while pregnant, but what many people do not see is it going to affect the infant long-term. Most mothers want what is best for their child and they want to make sure that their child is going to have a healthy life as much as possible....   [tags: Antidepressants, Infant, Pregnancy]

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Adolescent And Infant Poverty : Child Development, School Life, And Home Life

- Adolescent and Infant Poverty Imagine living in a community where every minute of every day where somebody is hungry, under clothed, and at risk of death because that person is poor. Now imagine waking up and the biggest problem of the day is which sweater to wear with which jeans. Wealthy people around the world are not aware of how immense an issue poverty is and are sometimes hesitant to believe the scale that poverty has risen to. Without the upper classes understanding poverty families who are disadvantaged cannot be adequately helped....   [tags: Infant, Infant mortality, Pregnancy, Poverty]

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Infant Feeding and Weaning in Three Countries

- Evolution has insured that most women are biologically equipped to give birth and then nourish their offspring for a period of time by producing milk. At some point, young humans stop receiving food from their mothers’ bodies and learn to consume plants and/or animals found in their environments in order to meet their nutritional needs. Within most other species of mammals, this transition happens at roughly the same age and to roughly the same range of foodstuffs for all individuals (Dettwyler 1999)....   [tags: Infant Feeding]

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Infant Observation Report On Childhood Span Development Class At Dordt College

- ... She does not think that if she does have another child it will be a female, this is because it is not common in the family. Some things that Cooper has already accomplished in his two short months include social, physical, cognitive development. When Cooper was born he weighed about 7.5 pounds and after 2 months he has gained about 4 pounds and is now 11.5 pounds. He has about half a pound each week. Cooper sleeps more on his back in his basket and because of SIDS, “suddent infant death syndrome.” (Santrock 2014, pg....   [tags: Infant, Pregnancy, Childbirth, Child development]

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A Infant 's Brain Experiences Rapid Growth During The First Two Years Following Birth

- ... According to the textbook, “Infants who have been breast-fed are less likely to become obese and develop diabetes later in life” (Bigner & Gerhardt, 2014, p.148). Breast-feeding babies is also associated with lower risk of SIDS (Bigner & Gerhardt, 2014). Committing to breast-feeding may not be the most convenient, but it is cheaper than buying formula and easier for the baby to digest. Mothers who breast-feed lose their pregnancy weight faster, reduce their risk for breast and ovarian cancers, and reduce their risk for heart disease (Bigner & Gerhardt, 2014, p.149)....   [tags: Family, Infant, Culture, Breastfeeding]

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Infant And Infant Is Created Helpless

- ... When an infant is born crying the only way they responds to needs such as hunger, discomfort, uncomfortable temperature and pain. (Brazelton 1962) When an infant cries it informs the caregivers of a needs, Weather that need is a physical needs such as the infant being hungry, wet, or mental needs such as being scared or lonely. (Robert 2013) When an infant is first born they spend a lot of their time sleeping and adjusting to the new world around them. An infant also spends about two to three hours a day crying, as a caregiver it could be hard to distinguish the differences between these cries....   [tags: Developmental psychology, Erik Erikson]

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Rhythmical Patterns in William Blake's Infant Sorrow

- Rhythmical Patterns of "Infant Sorrow" in William Blake's Songs of Innocence and of Experience In Songs of Innocence and of Experience, by William Blake, we come to the realization that although innocence and experience are dichotomies it’s common for a reader of songs to detect experience in a poem about innocence and vice versa. To fully understand "Infant Sorrow" a look at the definition of innocence and its relationship to experience is needed. According to the American Heritage Dictionary innocence is defined as uncorrupted by evil, malice, without wrongdoing, sinless, and not experienced....   [tags: William Blake Infant Sorrow]

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Understanding The Baptism Of The Infant Of Baptist

- ... History Since 1609, the Baptist denomination has grown gradually. Even there are many persecutions and difficult situations; Baptist is very an impressed footprint in the history. The origin of infant baptism is very important in the history because it was doing with church history. According to Sproul, “Throughout church history, the practice of infant baptism has been far and away the majority report.” It is a very important meaning for a long time between Baptist Baptism and history. And many people still concern the issue in their Christian life....   [tags: Christianity, Baptist, Christian terms, Baptism]

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the importance of mother-infant attachment

- Dr. Sigmund Freud thought the experiences in the first five years were the most critical for the development of personality. It is where it all begins. We all go through stresses in life but it is the well-developed adult that is able to handle stress and how they handle it. It all starts with attachment between the caregiver and the infant. The emotional bond that forms between an infant and a primary caregiver is called attachment. Bonding is a continuation of the relationship that began during pregnancy....   [tags: Child Development, Emotional Health]

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Heartbreaking Infant Morality in Ohio

- ... If mothers were better educated on these topics the rate of compliance would increase and the risks that come along with them can be decreased as suggested by The Ohio Collaborative to Prevent Infant Mortality (OCPIM). Poverty has also been shown to play a role in infant mortality. Living in poverty has been linked to significant rises in stress levels due to lack of money, poor living conditions, and high crime rates. Women who live in poverty stricken areas are also less likely to have access to quality healthcare, and these everyday stresses cause an increase in stress hormones....   [tags: death, healthcare, premature]

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The Psychoanalytic Perspective on Infant Development

- ... However, critics of Jung’s theory argue that the emerging field of epigenetics puts a damper in Jung’s belief in a biological predisposition for certain behaviors. “Epigenetics… describes the functioning of genes as a complex interaction of genetic information and environmental factors”, or in other words, certain genes only become active due to the influence of the environment or emotions (Roesler, 2012, p. 231). One psychoanalyst whose theory reflects societal influences is Erik Erikson. Erik Erikson expanded Freud’s stages of development with his 8 psycho-social stages....   [tags: Sigmund Freud, sexual energy, adulthood]

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Gastrointestinal in an Infant: Case Study

- In order to come up with a list of appropriate differential diagnoses, essentially I needed to carry out a good consultation, in the form of history taking and physical examination, with the purpose of obtaining as much relevant information and significant findings as possible. To do so, it was necessary that I communicated effectively with HG’s parents and obtained their consent prior to examining their child, as the patient, being an infant, understandably was unable to talk. In terms of medical informatics, I acquired additional information with regards to HG’s medical history from his medical records....   [tags: Healthcare, Testing]

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Emotion Of An Infant Is Not From Their Experience

- Introduction All of us have emotion since we were born. Although the emotion of an infant is not from their experience, but an involuntary neurological activity, they still can sense the things around them, such as identifying who is more comfortable to stay with (Dr. Cole, n.d., as cited in Finello, 2015). Emotion had always been defined as a complicated state of feeling which can affect our thoughts and behaviour after resulting in physical and psychological changes (Myers, 2004, as cited in Cherry, 2015)....   [tags: Emotion, Feeling, Psychology]

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The Concept of Infant-Mother Attachment

- ... Plus, it will lead to a life-long disability as a struggling adult. The emotional development (or lack of) alone can be very detrimental when the adult child is seeking friends and eventually an intimate relationship. For a child that has developed a secure infant-mother attachment the child is confident, less aggressive, more interested in exploration and able to problem solve (Diessner, 2008). The Ainsworth article refers that if several caregivers are involved, and the attachment to the mother is weak or strained, the child may show favoritism towards one, but there is still a special type of bond with the birth mother....   [tags: exploration, confidence, relationship, anxiety]

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Research On Preterm Babies And Preterm Infants

- ... They tested every infant at 5, 6 and then 7 months of age. The other large variables that the researchers were aware of was testing the infants one to one and a half hours after feeding and avoiding napping times and vaccination days (Soares, Hofsten, Tudella, 2012). However, there are a few variables that the researchers could have controlled that would have changed the data. Only nine preterm infants were tested while there was ten term infants. They also state that the preterm infants are Brazilian while they do not state the ethnicity of the controlled infants....   [tags: Childbirth, Preterm birth, Infant]

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Maternal, Infant And Child Health

- ... Adolescents and young adults are an important group because they represent our future. During this period, they are susceptible to developing deleterious behaviors such as the abuse of alcohol and tobacco and other drugs, fighting and weapon carrying (McKenzie & Pinger, 2015, p.246). Research indicates that more education a person has it is less likely he or she is to use tobacco. Protective factors are part of the health for adolescence and young adult. Protective factors are individual or environmental characteristics, conditions or behaviors that reduce the effects of stressful life events ((McKenzie & Pinger, 2015, p.254)....   [tags: Public health, Medicine, Health care]

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The Debate on Infant Circumcision

- According to a published report in the August 16th 2010 edition of the New York Time’s parents are choosing less and less to circumcise their new born sons. The article states instances of circumcision have declined “to just 32.5 percent in 2009 from 56 percent in 2006. The numbers are based on calculations by SDI Health, a company in Plymouth Meeting, Pa. that analyzes health care data”. Why are so many deciding to not have the elective procedure even though the rate of complication is extraordinarily low....   [tags: Medical Research]

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The Mozart Effect and Infant Intelligence

- In modern society intelligence is highly competitive and subject to scrutiny; therefore, it is understandable that a child’s intelligence is a primary concern for many parents. The Mozart effect, popularised in the 1990s, resulted in many parents believing that simply exposing their child to music composed by Mozart would improve their intelligence (Campbell, 1997). The claim was founded by research published in the journal Nature, which suggested that spatial reasoning could be temporarily enhanced by listening to one of Mozart’s compositions for ten minutes (Rauscher, Shaw & Ky, 1993)....   [tags: modern society, music, intelligence]

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Benefits Of Having Infant Immunisation

- ... By conflicting against these bacteria, the immune system aims to record information about them and remember how best to fight. On the assumption of actual exposure of these illnesses, the immunity has already experienced therefore, it could greatly provide an appropriate way to protect vaccinated children from getting infection. As Heininger (2009, p. 11) analyses this resistance “can be expressed by the percent risk reduction to either develop a specific disease or a specific manifestation of a disease in comparison to an unimmunised individual”....   [tags: Vaccination, Immune system, Infectious disease]

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Teenage Parent With Temperament Infant

- ... In many cases, mothers care for their children without the help of the father. Lacking financial and emotional support, the mother may have to abandon her own education and be relegated to unskilled, poorly paying jobs for the rest of her life. In some cases, she may develop a long-term dependency on welfare. Furthermore are physical and mental health may suffer as she faces unrelenting stress from the continual demands on her time (Manlove et al., 2004; Gillmore et al., 2006; Oxford et al., 2006)....   [tags: Teenage pregnancy, Pregnancy, Adolescence, Mother]

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Infant And Pediatric Mortality Rates

- ... According to the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the dramatic decrease of pediatric morality can be attributed to medical advances and increased safety measures taken. This includes but is not limited to the use of helmets, seat belts and car seats (“The Annie E. Casey Foundation”, 2014). These precautions take by those in the United States have helped lower mortality rate, those efforts now must be pushed forward to the rest of the world. According to the World Health Organization about 16,000 children aged five and under die every day....   [tags: Death, Mortality rate, Demography]

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How Infants Learn Language and Where?

- Throughout the first two years of an infant’s life, the infant’s mind, body, and self develops tremendously. Just within the first few “days of life, babies attend to words and expressions, responding as well as their limited abilities allow” (Berger, 2008, p. 175). Infants begin to learn “language before birth, via brain organization and auditory experiences during the final prenatal months” (Berger, 2008, p. 168). Babies actually begin their language learning process before birth; this happens during the fetal period where they are able to hear noises outside of the womb....   [tags: parents, babies, infant's mind ]

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Wic Is A Program For Women, Infants, And Children

- ... WIC was created as a two year program in 1972 by an amendment to the Child Nutrition Act of 1966. The program was geared to improve the health of pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers, infants and children in response to growing concerns over malnutrition among many poverty-stricken mothers and young children. In 1974 WIC was functioning in 45 States, the first location was opened in Kentucky in January 1974. In 1975 WIC was established as a permanent program by legislation P.L. 94-105. The eligibility was also extended to non-breastfeeding women and children up to the age 5, before this extension WIC was providing services to breastfeeding mothers and children up to the age of 4....   [tags: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Infant, Breastfeeding]

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Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

- Imagine one night you are putting your baby to sleep like you always do, when you wake up in the morning to find that your infant has all of the sudden passed away in their sleep. This phenomenon has become a parent’s worst fear. Their baby has passed away from sudden infant death syndrome and there is nothing they can do or could have done about it. SIDS is a real thing and has occurred all throughout history. It is very important to understand variables that can increase your chance of losing a baby to SIDS, looking for signs in their cry that could hint towards SIDS and taking every step you can to avoid sudden infant death syndrome from striking your family....   [tags: Alcohol, Smoking, Sleeping Environment]

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Infant Learning: Brain Development

- ... It has been proven in adults that sleep within 12 hours can initiate permanent changes in memory and cognitive function related to the learned stimuli. Therefore, the rapidly developing cognitive functions of infants necessitate even more rapid and consistent sleep cycles to foster their learning. Sleep plays a role in the memory consolidation process when the baby is awake. It has not yet been determined if infants can learn while asleep (Tarullo, Balsam & Fifer, 2011). Environmental Factors Among the many environmental factors that can affect infant learning, prenatal cigarette exposure has proven to be a topic of interest in behavioral teratology due to the large number of health eff...   [tags: social development, cognitive]

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The Primate Mother-Infant Bond

- The mother-infant bond is the familiarity and attachment a mother forms with her offspring. These helpless babies are reliant on their mother’s nurture for survival. This dependence reaches farther than a physiological need. Infants rely on their mothers for a wide variety of demands. The mother-infant bond is critical to maximizing the fitness of each individual, as well as the growth of the species. In 1976 Marshall H. Klaus and John H. Kennell came out with a book called “Parent Infant Bonding”....   [tags: Early Emotional Ties]

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Premature Infants Presents Multiple Abnormalities

- ... A major responsible factor in the development of ROP has been linked with oxygen therapy. Oxygen has been uses in newborns that did not breath spontaneously and post care neonatal since 1950’s. However, it was quickly connected to in the development of ROP. During resuscitation at birth, the use of oxygen is fundamental to the survival of a non-breathing infant. However, studies reported that the duration of oxygen should be monitored, because of the connection of free radicals of oxygen. Large amounts of radicals can damage lead to cell damage and disrupt homeostasis; they are capable of destroying important molecules such as DNA, protein carbohydrates, and lipids....   [tags: Infant, Pediatrics, Retina, Childbirth]

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Infant With Respiratory Difficulties

- Name of Body System and Developmental Age: Infant Respiratory Patient Presentation: Include historical information including family history and genetic considerations, background as well as symptomology and tentative diagnosis. Maria is a six month old infant girl who was born at 40 weeks weighing 7 lbs. 4 oz. and 21 inches long. She is developmentally on track and up to date on all immunizations. Maria currently weighs 15 lbs. and 5 oz. and is 24 inches. She is breast feed and eats baby cereal in the morning....   [tags: nursing diagnosis with rationale]

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Language And Communication And Emotional Development Of Toddlers And Infants

-   INTRODUCTION This paper will examine the language and communication and emotional development of toddlers and infants. The first topic, language and communication is defined as how children grow in motor, and communication by develop thinking skills. A child’s early development of speech should be expected to grow between 6-24 months, when the language areas of the brain develop most rapidly (Bruce, 2010). Language and communication is inspired by the baby’s social learning, the influence of people on the baby’s life....   [tags: Culture, Sociology, Infant, Emotion]

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Infant Development

- During the first year of the infant’s life the most noticeable thing is physical growth. The infants weight is doubled in six months and tripled in a year. During the time of growth not only does the weight and height increase but as well the head and the chest that causes development of the heart, brain, lung and several organs used for survival. The bones of the infant start to harden as well as the skull. By the end of the second year of the infant’s life his/her brain has developed 75% of its adult weight....   [tags: The Human Body]

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Reaction From Western New England University

- WESTERN NEW ENGLAND UNIVERSITY SPRINGFIELD, MA BME 206 Biomedical Engineering Sophomore Laboratory Spring 2015 Nina Konyreva Reaction Times I. Introduction & Background The experiment, entitled “Reaction Times,” prompted one to investigate the response periods of human subjects under multiple conditions. The reaction times were measured through various harmless visual and sound cues, such as an unpredictable, random, erratic visual cue, a visual cue with a declared warning, a predictable, anticipated cue, a visual cue while getting distracted, and finally, an auditory cue....   [tags: Arithmetic mean, Mean, Reflexes]

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Infant Trauma

- There are many types of trauma that people experience everyday in our world. People can do awful things to each other, including violence, abuse, and neglect. Accidents happen that leave us feeling distressed. Some threaten our sense of safety and connection. These are all experiences that take time to heal and recover from. We must find a way to reconcile the life we had before it happened and the life as we know it after a tragic event. The pain of the memories alone can be devastating. It takes time and support to find a sense of self again, to feel safe in the world again....   [tags: Psychology, Health, Social Issues]

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Infant Attachment

- Introduction Infant attachment is the first relationship a child experiences and is crucial to the child’s survival (BOOK). A mother’s response to her child will yield either a secure bond or insecurity with the infant. Parents who respond “more sensitively and responsively to the child’s distress” establish a secure bond faster than “parents of insecure children”. (Attachment and Emotion, page 475) The quality of the attachment has “profound implications for the child’s feelings of security and capacity to form trusting relationships” (Book)....   [tags: Child Development]

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Pathophysiology of Guillian-Barré Syndrome (GBS)

- Guillian-Barré Syndrome (GBS) derives from a disorder associated with a Campylobacter jejuni infection. Campylobacter is known with multiple pathologic forms of GBS, including the demyelinating and axonal forms. GBS can cause weakness in the limbs and an absence of reflexes. There is a weakness in proximal and distal, and often, respiratory cases are involved. GBS can lead to paralysis, depending on the virulence. If virulent enough, GBS will affect the respiratory system, which often leads to patients in ventilating machines due to difficulty in breathing....   [tags: axon degeneration, nerves, reflexes]

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The Dilemma Of Impaired Infants

- ... Therefore cost is not generally considered, because even though insurance of some sort usually covers the cost, these treatments do still cost money. As well as the expenses that will continue to occur for the rest of the child’s life. Quality of life for these infants and the cost of caring for these impaired little humans are the two most important issues. With impairments such as Down syndrome, Spina Bifida, Hydrocephaly, Anencephaly, Esophageal Atresia, Duodenal Atresia, Prematurity, etc....   [tags: Infant, Childbirth, Down syndrome, Pediatrics]

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Overpopulation: Infant Mortality and Life Expectancy

- Due to over population infant mortality and low life expectancy are problems all around the world with rising numbers, they are becoming bigger issues. For both there are some solutions but not all the solutions work. Infant mortality is the death of children under the age of one year. Life expectancy is the average period of time a person may be expected to live. Life expectancy and high infant mortality have some big and small averages of babies dying all over, which can be a problem. Some of these problems have solutions and some don’t....   [tags: resources, consequences, pollution]

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Infant Formula: Good, Bad or Innocuous

- ... By the 1920's, parents were advised to add orange juice to their baby's formula to decrease the risk of scurvy. The 1950’s found over half of all infants being fed formula. During the late 1950s and early 1960s, most of the prepared infant formulas fell into one of two classes. There were formulas similar to home-prepared evaporated milk formulas but with added vitamins and formulas that were lower in protein and contained vegetable and oleo oils with added vitamins and minerals. The lower protein formulas gradually took over in popularity due to the unpleasant smell of regurgitated butterfat and the idea that the formulas similar to home-made evaporated milk formulas caused constipation...   [tags: mother's milk versus baby formula]

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Infant Mortality in the Philippine Healthcare System

- Health is a fundamental human right. A person’s employment, social or income status should not be the binding force in order to receive average healthcare at a relative cost. Unlike the United States, the Philippines is consumed by a majority of its people’s poverty. Especially in rural regions of the country, this poverty epidemic has led to malnutrition, homelessness and disease. Subsequently, when healthcare is needed, these individuals do not have the means or finances to seek assistance. This cycle of disparity has not only led to the loss of a person’s basic human right, but has also affected the livelihood of their children....   [tags: fundamental human rights]

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Child and Infant Mortality Rate in Afghanistan

- Afghanistan is a country in war and a country in devastation. Afghanistan has one of the world’s highest infant mortality rates and the world’s highest birth rates. Because of the high infant mortality rates, they also have many problems in health, sanitation, and a lack of food they have. Because of poor health and sanitation in the country of Afghanistan, the Afghanis have many sicknesses and diseases. Sickness causes high infant mortality rates. The diseases that cause high death rates are bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever, malaria, and rabies (Demographics 2013)....   [tags: Demographic Transition, Medical Service]

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Infant Language Development

- Language is a communicative system of words and symbols unique to humans. The origins of language are still a mystery as fossil remains cannot speak. However, the rudiments of language can be inferred through studying linguistic development in children and the cognitive and communicative abilities of primates as discussed by Bridgeman (2003). This essay illustrates the skills infants have that will eventually help them to acquire language. The topics covered are firstly, the biological aspects, the contribution of the human brain to language development....   [tags: Language ]

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Family Dynamics And The Infant And Primary Caregiver

- The most significant bond in life is established between the infant and primary caregiver. John Bowlby, the eminent authority, describes attachment as the natural connection between baby and mother (as cited in Alexander, 1992, p. 1). Family dynamics have changed since Bowlby’s time, for this reason, it is the relationship of the infant and primary caregiver to be analyzed. Bowlby’s attachment theory infers that the path of these bonds lay the groundwork for future behavior, view of one’s self, and relationship with others (Colonnesi et al., 2011)....   [tags: Attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth, John Bowlby]

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Breastfeeding The Ideal Nutrition For Infants, By The American Academy Of Pediatrics And The World Health Organization

- ... Prolactin, the milk-making hormone, appears to produce a special calmness in mothers (Altemus 1995). With this amazing statistical information and benefits to the children in our society; why would others choose to interject their opinions on a mother and child and their specific feeding of choice. There isn’t a week that goes by that there isn’t a story in the news, about a women being asked to leave a store, restaurant or public venue such as a museum, park or zoo, because she was breastfeeding her child and her breast was exposed....   [tags: Breastfeeding, Indecent exposure, Infant]

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Infants and Toddlers Development

- ... There are many types of reflexes, such as, Babinski, moro, palmar hand grasp, placing, plantar, rooting and sucking, stepping and walking, and tonic neck response (UMM, 2013). Babinski reflex occurs when the baby toes fan outward when sole of foot is stroked. Moro reflex happens when an infant is startled, which is often triggered by loud sounds or sudden movements. Palmar hand grasp is when a baby closes their and grips your finger. The placing reflex is when a baby extends his or her legs when the sole of the foot is touched....   [tags: preschooler, school age, teen]

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Infant Attachment Styles And The Resounding Effect On Adult Relationships

- There is much debate surrounding the subject of infant attachment styles and the resounding effect they have on adult relationships. Attachment theory highlights the influence of early experience on shaping children’s conceptualization of responsiveness and trustworthiness of a significant other (Frayley, Roisman Booth-LaForce, Owen & Holland, 2013). The theory also suggests that an individual that is cared for consistently and responsively will assume that others will be supportive and available when necessary (Ainsworth Blehar, Waters & Wall, 1978)....   [tags: Attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth, John Bowlby]

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The Body Makes Breast Milk For The Infant It Created

- ... Immunity The mother’s milk provides the infant with varying degrees of immunity, including protection from respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections, necrotizing enterocolitis, urinary tract infections, otitis media, bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, and allergies. (Davidson, London, & Ladewig, 2012) Studies show that human milk has beneficial effects on sudden infant death syndrome, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, other digestive diseases, lymphoma, and visual acuity....   [tags: Breastfeeding, Breast milk, Lactation]

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Infant-Directed Speech and Its Effect on Language Acquisition

- When infants are acquiring their first language, adults speak to them differently than they would speak to other adults. This kind of speech is formally named “Infant-Directed speech”, but is also referred to as “baby talk” and “motherese”. Infant-Directed (ID) speech has several properties that distinguish it from Adult-Directed (AD) speech. There is a debate over whether or not ID speech helps infants acquire language or is a hindrance in their language acquisition process Several experiments have been performed to test the effect of ID speech on infants’ language learning....   [tags: Baby Talk, Adult Directed Speech]

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Schaffer's Stages in Infant Development

- Schaffer's Stages in Infant Development Attachment is the strong emotional bond that develops between infant and caregiver, providing the infant with emotional security. By the second half of the first year, infants have become attached to familiar people who have responded to their need for physical care and stimulation. Maurer and Maurer (1989) suggested that attachments are welded in the heat of interactions. ( In other words, attachments depend on interaction between two people rather than simply being together....   [tags: Papers]

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Empirical Research on Infant Development and Eye Gazing

- Empirical research has investigated an infants’ capability of using an adult’s eye gaze to direct their own eye gaze onto an external stimulus (Reid & Striano, 2005). Hoehl, Reid, Mooney, and Striano (2008) wanted to further expand on this research and investigate this at a neural level. It is necessary that conclusions drawn from this particular study are applicable to all infants. Therefore, it is important that this research is reliable and valid and that any limitations of this research can be improved upon to help expand the field further....   [tags: peripheral, expression, face]

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Relation: Infant Mother Attachment and Eating Disorders

- The purpose of this paper is to correlate the links between infant mother attachment and eating disorder behavior. Throughout this paper the two main theorists that are looked at are Mary S. Ainsworth and John Bowlby. Mary S. Ainsworth’s framework of attachment theory began in Uganda, while studying individual difference in infant behavior, which is known as the Strange Situation. John Bowlby coined the theory of infant mother attachment based on object relations psychoanalytical theory and the conceptualization that infants need healthy maternal bonds for later functioning as adolescents....   [tags: Secure Attachment, Adolescent Behavior]

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1502 words | (4.3 pages) | Preview

Is the Born Alive Infant Protection Act Justified?

- Is the Born Alive Infant Protection Act Justified. One of the most controversial medical issues is the resuscitation of newborns that do not have a high probability of surviving. The United States enacted fully the Born-Alive Infants Protection Act (BAIPA) in 2002. The United States Department of Health and Human Services later issued the enforcement guidelines for the law (Conway, 2009). The department outlined the clinical procedures that healthcare providers needed to follow in resuscitation and care of infants born between twenty and twenty-four weeks gestation....   [tags: resuscitation of newborns]

Term Papers
2052 words | (5.9 pages) | Preview

Lidocane Use in Infant Circumcision

- Infant Circumcision: Can they really feel it. As an American living in the twentieth century, I can state with certainty that one of the biggest things we pride ourselves on is our technological superiority and advances in healthcare. That is why I was so shocked to learn that most infants who receive circumcisions in the United States go under the knife with no anesthesia of any kind. The explanation for this, although archaic, is understandable from a medical standpoint. The main reason that it took so long for someone to test these theories is because there are very rarely any complications with infant circumcisions, so the medical community looked at the problem with the attitude of “i...   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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The Women, Infant and Children Supplemental Nutritional Program

- The Women, Infant and Children Supplemental Nutritional Program was brought into legislation to provide supplemental food and nutrition to women of a lower income who are pregnant, breastfeeding, and postpartum and children under age 5. WIC has a goal of increasing healthy birth outcomes of women from lower incomes. WIC also wants to improve health of eligible participants during times of important growth and development in infants and children. WIC provides participants with milk, whole grains, iron fortified cereals, and fruits and vegetables....   [tags: welfare, social services, low income]

Research Papers
2728 words | (7.8 pages) | Preview

Infant Mortality Rate-Government Policy To Blame?

- As of 2009, the United States has been found to have one of the worst infant mortality rates among the industrialized nations, despite administering more vaccines than any other country (Goldman, 2). The cause of this serious predicament has been debated by many people. Recently, a study was published which presented an argument that indicates that infant mortality rates have a direct correlation to the number of infant deaths in industrialized nations. The intention of this paper is to show that the government policy of mandatory immunizations should be revoked until the problem has been investigated....   [tags: Sociology ]

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1800 words | (5.1 pages) | Preview

Infant-Mother Attachment and Eating Disorder Behavior

- Mary S. Ainsworth was fascinated in the association between infants and their mothers that she later coined the theory of infant-mother attachment. According to Ainsworth, there are three evident attachment patterns that will develop, secure, anxious and avoidant infants. Ainsworth felt it was substantially necessary for a child to transition out from a mother’s attachment and vulnerability to autonomy and independence as a factor in normal development in personality. One of the key points of Ainsworth security theory is that infants need to “develop a sense of direction and secure dependence on parents” before leaving the nest into a strange and unfamiliar situation (Bretherton, 1992)....   [tags: Child Development, Sociology, Ainsworth]

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Infant Baptism and Adult Baptism

- According to the bible everyone (adult or child) who recognizes Jesus and his works and try to follow him should be baptized. But in the bible there is no record of infants being baptized. Though many say this is because they are not able to understand the need of a saviour. Yet God places children as a high priority, when asked who is the greatest in the kingdom of God, Jesus responded, " Unless you change and become like children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven" (Matthew 18:3)....   [tags: Religion, Theology]

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290 words | (0.8 pages) | Preview

Premature Infant Is An Essential Enemy Of All Babies

- ... Oral feeding is when a tube is being ran through the baby 's mouth and have milk entering the preemie 's body that way. Nasal feeding is when there is a tube placed into the baby 's nose and milk is being entered through the nasal area. The feeding of the preemies are based off of if they are able to breath and swallow on their on. Overall breathing is always the main focus for a child. The nutritional growth of a baby is very important especially for premature babies because she or he must grow at a faster pace than a normal infants does....   [tags: Childbirth, Preterm birth, Cervix]

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1610 words | (4.6 pages) | Preview

My Opinion Is Infant Sorrow By William Blake

- ... He addressed the fact the world is cruel from day one. Knowing that there is someone out there that is willing to admit from day one that the world will be cruel the second you 're born till the day you die. Not everything comes easy in this world and it can be complicated from the get go. I think that I can relate to the fact the world can be a rough place so it gives me a relational feeling when I read about it. It makes you wonder what it will be like years from now and how generations have changed simply because it changes rapidly over the years....   [tags: William Blake]

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Analyzing Factors That Influence Infant Birth Weight

- The birth weight of an infant is an important issue, as it plays significant roles in infant/childhood mortality and also has important health implications in overall growth and development of individuals.1 Birth weight has been shown to be an index of intrauterine growth and a reliable predictor of child survival and mental development.23 There are numerous research studies concerned with the factors that determine birth weight.4-10 Factors such as maternal weight gain, smoking, alcohol consumption, gestational age, maternal anthropometry and many other variables have all been the subject of several scientific papers....   [tags: Health]

Term Papers
3594 words | (10.3 pages) | Preview

Poverty Is A Leading Contributor Of Unhealthy Infant Births

- Poverty is a leading contributor of unhealthy infant births and directly leads to unnecessary death caused by lack of quality healthcare and malnutrition. Poverty also contributes to lower life expectancy because some families are not able to provide their families with the necessary health care they need and provide them with enough nourishment to live a healthy life. Studies also show that “in 2013, 45.3 million people (14.5 percent) were living in a poverty stricken area” (   [tags: Poverty, Teenage pregnancy, Working poor, Suicide]

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1208 words | (3.5 pages) | Preview

The Effect of Child Abuse on The Emotional Development of the Infant

- The Effect of Child Abuse on the Emotional Development of the Infant to Five Years Old in the United States A Review of the Literature Child abuse is one of the most serious issues in the United States today. Child abuse is the physical, emotional/ psychological or sexual maltreatment of a minor. Neglecting a child is another type of abuse, and includes malnutrition, abandonment, and/or inadequate care of a child’s safety. Additionally, any neglectful act can lead to physical or emotional harm and in some cases death of a child....   [tags: sexual maltreatment, brutality, vulnerable]

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1214 words | (3.5 pages) | Preview

Breastfeeding : Breastfeeding For The Infant Receives Only Breast Milk

- ... The ability of babies to resist certain infection like otitis media (ear infection), gastroenteritis, respiratory infection, and type 2 diabetes has been linked to exclusive breastfeeding. According to the office on Women’s Health, U.S Department of Health and Human Services, “Your first milk is liquid gold. Called liquid gold for its deep yellow color, colostrum is the thick first milk that you make during pregnancy and just after birth. This milk is very rich in nutrients and includes antibodies to protect your baby from infections.” Feeding your baby with breast milk will help develop a stronger immunity to protect babies from infection....   [tags: Breastfeeding, Breast milk, Milk, Baby bottle]

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821 words | (2.3 pages) | Preview

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

- Abstract Sudden Infant Death Syndrome remains the leading cause of post-neonatal mortality (under the age of one) in developed countries. The causes of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome have been puzzling and research is being conducted to solve this catastrophic problem. Having a child under the age of one makes me very concerned, along with any other parent(s), that the possibility of SIDS could affect any infant at anytime, SIDS does not discriminate. I am seeking to find the possible causes to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome so in the future deaths could be avoided....   [tags: Crib Death SIDS]

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1846 words | (5.3 pages) | Preview

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

- SIDS, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, a leading cause of death in infants under the age of one, has left medical experts unable to clearly define sudden infant death syndrome. After thirty years of research, the medical field has not discovered definite causes for SIDS. Medical experts have suggested many theories that have been studied and debated. In the Western world, SIDS is the most common cause of death for infants between two weeks and one year of age, but SIDS also occurs throughout the world....   [tags: Crib Death SIDS]

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811 words | (2.3 pages) | Preview

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

- Sudden Infant Death Syndrome CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION 4 II. What is SIDS. 4 III. SIDS Procedures 4-5 * SIDS Annual Rate IV. Risk Factors .......................................... 6 V. Current Research ................................ 6-7 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 8 More children die of SIDS in a year than all children who die of cancer, heart disease, pneumonia, child abuse, AIDS, cystic fibrosis, and muscular dystrophy combined. During the eighties, SIDS accounted for approximately 7,000 deaths, but that number dropped below 3,000 by the late nineties....   [tags: Crib Death SIDS]

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Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

- Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a mysterious phenomena that has managed to confound science so far. SIDS is defined as the sudden death of any infant or young child that is unexpected by history and in which a thorough post mortem examination fails to demonstrate an adequate cause (Hunt & Brouillette, 1987). It is the leading cause of death in infants in developed countries occurring at a rate of almost 2 per 1000 births. It most often occurs in infants between the ages of one month and eight months with the highest occurrence in the 4-6 month range....   [tags: Crib Death SIDS]

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