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Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding by David Hume

- David Hume wrote Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding in 1748, right in the middle of the Enlightenment and on the eve of the Industrial and Scientific Revolution. So it only makes sense that some of the ideas and comparisons used are slightly outdated, but science, if anything, helps his argument regarding causality. Hume is ultimately concerned with the origins of causality, how we are able to gain knowledge from causality, and if we can even call the knowledge derived from causality real knowledge....   [tags: David Hume, Enlightenment]

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How We Gain Knowledge and What We Do with Knowledge: David Hume

- David Hume was an imperialist philosopher who revolutionized scientific argument and methodology with his skepticism. His arguments about the way people though up to his day, and still today, are fundamental in explaining how we gain knowledge and what we do with this knowledge. Hume helped pave a road leading toward a higher state of consciousness for humanity with his theory concerning the perceptions of the mind. He divided the minds perception into two distinct group's impression and ideas. With these two classifications Hume rationalized the depths of human understanding....   [tags: David Hume, Knowledge, philosophy]

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David Hume and Future Occurrences

- In An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding, David Hume demonstrates how there is no way to rationally make any claims about future occurrences. According to Hume knowledge of matters of fact come from previous experience. From building on this rationale, Hume goes on to prove how, as humans we can only make inferences on what will happen in the future, based on our experiences of the past. But he points out that we are incorrect to believe that we are justified in using our experience of the past as a means of evidence of what will happen in the future....   [tags: Philosophy Hume Philosophical Essays]

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Hume's Wide Construal of the Virtues

- Hume's Wide Construal of the Virtues ABSTRACT: The term "virtue" has traditionally been used to designate morally good character traits such as benevolence, charity, honesty, wisdom, and honor. Although ethicists do not commonly offer a definitive list of virtues, the number of virtues discussed is often short and their moral significance is clear. Hume's analysis of the virtues departs from this tradition both in terms of the quantity of virtues discussed and their obvious moral significance....   [tags: Hume Virtues Virtue Philosophy Papers]

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Metaphysics as Addressed by Kant and Hume

- Metaphysics as Addressed by Kant and Hume In the Prolegomena, Kant states that reading David Hume, "awakened him from his dogmatic slumber." It was Hume's An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding that made Kant aware of issues and prejudices in his life that he had previously been unaware of. This further prompted Kant to respond to Hume with his own analysis on the theory of metaphysics. Kant did not feel that Hume dealt with these matters adequately and resolved to pick up where Hume had left off, specifically addressing the question of whether metaphysics as a science is possible....   [tags: Papers Kant Hume Philosophy Essays]

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David Hume - Naturalistic Metaethics, Politics, and Psychology

- David Hume - Naturalistic Metaethics, Politics, and Psychology ABSTRACT: According to the views expressed in this paper, influences unrelated to the conclusions of Immanuel Kant and G. E. Moore respecting what they saw as the appropriate foundation for moral systems seems to have been at work in the reactions of both to the earlier criticisms of David Hume. Building on a "recent meeting" with Hume in a pub on Princes Street in Edinburgh, I develop the suggestion that both Kant and Moore were loyal to traditional notions of an intuited, non-prudential basis for ethical injunctions....   [tags: Philosophy David Hume]

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Hume Vs Kant

-      Hume’s ultimate goal in his philosophic endeavors was to undermine abstruse Philosophy. By focusing on the aspect of reason, Hume shows there are limitations to philosophy. Since he did not know the limits, he proposed to use reason to the best of his ability, but when he came to a boundary, that was the limit. He conjectured that we must study reason to find out what is beyond the capability of reason.      Hume began his first examination if the mind by classifying its contents as Perceptions....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Hume Kant Essays]

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David Hume’s Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion

-      In Hume’s Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion we are introduced to three characters that serve the purpose to debate God and his nature, more specifically, what can mankind infer about God and his nature. The three characters; Demea, Philo, and Cleanthes all engage in a debate concerning this question and they all serve the purpose of supporting their views on the subject. It is the “argument from design” put forth by Cleanthes that is the focal point of the discussion, and it is Demea and Philo who attempt to discredit it....   [tags: Hume Religious Essays]

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Hume vs. Kant

- Many different philosophers have their own way of looking at not only the world, but society as a whole. This is clearly seen with the two philosopher’s Kant and Hume. Though totally different styles of philosophizing and looking at an ethical theory, it is not to say that one’s theory is better or more justified than the other. It is perhaps a different point of view or another opinion to take in. We must not directly rule out either Hume or Kant because both of their ethical theories have been approved by numerous philosophers and scholars alike....   [tags: Hume Kant Compare Contrast Philosophy Essays]

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On Emotion and Value in David Hume and Max Scheler

- On Emotion and Value in David Hume and Max Scheler ABSTRACT: While some philosophers tend to exclude any significance of emotion for the moral life, others place them in the center of both the moral life and the theory of value judgment. This paper presents a confrontation of two classic positions of the second type, namely the position of Hume and Scheler. The ultimate goal of this confrontation is metatheoretical — particularly as it concerns the analysis of the relations between the idea of emotion and the idea of value in this kind of theory of value judgment....   [tags: David Hume Max Scheler Philosophy Essays]

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David Hume on the Existence of Miracles

- In this paper I will look at David Hume’s (1711-1776) discussion from the An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, Section X, Of Miracles regarding whether it is a reasonable assumption to believe in the existence of miracles. I will first discuss why the existence of miracles matters and how miracles relate to our understanding of the laws of nature. Secondly, I will look at how Hume argues that it is never reasonable to believe in miracles. I will then provide objections to this argument which I feel support the idea that belief is not only reasonable but a necessary condition for a faithful life....   [tags: phylosphical analysis]

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Hume's and Anscombe's View on Causation

- In this paper I discuss both Hume’s and Anscombe’s view on causation. I begin with Hume and his regularity theory; then I move onto Anscombe where I provide a rebuttal of Hume’s regularity theory, and later I explain how Hume would respond to Anscombe’s objection to Hume’s regularity theory. Hume’s notion of causation is his regularity theory. Hume explains his regularity theory in two ways: (1) “we may define a cause to be an object, followed by another, and where all the objects similar to the first are followed by objects similar to the second” (2) “if the first object had not been, the second never had existed.” Hume defines causation in terms of natural necessity and explains natural...   [tags: philosophical analysis]

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David Hume's Of the Standard of Taste

- David Hume’s essay “Of the Standard of Taste” addresses the problem of how objects are judged. Hume addresses three assumptions about how aesthetic value is determined. These assumptions are: all tastes are equal, some art is better than others, and aesthetic value of art is defined by a person’s taste(from lecture). However, Hume finds the three beliefs to be an “inconsistent triad”(from lecture) of assumptions. If all taste is equal but taste defines the aesthetic value, how can it be that some art is good and others bad....   [tags: Literary Analysis]

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Locke and Hume on Inequalities of Distribution

- Discuss, compare and contrast the ways in which Locke and Hume defend inequalities of distribution. Does either offer a more convincing defence. Why. This essay seeks to examine the inequalities of distribution of resources and the defences of these inequalities provided by John Locke, in Of Property , and David Hume in Of Justice . Both writings set out the scene in which their theories would evolve. Locke starts with the idea that everything is held in common, and ownership is acquired through ones labour....   [tags: equality, social justice]

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Contrasting Kand and Hume on Morality

- ... Kantian ethics would say that we have a duty to act morally good, but where does duty come from. Kant argues that only acts performed out of duty have moral worth, where a sort of special esteem comes from these acts. This duty often goes against a person's desires, but it still comes from within ourselves to want to uphold moral order, where rational incentives matter more than their opposing desires. Hume on the other hand notes that since moral decisions affect actions, while decisions of reason do not, morality must not be based on reason....   [tags: ethics, philosophical studies and discussion]

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Of the Standard of Taste by David Hume

- David Hume’s essay, "Of The Standard of Taste," is one of the most revered of the copious works on what is referred to as aesthetics. Although, he is better known for his other works, such as, "A treatise of human Nature," "An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding," and "An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals," all in which he shows how limited a role reason has in the lives of humans. This subjective view is also present in "Of The Standard of Taste": aesthetic judgments are based on personal feeling more than they are on reason....   [tags: principles of morals, aesthetic judgement]

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Hume's Ideas on Cause and Effect

- Hume and Cause and Effect Cause and effect is a tool used to link happenings together and create some sort of explanation. Hume lists the “three principles of connexion among ideas” to show the different ways ideas can be associated with one another (14). The principles are resemblance, contiguity, and cause and effect. The focus of much of An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding falls upon the third listed principle. In Section I, Hume emphasizes the need to uncover the truths about the human mind, even though the process may be strenuous and fatiguing....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume's Theory of Ethics

- David Hume is considered to be one of the big three British empiricists, along with Hobbes and Locke, and lived near the end of the Enlightenment. The Catholic Church was losing its control over science, politics and philosophy and the Aristotelian world view was being swallowed up by a more mechanistic viewpoint. Galileo found the theory provided by Copernicus to be correct, that our earth was not the center of everything, but the celestial bodies including the earth circled the sun. Mathematicians abounded....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Cause and Effect According to Hume

- Hume starts to have skeptical doubts about the operations of understanding. He says there are two types of human understanding (only one of them concerns his inquiry into what we know to be true or certain). Hume says that all of the faculties of human reasoning are divided into two kinds; relations of ideas and matters of fact. Relations of Ideas are knowledge that is found of the sciences or mathematics. They are required without experience and can be proved without experience, for example, the Pythagorean Theorem....   [tags: philosophical analysis]

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Quest on the Mind: David Hume

- David Hume, the insightful philosophical wonderer who asks the questions about ourselves the limitations we are bound to, and what truly makes human beings what we are. In specific Hume is trying to persuade us into the understanding of matters of fact, in which we base our lives upon and form habits towards certain things and how we grow accustom to other things surrounding us. After all, we do not know how things are going to turn out to be, we can only assume from previous experiences we have had, that things will turn out the same as they did in past through cause and effect and in Hume’s words custom and habit....   [tags: insightful philosophical wonderer]

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Thomas Hume's Views on Miracles

- There are different types of miracles and they exist to those who have a reason to believe in them. Thomas Hume believes that miracles are not real. He says that there is a reasonable explanation behind all “miracles” and a logical way to explain them. Survivors of almost unimaginable circumstances on the contrary equate their very survival to some sort of phenomenon or miracle. On one hand there is a philosopher with rational knowledge on why miracles do not exist, but then on the other hand there are survivors who link their endurance of a life and death situation on a miracle of some sorts....   [tags: phylosophy vs religious beliefs]

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David Hume: Vices and Virtues

- Hume: Vices and Virtues Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems such as those regarding existence, reality, knowledge, values, the human mind and language. “I think, therefore I am” is a famous quotation that attempts to define this study very simply, and the philosopher quoted was Rene Descartes, a 17th century Frenchman who is widely regarded as the Father of Modern Philosophy. David Hume was an 18th century Scotsman who is considered by many to be the most important philosopher ever to write in English....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Hume 's Theory Of Induction

- ... After the third time, they think it is strangely connected in some way. By the multiple times after that, that person expects the same thing to happen again, and every single time after that. That is what Hume describes as cause and effect. The example he uses is the game of billiards. When one ball moves and touches another, we expect that second ball to move as well. That is a simple situation that people think of as a fact because they have seen it happen so many times. According to Hume, that is a form of moral reasoning, which is based off of matters of facts because watching the same chain of events happen multiple times was our rexperience with the scenario....   [tags: Logic, Reasoning, Psychology, Thought]

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Hume And John Stuart Mill

- ... For instance, moral rights. People have a preconceived notion that some laws are unjust. As a result, movements are formed in attempt to change the law(s), like that of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. who fought against segregation laws. At that point in time some people believed that segregation laws were perfectly fine and just, but many did not feel as if they were and went against them. Although appearing as completely unjust in the eyes of others, it was morally right for these civil rights leaders to fight for equality....   [tags: Morality, Ethics, Aesthetics, Moral]

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David Hume's Of the Standard of Taste

- Introduction Aesthetics is, to put it simply, the study of art, beauty, and judgments thereof. As society tends to not view art as a functional endeavour, this branch of study may seem pointless; in fact a well-known aesthete and self-proclaimed Professor of Aesthetics, Oscar Wilde, stated “All art is quite useless.” However, this sentence is misleading, and the same man also said "Aestheticism is a search after the signs of the beautiful. It is the science of the beautiful through which men seek the correlation of the arts....   [tags: aesthetics, subjectivism, perspective]

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The Bundle Theory by David Hume

- The mystery of consciousness has puzzled humans for thousands of years. We feel pain, hunger, and countless other perceived emotions that we know to be true. We are all aware that we are conscious; however, nobody has discovered whether or not the human body is organized in a specific way that leads to consciousness. The fact is that the existence of consciousness, the very essence of knowledge, is undeniable, regardless of the lack of a concrete systematic organization of facts to explain it....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume and Justice

- David Hume is considered a reputable and influential philosopher whose empirical approach provided a basis for a number of moral principles. Although the complexity of Hume’s expressive nature and intellectual thought is somewhat mindboggling to most readers, the importance of the account of justice can be seen as significant and of relevance to many values and morals in even today’s society. Hume’s discussion of moral virtues in his book An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals addresses the importance of justice in terms that relate to its sole foundation and further exemplification of moral distinctions....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Philosophy of David Hume

- "The human brain starts working the moment you are born and never stops until you stand up to speak in public." –( George Jessel ). One can say or try and dissect the brain and try to figure what’s going on inside of it and that’s what Philosophers today try to accomplish, but a question can be raised from this. Why is that why must the brain be dissected. This question is raised for the simple fact that Philosophers really want to know what’s going on the human brain. This can also go back to “knowing” and believing in something that can be proven as a fact....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume And The Middle Of A Philosophic Dialogue

- ... He defines an impression as type of perception which involves actual experience i.e. hearing, seeing, or feeling. Thirdly he defines an idea as another form of perception of the mind which involves thinking of something instead of actually (first hand) experiencing it. From these definitions he argues that: (1) All ideas are derived from impressions and impressions only. (2) The idea of a “self” or “self-identity” must arise from impressions because all ideas definitionally must. (3) There is no impression that exists as a persisting thing....   [tags: Mind, Perception, Consciousness, John Locke]

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David Hume's Argument on Passion and Morality

- Why is incest deplorable amongst humans, but not for dogs. What makes it acceptable for a man to kill a deer, but wrong if he kills another man. Why do these lines get drawn between humans and animals. David Hume has an answer to these questions. Though many philosophers, like Saint Augustine, argue that humans are morally different from animals because of their capability to reason, Hume states that it is passion and sentiment that determines morality. In his book, Treatise with Human Nature, Hume claims that vice and virtue stems from the pleasure or pain we, mankind, feel in response to an action not from the facts that we observe (Hume, 218)....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Aristotle And Hume 's Views On Morality

- ... Children cannot be considered virtuous to Aristotle because to be virtuous, one must be aware of their qualities and good habits. Virtue to Aristotle is partly intellectual and partly moral, meaning that some virtuous traits are taught to us and some are learned through experience. To be considered good, one must simply do the right thing, but really, doing the right thing is not that simple, it’s nearly impossible. In better words, Aristotle states “to experience these emotions at the right times and on the right occasions and towards the right persons and for the right causes and in the right manner is the mean or supreme good, which is characteristic of virtue” ....   [tags: Ethics, Virtue, Morality, Human]

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David Hume´s Philosophy

- Hume’s Epistemology David Hume was a Scottish philosopher known for his ideas of skepticism and empiricism. Hume strived to better develop John Locke’s idea of empiricism by using a scientific study of our own human nature. We cannot lean on common sense to exemplify human conduct without offering any clarification to the subject. In other words, Hume says that since human beings do, as a matter of fact, live and function in this world, observation of how humans do so is imminent. The primary goal of philosophy is simply to explain and justify the reasoning of why we believe what we do....   [tags: Ideas,Impressions]

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Theory of Self: Kant vs Hume

- The concept of the ‘self’ is regarded as an “entity which persists through time and change” (Grayling, pg. 540), in spite of other variations, albeit unnecessary ones, that occur in a person. Ones self is alleged to be the backbone of “thinking, perceiving, memory, and the like – the ultimate ‘bearers’ of our psychological properties.” (Grayling, pg. 540) The idea of ‘self’ is a topic of important philosophical debate, and one which Kant and Hume dexterously engage themselves in. This essay will begin by outlining Hume’s philosophical approach and his theory of self....   [tags: Compare, Contrast, Comparison]

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Agreeing With David Hume's Theory on Miracles

- I will argue that Hume's argument is plausible in explaining why it is highly improbable for a miracle to occur because no testimony given by a person can establish a miracle, as it would require an explanation that overrules the laws of nature, which is highly unlikely. I agree with Hume's argument, and believe that it is correct; however, there are some objections I have in regards to some of his points. The central claim that Hume is trying to make is that no testimony given by a person can establish a miracle....   [tags: philosophy, beliefs, miracle]

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David Hume 's Theory Of Induction

- Problem of Induction In this paper, I will discuss Hume’s “problem of induction,” his solution to the problem, and whether or not his solution to the problem is correct. In David Hume 's 'An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding ', Hume states that no actual proof exists to suggest that future occurrences will happen the way previous occurrences did. His solution to this “problem of induction” is that our beliefs about cause and effect are based out of pure habit of thought that we have become accustomed to....   [tags: Inductive reasoning, Reasoning]

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Empiricism Versus Rationalism: Descartes and Hume

- Rationalism and empiricism have always been on opposite sides of the philosophic spectrum, Rene Descartes and David Hume are the best representative of each school of thought. Descartes’ rationalism posits that deduction, reason and thus innate ideas are the only way to get to true knowledge. Empiricism on the other hand, posits that by induction, and sense perception, we may find that there are in fact no innate ideas, but that truths must be carefully observed to be true. Unlike one of empiricism’s major tenets, Tabula Rasa, or blank slate, Descartes believed that the mind was not a blank slate, but actually came pre-loaded, if you will, with ideas, which are part of our rational nature an...   [tags: philosophy, god, science]

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Hume, Descartes, and Nietzsche's Views on Immortality

- Immortality is one of mankind’s major apprehensions, and even though it has been mainly restricted to religious customs. People have different opinions about immortality. Everybody defines immortality differently. For some people it is the survival of the astral body resembling the physical body, for others the immortality of the immaterial soul and lastly the resurrection of the body. Basic definition of immortality is the unknown continuation of a person’s existence, even after death. Immortality primarily referred to soul as it like it does not die when the human body dies, but since they both well connected together, when the body dies, soul dies too; therefore, immortality does not exis...   [tags: afterlife, moral, soul]

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The Question of Free Will: Descartes, Hume, and Nietzsche

- The power of acting without necessity and acting on one’s own discretions, free will still enamors debates today, as it did in the past with philosophers Nietzsche, Descartes, and Hume. There are two strong opposing views on the topic, one being determinism and the other “free will”. Determinism, or the belief a person lacks free will and all events including human actions are determined by forces outside the will of an individual contrasts the entire premise of free will. Rene Descartes formulates his philosophical work through deductive reasoning and follows his work with his system of reasoning....   [tags: Free Will Essays]

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Locke, Barkley And Hume, The Real World

- ... In this concept, the real world is made up of groups colorless, tasteless, soundless, odorless units of matter. According to Locke, sensations such as color, taste, sound, and odor are produced by the powers, the arrangement of matter, of primary qualities. Secondary qualities exists in the sense that objects have the ability to act on our senses and create sensations or impressions like color, smell, taste, touch, sound, and temperature. These sensations are explained to be produced because of the size, shape, texture, motion, and weight of miniature units of matter that everything is made up of....   [tags: Mind, Metaphysics, George Berkeley, Perception]

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Hume on Revolution

- Hume on Revolution David Hume offers a well conceived plan for the formation of government and its political workings. Furthermore, he grants that in special circumstances the citizens of a particular government may revolt. However, with respect to obedience and disloyalty, Hume gives no formal rules for revolution. We would like something more from Hume regarding revolution and, more specifically, what he considers justified revolution. Some authors, such as Richard H. Dees, find the basis for Hume’s account of justified revolution in his historical works....   [tags: Government Politics Papers]

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Hume on Miracles

- Hume on Miracles It is evident in David Hume's writing of "An Equity Concerning Human Understanding" that he does not believe that miracles take place. Hume is a man of logic, who believes in experience over knowledge. Of course it is hard for such a man to believe in extraordinary claims without being there to witness them. Especially when such events require a lot of faith. In order for an event to be deemed a miracle, it must disobey the laws of nature. However, it is these same laws that disprove almost any miracle that has ever been reported....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Philosophy: John Locke, David Hume

- This is a philosophical question that has been proven ultimately difficult to answer. I believe it is as a result of the complexity of the consent theory. For a theory that places high emphasis on autonomy and freedom, the most obvious basis for legitimate political authority should be some form of voluntary, self-assumed obligation. However, some philosophers such as John Locke and Charles Beitz argue that tacit consent can ground obligation to obey the state’s law while others such as Hanna Pitkin and David Hume counter this argument with the opinion that tacit consent is not sufficient to ground political obligation....   [tags: political theory essay ]

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Descartes And Hume

- There are three ways in which one is able to find truth: through reason (A is A), by utilizing the senses (paper burns) or by faith (God is all loving). As the period of the Renaissance came to a close, the popular paradigm for philosophers shifted from faith to reason and finally settling on the senses. Thinkers began to challenge authorities, including great teachers such as Aristotle and Plato, and through skepticism the modern world began. The French philosopher, René Descartes who implemented reason to find truth, as well as the British empiricist David Hume with his usage of analytic-synthetic distinction, most effectively utilized the practices of skepticism in the modern world....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical History Essays]

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Exploring the Concept of 'Self' in Modern Philosophy

- Truth of oneself makes it visible when faced with absurd events in life where all ethical issues fade away. One cannot always pinpoint to a specific trait or what the core essence they discover, but it is often described as “finding one’s self”. In religious context, the essential self would be regarded as soul. Whereas, for some there is no such concept as self that exists since they believe that humans are just animals caught in the mechanistic world. However, modern philosophy sheds a positive light and tries to prove the existence of a self....   [tags: Descartes, Hume]

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Kant and Causal Law in Pure Reason

- Kant, and Causal Law Introduction In the critique of pure reason, Kant states, “All alternations occur in accordance with the law of the connection of cause and effect.”1 This statement is interpreted in two different ways: weak readings and strong readings. Weaker readings basically suggest that Kant's statement only refers to “All events have a cause”; however, the strong readings suggest that “the Second Analogy is committed not just to causes, but to causal laws as well.”2 To understand the difference between the readings, it is helpful to notice Kant's distinction between empirical laws of nature and universal transcendental principles....   [tags: Philosophy, Hume]

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Argument of the Hume's Response to the Missing Shade of Blue

- In this essay, I will argue that Hume’s response to the “missing shade of blue” example is satisfactory. Firstly, I shall explain Hume’s account of the relationship between impressions and ideas and the copy principle. I shall then examine the “missing shade of blue” and its relation to this account. I shall then explore Hume’s response to his own counter-example and evaluate his position by considering possible objections and responses to his view. I shall then show why Hume’s response to the “missing shade of blue” example is satisfactory....   [tags: atomism, non-genetic thesis,copy principle]

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Arguments against Philosophical Skepticism

- ‘Skepticism’ refers the theory that we do not possess any knowledge; skepticism denies any existence of justified belief. This paper discusses the varieties of philosophical skepticism and explains the various skeptical arguments and responses to philosophical skepticism, along with both Hume, and Descartes take on skepticism. This paper will also describe the various arguments against skepticism along with their justification. While the arguments for skepticism and its various forms seem valid and theoretically proven to be justified, my stance is against skepticism....   [tags: Hume, Descartes]

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An Analysis of David Hume's Affirmation

- David Hume makes a strong affirmation in section IV of an Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Hume states, "I shall venture to affirm as a general proposition, which admits of no exception, that the knowledge of this relation is not, in any instance attained by reasonings a priori; but entirely from experience." In this statement, when discussing "knowledge of this relation," Hume is referring to the relation between cause and effect. This argument can easily be dismissed as skeptical, for it puts all knowledge of this sort in doubt....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Critique of Hume's Analysis of Causality

- Critique of Hume's Analysis of Causality Hume's analyses of human apprehension and of causality were the most penetrating up to his time and continue to have great influence. Contemporary Spanish philosopher Xavier Zubiri (1893-1983) has examined both and identified three underlying errors: (1) the failure to recognize that there are three stages of human intellection, and especially that the first, primordial apprehension, has quite unique characteristics; (2) the attempt to place an excessive burden on the content of impressions while ignoring what Zubiri terms their 'formality of reality'; and (3) the failure to recognize that functionality, not causality, is the basis for most of our kn...   [tags: Philosophy Papers]

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Descartes and Hume: A Look at Skepticism and Finding Stability

- René Descartes was a skeptic, and thus he believed that in order for something to be considered a true piece of knowledge, that “knowledge must have a certain stability,” (Cottingham 21). In his work, Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes concludes that in order to achieve this stability, he must start at the foundations for all of his opinions and find the basis of doubt in each of them. David Hume, however, holds a different position on skepticism in his work An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding, for he criticizes Descartes’ claim because “‘it is impossible,’” (qtd....   [tags: Philosophy]

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Inconsistencies in Hume's Empirical Thought

- Inconsistencies in Hume's Empirical Thought   In his Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, David Hume attempts to uncover the ultimate truth about where our knowledge comes from.  This leads him to suggest that all our ideas and knowledge arise from outward experiences and sensations.  He attempts to prove this by solving the "problem of induction."  I disagree with Hume's ideas, and in this essay I will explain why.  I shall begin by explaining the problem of induction, and the sceptical doubts Hume raises concerning the inductive process.  I will then explain how Hume solves the problem.  Finally, I will conclude by offering a critique of Hume's doctrine, and explain why I find it to...   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]

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David Hume's Argument Against Belief in the Existence of Miracles

- David Hume was a British empiricist, meaning he believed all knowledge comes through the senses. He argued against the existence of innate ideas, stating that humans have knowledge only of things which they directly experience. These claims have a major impact on his argument against the existence of miracles, and in this essay I will explain and critically evaluate this argument. In his discussion 'Of Miracles' in Section X of An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding, Hume defines a miracle as “a violation of the laws of nature and as a firm and unalterable experience has established these laws”1....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume's Distinction Between Natural and Artificial Virtues

- In David Hume’s A Treatise of Human Nature, he divides the virtues of human beings into two types: natural and artificial. He argues that laws are artificial and a human invention. Therefore, he makes the point that justice is an artificial virtue instead of a natural virtue. He believed that human beings are moral by nature – they were born with some sense of morality and that in order to understand our “moral conceptions,” studying human psychology is the key (Moehler). In this paper, I will argue for Hume’s distinction between the natural and artificial virtues....   [tags: A Treatise of Human Nature]

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David Hume 's Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding

- Everyone will easily agree that there is a noticeable difference between the perceptions of the mind. David Hume recognises these differences and divides the mental contents into two classes, which are ideas, and impressions. Hume has provided arguments in order to support his claim of the ‘Copy Principle’, which state that ideas are copies of impressions, and every idea is derived from an impression. He proposes this principle, in an attempt to explain how we form the beliefs about the world. While his claim is wildly accepted by many philosophers, there are still problems to his principle which Hume ignored as something insufficient....   [tags: Mind, Thought, Logic, Philosophy]

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Enquiries Concerning Human Understanding by David Hume

- The way in which a concept comes to exist in one’s mind is itself a concept worth examining. Many philosophers have looked for the origin of thought in the human mind, and many different reasons for this origin have been put forth. As a philosopher, it is only fitting that Hume would propose his own framework for human thinking. For Hume, perceptions are developed either as the understanding of the outside world, or as recollections of these events or alterations of these memories within the mind¹....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism, 2015]

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Hume 's Metaphysical Reasoning Of All Kinds

- ... According to Hume, inquiry into relations of ideas is a priori and deductive. Relations of ideas arise from general truths that result in more general truths or particular truths where experience is not a prerequisite; they are true in virtue of the idea. For this reason, Hume believes it is not knowledge of anything external. Still, it is the only kind of available “knowledge”; however, it amounts to no new knowledge. The only kind that can yield empirical knowledge is matters of fact. Hume believes that inquiry into matters of fact is a posteriori and inductive....   [tags: Scientific method, Science, Empiricism, Logic]

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The Effect of Rene Descartes and David Hume on the Philosophical World

- Rene Descartes and David Hume both have had a profound effect on the philosophical world. Both these philosophers are associated explicitly with two separate schools of philosophy which are Rationalism and Empiricism. It is this division between Rationalism and Empiricism that allows for Descartes and Hume to present differing accounts of the mind and mentality. Descartes is widely recognized as the father of modern philosophy, he is a rationalist, who considers knowledge of the metaphysical as existing separate from physical reality believing that truth cannot be acquired through the senses but through the intellect in the form of deductive reasoning....   [tags: rationalism, empirism]

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Hume and the Ethics of Virtue

- I argue that Hume's ethics can be characterized as a virtue ethics, by which I mean a view according to which character has priority over action and the principles governing action: virtuous character guides and constrains practical deliberation. In a traditional utilitarian or Kantian ethics, character is subordinate to practical deliberation: virtue is needed only to motivate virtuous action. I begin by outlining this approach in Aristotle's ethics, then draw relevant parallels to Hume. I argue that virtuous character in Aristotle is understood in terms of "self-love." A true self-lover enjoys most the exercise of the characteristic human powers of judging, choosing, deciding and deliberat...   [tags: Character Morals Aristotle Papers]

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David Hume 's Principles Of Uniformity Of Nature

- Scottish philosopher David Hume is amongst one of the most influential empirical philosophers to date for his work in epistemology, metaphysics, and philosophy of religion. As an Empiricist Hume claimed that the only way we can obtain knowledge is through our senses however he argues true knowledge is unattainable for all intent and purpose, due to the problem of induction.By briefly examining Hume 's problem of induction and it 's dependancy to of the so called principles of Uniformity of Nature we could come to a conclusion that Hume 's is correct....   [tags: Logic, Inductive reasoning, Scientific method]

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Analysis of Suicide by David Hume

- Analysis of Of Suicide by David Hume "I believe that no man ever threw away life, while it was worth keeping." In David Hume's essay "Of Suicide," the philosophical argument of justified suicide is pursued. However, the underlying argument focuses on the injustification of the government and society condemning and forbidding such an action and the creation of superstitions and falsehoods of religion and God. Hume argues that the last phases that a person goes through before taking his life is those of "disorder, weakness, insensibility, and stupidity," and that those traits, when obvious to the mind, doom him to a death by his own decision....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Of Miracles by David Hume

- "Of Miracles" by David Hume In David Hume?s paper ?Of Miracles,. Hume presents a various number of arguments concerning why people ought not to believe in any miracles. Hume does not think that miracles do not exist it is just that we should not believe in them because they have no rational background. One of his arguments is just by definition miracles are unbelievable. And have no rational means in believing miracles. Another argument is that most miracles tend to come from uncivilized countries and the witnesses typically have conflicts of interest and counterdict each others experiences....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume and His Thoughts

- David Hume and His Thoughts Hume begins his argument by observing that there is “a great variety of taste, as well as of opinions, which prevails the world.” This diversity is found among people of the same background and culture within the same group and is even more pronounced among “distance nations and remote ages.” A “standard of taste” would provide a definite way to reconcile this diversity. By taste, Hume refers to impressions or emotional responses associated with beauty and ugliness....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Views of Hume and Leibniz on Evil

- Problem of Evil Evil is in the eyes of the beholder, if you are a Theist you believe that evil is wrong and God is all powerful and is able to rid the world of its evil. Though he does not because he gives us the free will to decide whether or not follows the ways of evil. If you view evil as the way David Hume views evil then you believe that since there is evil in the world by evidence then there must not be a God otherwise he would rid the world of the evil and not make people suffer and since he does not then there is no God....   [tags: Philosophy]

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David Hume's Theory of Knowledge

- Knowledge is gained only through experience, and experiences only exist in the mind as individual units of thought. This theory of knowledge belonged to David Hume, a Scottish philosopher. Hume was born on April 26, 1711, as his family’s second son. His father died when he was an infant and left his mother to care for him, his older brother, and his sister. David Hume passed through ordinary classes with great success, and found an early love for literature. He lived on his family’s estate, Ninewells, near Edinburgh....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume and Karl Marx’s Critiques of Religion

- Where does religion come from. Many have tried to answer this question, only leaving us with more questions than answers. This essay will focus on two philosophers David Hume and Karl Marx both has strong critiques on the existence of God. Both going against the design argument, the design argument is the argument for the existence of God or single creator; however, with Hume’s empiricist and Marx's atheist they both attack the design argument in different ways, ultimately coming to the same conclusion and that is there is no God....   [tags: religion]

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David Hume and Future Occurrences

- Hume asked, "what reason do we have in thinking the future will resemble the past?" It is reasonable to think that it will because there is no contradiction in supposing the future won't resemble the past. But it is also true that is possible for the world to change dramatically and our previous experience would be completely useless in judging future experience. We want to say that past experiences have been a good predictor. We are compelled to do so and it is almost as if we can't help ourselves....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume on Sentiments and Reason

- In Appendix I., Concerning Moral Sentiment, David Hume looks to find a place in morality for reason, and sentiment. Through, five principles he ultimately concludes that reason has no place within the concept of morality, but rather is something that can only assist sentiment in matters concerning morality. And while reason can be true or false, those truths or falsities apply to facts, not to morality. He then argues morals are the direct result of sentiment, or the inner feeling within a human being....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Pragmatism, Empiricism and David Hume

- Pragmatism, Empiricism and David Hume Pragmatism is based on the philosophy that ideas must be tested and re-tested, that experiences dictate reality. Pragmatists also believe in no absolute truths or values existing. David Hume argues that, “no proof can be derived from any fact, of which we are so intimately conscious; nor is there anything of which we can be certain, if we doubt this” (Treatise 2645). Hume’s empiricist ideals were roots to early pragmatic thought, by way of the theory that, in our reality, nothing is certain and everything that can be sensed must be constantly qualified to find a place in reality....   [tags: essays research papers]

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David Hume on Miracles

- Hume’s empiricist ideology clearly informed his position on the topic of miracles. In the following, I will examine Hume’s take on empiricism. From this it will be possible to deduce how Hume’s empiricism played a prominent role in influencing his belief on miracles. First, what were the principles of Hume’s empiricism. Hume claims that everyone is born with a blank slate (tabula rasa). The tabula rasa receives impressions which are products of immediate experience. For example, the color of the computer screen I am looking at represents an impression....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Ideas of Descartes, Plato, and Hume

- Ideas of Descartes, Plato, and Hume The immediate starting-point of Plato's philosophical speculation was the Socratic teaching. In his attempt to define the conditions of knowledge so as to refute sophistic skepticism, Socrates had taught that the only true knowledge is a knowledge by means of concepts. The concept, he said, represents all the reality of a thing. As used by Socrates, this was merely a principle of knowledge. Plato took it up as a principle of Being. “If the concept represents all the reality of things, the reality must be something in the ideal order, not necessarily in the things themselves, but rather above them, in a world by itself” (Chaput, C....   [tags: Papers]

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A Defense of David Hume's Moral Sense Theory

- In this paper I will defend David Hume’s Moral Sense Theory, which states that like sight and hearing, morals are a perceptive sense derived from our emotional responses. Since morals are derived from our emotional responses rather than reason, morals are not objective. Moreover, the emotional basis of morality is empirically proven in recent studies in psychology, areas in the brain associated with emotion are the most active while making a moral judgment. My argument will be in two parts, first that morals are response-dependent, meaning that while reason is still a contributing factor to our moral judgments, they are produced primarily by our emotional responses, and finally that each ind...   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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A Treatise of Human Nature: David Hume´s Philosophy

- It seems most appropriate, before having any mention of Hume’s philosophy, to briefly enunciate the concept of empiricism. Prior to Immanuel Kant’s solicitation of Transcendental Idealism, the schools of epistemological thought were divided into rationalism and the aforementioned empiricism. The former is the belief that knowledge is innate, and that logic and reason are the chief methods of acquiring that knowledge. Conversely, empiricists believe that knowledge is sensory, or experience, based; in essence, that human beings are tabula rasa....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume's Theory of Causality

- What Came First: The Chicken or the Egg. David Hume moves through a logical progression of the ideas behind cause and effect. He critically analyzes the reasons behind those generally accepted ideas. Though the relation of cause and effect seems to be completely logical and based on common sense, he discusses our impressions and ideas and why they are believed. Hume’s progression, starting with his initial definition of cause, to his final conclusion in his doctrine on causality. As a result, it proves how Hume’s argument on causality follows the same path as his epistemology, with the two ideas complimenting each other so that it is rationally impossible to accept the epistemology and not...   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume's Theory of Knowledge

- Empiricism (en- peiran; to try something for yourself): The doctrine that all knowledge must come through the senses; there are no innate ideas born within us that only require to be remembered (ie, Plato). All knowledge is reducible to sensation, that is, our concepts are only sense images. In short, there is no knowledge other than that obtained by sense observation. Remember that according to Descartes, what I know first and foremost are my ideas. It is only later that he seeks to know if the extramental world exists, and so he begins with his ideas and then moves towards real being (rather than vice versa)....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume's Mind Game

- Hume's Mind Game The human mind is a very intricate machine. There have been many people that have attempted, and failed, to explain how the human mind operates. After reading Hume, I was in agreement with a lot of what he was explaining. Hume, in my mind, has come the closest to uncovering the minds operations. Robert Hume dealt with a lot of what Decarte talked about in his writings. The difference between Decarte and Hume is that Hume "ironed out" a lot of the "wrinkles" that Decarte left behind....   [tags: essays research papers]

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David Hume: On Miracles

- In explaining Hume’s critique of the belief in miracles, we must first understand the definition of a miracle. The Webster Dictionary defines a miracle as: a supernatural event regarded as to define action, one of the acts worked by Christ which revealed his divinity an extremely remarkable achievement or event, an unexpected piece of luck. Therefore, a miracle is based on one’s perception of past experiences, what everyone sees. It is based on an individuals own reality, and the faith in which he/she believes in, it is based on interior events such as what we are taught, and exterior events, such as what we hear or see first hand....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume and Future Occurrences

- David Hume, in An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding, discusses how we cannot predict the future. Even though our experiences and our reasoning tell us that objects act in a predictable way, we still cannot prove how objects will act in the future based upon previous interactions. After biting into a piece of pizza we expect an enjoyable taste. This enjoyable taste is expected because our past experiences have proven this to us. Even though we think we can predict that the pizza will act the same as our previous experiences, it may just blow up upon biting....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Analysis of Suicide by David Hume

- Hume on Suicide ONE considerable advantage that arises from Philosophy, consists in the sovereign antidote which it affords to superstition and false religion. All other remedies against that pestilent distemper are vain, or at least uncertain. Plain good sense and the practice of the world, which alone serve most purposes of life, are here found ineffectual: History as well as daily experience furnish instances of men endowed with the {2} strongest capacity for business and affairs, who have all their lives crouched under slavery to the grossest superstition....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Causality, Hume, and Quantum Mechanics

- Causality, Hume, and Quantum Mechanics It is my intention, in the course of this essay, to take the work of David Hume and reapply it to causality using quantum mechanical theory. When I refer to causality, I am referring to the belief that events have a relationship of action "A" causing action "B" where "A" is considered to be the final cause of "B." I also refer to the belief that we can know and understand these causal relationships and thusly know how the system works. This is a concept that I do not agree with....   [tags: Philosophy essays]

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Comparing Locke and Hume

- Comparing Locke and Hume If we are to understand the difference between Locke and Hume’s account of how ideas work, we must forth set the pertinent terms of each of their arguments. The two essential terms in Locke’s discussion of how ideas work are idea and object. Locke defines an idea as "whatsoever is the object of the understanding when a man thinks" (Cahn, 494). Locke has "used [idea] to express whatever is meant by phantasm, notion, species, or whatever it is that the mind can be employed about in thinking" (Cahn, 494-495)....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]

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