Your search returned over 400 essays for "HIV"
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Prevention Of Hiv Transmittance To Babies

- Prevention of HIV Transmittance to Babies Last year, it was cause for celebration. The cause of celebration was for the results that several clinical trials of zidovudine cut the risk for mother to child transmission of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) by two thirds. Although, this year, it is the basis for new federal recommendations that all pregnant women should receive HIV testing and counseling. But, these findings have been cause of protests by several activist groups. Activists fear that conservative legislators and policy makers will use the clinical data to justify mandatory testing and treatment for pregnant women....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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Stigmatization and Discrimination: Living with HIV/AIDS in Canada

- According to the Public Health Agency of Canada HIV – the Human Immunodeficiency Virus - is a virus that attacks the immune system, resulting in a chronic, progressive illness that leaves people vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers. (Canada 2008) Essentially over time, when your body can no longer battle the virus it progresses into a disease know as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or AIDS. The transmition of HIV occurs when a person’s contaminated body fluids enter another individual....   [tags: Canada]

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Socioeconomic Impacts of HIV on Kenyan Health Care

- Socioeconomic Impacts of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) on the Kenyan Health Care Human Physiology (NSC2205) Submitted on April 1st, 2014 to Dr. Apollo Maima Table of Contents Introduction 2 What is HIV? 2 Signs and Symptoms of HIV/AIDS 2-3 Health Impacts of HIV 3 Impacts of HIV/AIDS Social 3-4 Economic – Individual 5 Economic – Health Care 5-6 Recommendations 6-7 Conclusion 7 References 7-8 Introduction What is HIV. HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), which is a lentivirus virus that attacks the immune system of the human causing the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)....   [tags: African issues, health impacts]

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The Stigma of HIV/ AIDS

- From the moment scientists identified HIV and AIDS, social responses of fear, denial, stigma and discrimination have accompanied the epidemic. Discrimination has spread rapidly, fuelling anxiety and prejudice against the groups most affected, as well as those living with HIV or AIDS. It goes without saying that HIV and AIDS are as much about social phenomena as they are about biological and medical concerns. Across the world the global epidemic of HIV/AIDS has shown itself capable of triggering responses of compassion, solidarity and support, bringing out the best in people, their families and communities....   [tags: Disease Aids Stigma Essays]

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The Silent Killer of African Americans: The Epidemic of HIV/AIDS

- The epidemic of HIV/AIDS has been a repeat offender in the deaths of many people worldwide, African Americans, specifically, have been disproportionately impacted by this virus since it was first discovered in the early 1980s. Despite African Americans only being accountable for a small portion of the total U.S. population, they are the ethnic group most greatly affected by this virus. The HIV and AIDS epidemic does not simply target African American males, but over the years has grown to greatly affect black women, gay and bisexual men and the youth as well....   [tags: victims, poor, virus]

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Children in African American Community at risk of the HIV/

- Children in African American Community at risk of the HIV/AIDS Many African Americans are at high risk of the HIV infection and many of them are unaware or have a lack of access to care, education and prevention services. With African American’s making up fourteen percent of the population, they make up almost half of all people infected with HIV. According to, Exploring the Social and Community Context of African American Adolescents’ HIV Vulnerability (2013), African American communities bear the burden of disproportionately high rates of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) nationwide....   [tags: Healthcare, Prevention, Community]

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Future Solutions to HIV AIDS

- Introduction to HIV What is HIV. First Things First: What is HIV. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the most evasive viruses that the medical world has to experience. We use the word evasive because HIV targets the CD4 cells (T-helper cells), which are the exact cells that are used to protect your body against diseases. Once HIV enters the body, it will infect the CD4 cells and begin to use those cells as its own “HIV factory.” HIV will therefore begin to destroy your immune system leaving you susceptible to opportunistic diseases....   [tags: Biology Disease]

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All About HIV and AIDS

- AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome); HIV is the etiological agent of AIDS leaving the body vulnerable to a variety of life threatening diseases (8). Transmission: AIDS is transmitted from the HIV virus through blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk to others from infected host (1). The virus can be spread through sexual contact by oral, vaginal, or anal sex; receiving a blood transfusion, injection involving needles, artificial insemination and organ transplants from an infected donor....   [tags: The AIDS Epidemic 2015]

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The Rising of HIV/AIDS in the United States Population

- In 1991, the world learned that one of the most iconic players in the history of basketball had tested positive for HIV (Johnson). Earvin “Magic” Johnson stood with his wife by his side and announced to the world that he had contracted this disease as a result of having unprotected sex. Johnson stated that he contracted disease from having unprotected sex and because of this, he now has to live with a disease that has changed his entire life (Johnson). During this time, many people were uneducated about the disease and some were afraid to be in contact with anyone carrying the virus....   [tags: Unprotected Sex, Sharing Needles]

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Hiv: The Search For A Vaccine

- In 1985, over 10,000 cases of AIDS were reported worldwide (White and Fenner 1986). Just over a decade later, in 1998, the Global AIDS Policy Coalition estimated that 30.6 million people were infected with HIV worldwide. It has also been projected that by the year 2000, between 40 and 70 million adults will be infected with HIV (New Generation Vaccines 1997). Over 90% of all HIV-1 infected individuals live in developing nations: 50% in Southeast Asia and 40% in sub-Saharan Africa. However, even with all of these alarming statistics and projections, there is hope for the future of humanity....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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Controlling the Spread HIV and AIDS of Sexually Active People

- HIV is a well-known sexually transmitted disease that should be taken seriously when it comes to a sexually active person. Sex is natural parts of life so take steps to make sure you and your partner are safe. The first step for a sexually active person that would like to protect him or herself from obtaining HIV or AIDS disease is to learn about the disease in more detail. Knowing how the disease is spread and the symptoms could result in saving their life or others. The virus concentrates in blood and seminal fluid, although it is present in the vaginal secretions, and the most confident way to ensure you don’t come into contact with the HIV disease is to refrain from sexual inte...   [tags: sexual, parenteral, perinatal]

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Should People Adopt Foreign Children with HIV?

- When contemplating adoption, families begin to ask themselves a great deal of questions. Determining options including gender and age can generate a great impact on your adoption decision. A primary component of the adoption choice is whether you are adopting domestically or internationally. When families look into international adoption multiple risks begin popping into your mind. Will I ruin the child by taking them away from their home country. Is it too expensive to adopt internationally. Is my orphan child HIV positive....   [tags: adoption, families, gender, age]

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HIV and AIDS: Public Safety vs. Civil Liberties

- When a nation is faced with a deadly epidemic does the country have the right to suspend individual’s rights in order to better protect the welfare of the community. This debate has emerged across the U.S.; many have implemented quarantines with regards to h1n1 virus and other contagious, potentially deadly diseases. This includes but is not limited to isolating individuals infected, closing schools, and shutting down public transportation systems. Others are considering enacting new and controversial rules....   [tags: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, STDs]

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HIV and Its Coreceptors Outline

- What is HIV. The Human Immune System * In order to understand HIV, one must understand the human immune system. The first line of defense is a person’s skin, mucous membranes, and other secretions which prevent pathogens from ever entering your body. Pathogens are considered things your body does not want, for example bacteria and viruses. * The second line of defense includes nonspecific mechanisms which attempt to contain the spread of pathogens throughout one’s body. The second line of defense relies heavily on the use of white blood cells, which ingest invading organisms....   [tags: Biology AIDS]

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The Negative Impact of HIV and AIDS in Malawi and in My Life

- INTRODUCTION Since the first case of HIV infection in Malawi was reported in 1985, (Malawi Government, 2012. 2) approximately 1,100,000 people in Malawi are now living with HIV and AIDS, (UNAIDS. 2013). Malawi is already a country in the throws of socio-economic and developmental challenges. The increase of the number of people infected with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a world-wide problem and Malawi is experiencing this problem in pandemic proportions....   [tags: personal reflections]

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HIV and HCV Prevalence Among the Severely Mentally Ill

- Introduction Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) account for approximately 5-10% of the population in the United States (Newcomer & Hennekens 2007). Decisive factors for severe mental illness include the presence of a major mental illness, chronicity and universal impairment of function. Such elements are most often present in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression, which together represent the majority of severe mental illness diagnoses (Campos et al 2008). Individuals with SMI are likely to be overrepresented in infectious categories such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)....   [tags: Mental Health]

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Early Understanding of HIV and Syphilis

- In the last few weeks of class we have looked at several different cases of disease outbreaks throughout the world, and how different cultures have diverse understandings of these outbreaks. Of the sicknesses we have studied, I feel that the HIV and Syphilis outbreaks stand apart from the others because of their massive infections in many different cultures and parts of the world, and also due to the fact that the diseases cannot be cured, along with the unfortunately high rate of death among its victims....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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Using Hiv / Aids As An Example Of Public Health Surveillance

- 1. Using HIV/AIDS as an example to discuss why public health authorities need to conduct public health surveillance and to describe how surveillance system is managed in Australia (9 marks) (up to 800 words) The term public health surveillance has been defined as ‘the continuous, systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of health-related data needed for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practice’ (WHO, 2016). Consequently, the fundamental goal of public health surveillance is to collect information as to prevent, control and take action in relation to all forms of diseases, including HIVAIDS....   [tags: Epidemiology, Public health, AIDS]

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Life Expectancy in South Africa and HIV/AIDS

- Life expectancy is the average period that a person may expect to live. This is directly related to mortality which is the amount of deaths in a particular population during a specific period of time (OECD, 2009). According to World Health Organization the average Life expectancy in the world was 70 in 2011, varying from 80 to 60 with developed countries such as Japan at the peak with 80 whereas developing countries like Uganda and South Africa are at close to the bottom with 43 and 63 respectively (WHO, 2014)....   [tags: Virus, Sexual Transmission]

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Gender Equity Influences in HIV Infection in South Africa

- Healthcare During Apartheid Beginning in the late 1940s, black Africans living in South Africa became targeted by the government and were subjected to exploitative laws based on the color of their skin. They made up 80% of the population at the time (Scrubb). Africans were forced to relocate and live in primarily rural areas that were separate from white South Africans, called Bantustans (Scrubb). The South African government let each Bantustan take control over its own healthcare, which allowed for the government to escape responsibility for how they were run....   [tags: apartheid, bastuntas, exploitative laws]

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Testing Makes Us Stronger Campaign Against HIV

- HIV is a devastating and deadly virus that affects 1.1 million Americans annually (CDC, 2010). The hardest hit group is that of gay or bisexual black males. The “Testing Makes Us Stronger” campaign was implemented August 15, 2011 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in response to this need for awareness and prevention in the black gay and bisexual male community. From 2006-2009, the number of infected black bisexual and gay men increased by 48% (CDC.gov, 2006-2009) showing an increased need for education and prevention as well access to HIV/AIDS testing in the community in order to reduce the occurrence of HIV among black gay and bisexual males....   [tags: awareness campaign, gay, bisexuals]

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HIV/AIDS Testing: A Wake Up Call

- Thirty years ago, the AIDS, “Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome”, was not a well-known disease and infected people by that disease were not quarantined, because of lack of information about the disease. The medical scholars explained that AIDS is the culmination of the virus onset, HIV, “human immunodeficiency virus”. Currently, the infected people with complications, emaciation, diarrhea, tuberculosis, cancer, fever, vomiting, cannot meet together what ever the occasion, birthday party, first communion, wedding....   [tags: AIDS]

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HIV/AIDS: Living With the Virus and Beating the Odds

- In today’s world HIV/AIDS has become an epidemic that has not only challenged the research of our medical professionals, but also the lives of several children born with this infectious disease. In order to understand this epidemic we have to travel the path in which it was discovered. In two articles referencing the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the authors presents different challenges faced by those born with the disease. The author of “A Generation Born With HIV/AIDS Defies the Odds" by Madison Park states many children have defied the odds by attending support groups hosted by Jackson Memorial Hospital to assist them in coping with challenges of disease and fitting in....   [tags: Disease/Disorders]

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Signs, Symptoms and Awareness for HIV/AIDS Patients

- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a slow moving retrovirus that eventually causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome commonly called AIDS. This combo disease known as HIV/AIDS is labeled as a pandemic and has caused controversy throughout the whole world. The disease begins when a person infected passes on the HIV virus through sexual secretions, blood transfusions, and using dirty needles. The virus enters through vaginal or anal openings and through open cuts, once the virus enters a person’s blood stream they are infected with HIV however they may not necessarily have AIDS (WEBMD)....   [tags: retrovirus transmitted through body fluids]

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Evidence-Based Management Plan: HIV with At-Risk Youth

- Non-Pharmacological Plan There are a number of natural treatments for cancer, some with more research or veracity, others with more folklore and anecdotal evidence. Alternative cures may vary from specific foods to the use of magnets, electric currents, enemas, etc. The improvement of nutritional support and the detoxification of the liver are, of course, important concepts in any medical treatment, but it is the type of infection, the immune support in the individual’s body, and the timing of treatment that preclude the infection’s spread and ability for the immune system to be improved (Highleyman, 2006) ....   [tags: medical nutritional therapy]

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African Americans, HIV and AIDA

- African Americans who live in low-income communities are more likely to engage in unprotected sexual activities than those who live in higher-income communities. ii Table of Contents Chapter                                                  Page/s I.     The Problem     1-2 II.     Theoretical Framework                                   3-5 III.     Hypothesis                                        6 IV.     Population and Design                                   7-8 V.     Conclusion                                        9-10 VI.     Bibliography                                        11-12 1 I....   [tags: df]

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AIDS/HIV & Its Effects on Popular Culture

- ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus may only be contracted from exposure to these fluids if blood is present. The main way that Human Immunodeficiency Virus is contracted is through seminal or vaginal secretions, blood, cerebral spinal fluid, and the breast milk of an infected individual. Once the Virus enters the body it starts to replicate itself, making more and more Human Im-munodeficiency Virus cells, the cells hide itself and may lay dormant for many years. When these cells “wake up”, they may attack healthy Immune cells (CD4+T), of the host, and ulti-mately weaken its immune system, which makes it unable to fight off other opportunistic infec-tions, like the common Influenza Virus....   [tags: research paper, life-changing pandemic]

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

- Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Life History The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an obligate intracellular parasite found exclusively in humans. It is responsible for weakening the immune system and leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The first case of AIDS was diagnosed in the U.S. in 1981, and in 1984 it was first proven that HIV caused AIDS. There is currently a pandemic of HIV/AIDS, with the highest incidence rate in Sub-Saharan Africa and the lowest rates in Western Europe and North America, due to better healthcare....   [tags: Medical Health Biology AIDS Essays]

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Understanding HIV and AIDS

- HIV/ AIDS HIV/AIDS is an epidemic that effects both men and women of all ages. It has an impact on many people's lives either by themselves being infected, knowing someone who is infected, or being a health care worker. HIV is a virus that attacks the body's immune system. It also effects the blood cells (lymphocytes) and cells of the organs (bone marrow, spleen, liver, and lymph glands). It effects the lungs, central nervous system and gastrointestinal system. People begin with having the HIV virus....   [tags: health, virus, medicine]

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Hiv / Aids Population Is A Public Health Concern

- Homeless Population People without a regular dwelling can be susceptible to so many infectious disease. TB in the homeless population is a public health concern. Report from CDC (2013) stated that the number of TB cases in the United States decreased slightly in 2011; however there is a disproportionate number of TB cases still occur among high-risk populations, including people experiencing homelessness (CDC, 2013). Furthermore, CDC (2013) said, “In the United States, 1% of the population experiences homelessness in a given year, but more than 5% of people with TB reported being homeless within the year prior to diagnosis” (CDC, 2013)....   [tags: Tuberculosis, Infectious disease]

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Legal Ethics Patients ' Rights And Hiv / Aids

- Legal Ethics Patients’ Rights and HIV/AIDS There have been unconfirmed reports that indicate that People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLWHIV) are being mishandled by the healthcare providers at the USA Community Hospital. The dissatisfaction among the patients has publicized the hospital negatively. Therefore, this report is meant to shed light on the issues and forge the way forward. There is need to verify whether the reports that people living with HIV are not properly handled. There is a need to come up with a mechanism that will verify the claims without any bias....   [tags: Health care, Health care provider, Patient]

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Hiv Testing in Newborns

- This paper presents an ethical analysis of the mandatory newborn HIV testing law enacted in New York State. The law was passed as an effort to decrease maternal transmission of HIV, by treating infants born to HIV positive mothers immediately after birth with AZT. Newborn testing was promoted by the legislative and medical community following the overwhelmingly positive response from HIV infected pregnant women who were given AZT in the ACTG 076 clinical trials. Pregnant mothers who were given AZT had a markedly lower transmission rate than mothers who had not received it....   [tags: Health]

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HIV/AIDS Awareness

- The lack of knowledge in today’s world is a major issue. It is causing the spread of many dangerous health problems. One in particular is AIDS, which stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yes, people hear about it; however, the spread continues. With higher knowledge of everything that goes hand and hand with it, the spread can be put to a stop. HIV/AIDS Awareness is the most effective way to end the worldwide spread of this killer disease. Before getting into the deep details of HIV/AIDS, one must know and understand the background behind it....   [tags: Human Diseases]

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Etiology of HIV-Associated Dementia

- Etiology of HIV-Associated Dementia The etiologic agents of the neurologic disease associated with HIV and AIDS are many. Opportunistic infections- cryptococcus, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, are a few of the organic causes of neurologic disease in AIDS patients, but will not be the main focus of this paper. The human immunodeficiency virus in itself is implicated in much of the neurological manifestations of the disease, and it is the effects of the presence of the virus within the central nervous system which is of interest to me in this paper....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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Mandatory Prenatal HIV Testing

- Mandatory Prenatal HIV Testing This particular journal researches prenatal HIV testing as it relates to vertical transmission. Randomized controlled studies involving HIV- positive pregnant women at various stages of pregnancy were monitored and evaluated in an effort to find conclusive reasoning for prenatal testing. Women of different income levels, educational and ethnic backgrounds were involved in these studies. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 076 as well as following randomized controlled trials were used in order to test whether prenatal testing was an effective means of preventing the vertical transmission of the HIV virus....   [tags: Papers]

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The Role Of Social Factors On Hiv Risk Behavior

- Although the previously-described studies review cultures in which there is largely male-dominance in power, power dynamics mediate sexual health behaviors even in countries beginning to diverge from traditional gender roles. A study done in South Africa pointed out how differing power distribution in relationships influenced safe sexual health practices. Female reporting of increased power in a relationship correlated with their reported use of condoms, while male reporting of increased power had the opposite effect....   [tags: Gender, Gender role, Transgender, Gender identity]

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Statistical Anylisis of HIV

- Statistical Anylisis of HIV The purpose of this study is to ascertain the affects of drug-abusing fathers on the drug usage of their young adolescent children. A special targeted population were chosen for this study; they are the children of drug-abusing fathers who are HIV-positive or at risk for becoming HIV-positive. The major factors used to determine the dependent measure of adolescent marijuana use include certain drug abusing father attributes (i.e., illegal drug use, HIV status, and methods of coping), and adolescent personality which is directly affected by the father-adolescent relationship and environmental factors (see pathway to adolescent marijuana use)....   [tags: Papers]

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International Security: How HIV and Aids Play an Effect on That

- In the reading The Contested Concept of Security, Steve Smith implies that security is based on human security, in that there’s more to security than brute force. Traditionally, from a realist perspective, security has been defined solely as military defense. From a liberal perspective, security is not just military, but also the establishment of Institutions. However, since the events of September 11, many people like Steve Smith have been given good reason to reassess the meaning of the whole concept of security....   [tags: security, military, states, strategy]

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I Volunteered As An Hiv / Aids Peer Health Educator

- During my undergraduate studies in the Social Work Department at Southern University, I volunteered as an HIV/AIDS Peer Health Educator and developed a keen interest in clinical social work and human sexuality. As a result of discussing sexually related topics with college females, I realized the need for early sexual education. This was a research project that showed how young, sexually active women, were not conversant on how to protect themselves sexually; they were most apprehensive about pregnancy....   [tags: Social work, Psychotherapy, Sociology]

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Understanding HIV/AIDS

- In today’s world HIV/AIDS has become an epidemic that has not only challenged the research of our medical professionals, but also the lives of several children born with this infectious disease. In order to understand this epidemic we have to travel the path in which it was discovered. In 1985, human immunodeficiency also known as HIV was discovered by scientist and that discovery alone brought up many questions with very little definite answers. Due to this discovery several people are in search of an understanding & cure for this disease, but the question still remains what is AIDS and how can we prevent the transmission from mother to fetus....   [tags: Disease/Disorders]

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Detailed Overview of HIV

- Since the onset of the HIV/AIDS epidemic 15 years ago, the virus has infected more than 47 million people in the world. With more than 2.2 million deaths in 1998, HIV/AIDS has now become the fourth leading cause of mortality and its impact is going to increase. Over 95% of all cases and 95% of AIDS deaths occur in the developing world, mostly among young adults and increasingly in women. HIV can be prevented in many ways, but they are not always followed. People die when they don't play it safe....   [tags: Biology AIDS]

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HIV And AIDS Prevention

- Summary: The first national, co-ordinated AIDS education campaign was not launched until 1988, since then there has been an increase in trying to educate all people in the United States about HIV and AIDS prevention. Unfortunately, the number of infections has not seen much decline and actually some rise in the number of infections in the past decade within two specific groups: young gay men and young women of color. Trojan is one the most commonly known and recognized brands for presenting pregnancy and disease....   [tags: Disease]

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HIV and X-ray Crystallography

- WHAT IS AIDS. AIDS stand for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ACQUIRED, how. The blood, vaginal fluid, semen, and breast milk of people with the AIDS virus contains enough of the virus to transmit it to another person. Most people who have acquired the AIDS virus have done so by having sex with an infected person, sharing a needle with one, or being born to a mother who is infected. IMMUNE DEFICIENCY. Catching the AIDS virus can be lethal because it affects the immune system, which is the system in the body that fights against diseases....   [tags: Biology AIDS]

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HIV/AIDS Patients

- 1. Two Nutritional Groups Person suffering with HIV/AIDS Having a healthy, balanced diet containing all 5 food groups in the correct amount as well as keeping to an exercise programme will improve the quality and increase the quantity of an HIV positive patient’s life by: • maintaining a healthy body weight • replacing lost Vitamins and Minerals • helping the body to fight infection • extending the period from getting HIV to developing AIDS • keeping active, taking care of themselves, their family and allowing them to carry on working HIV/AIDS patients have increased nutritional needs as the immune system is working very hard to fight off infections....   [tags: food, diet, nutrition]

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Syringe Exchange Programs: A Matter of Public Health

- ... More importantly they are structured on a give and take rule, to properly discard needles. Thus reducing the existence of needles in parks, streets, garbage cans, abandoned homes or cars, thereby protecting the general public, law enforcement officers, first responders, and firefighters from accidental pricking. In Louisiana there are roughly 45,000 IDUs. Researchers at the non-governmental watchdog organization said “laws that criminalize the possession and distribution of sterile syringe programs in the state have contributed to an "extremely high AIDS death rate" which is more than double the national average.” These laws also deter the right to public health....   [tags: HIV, HIV, health, governments]

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Behaviors to Reduce the Risk of HIV Infection

- Behaviors to Reduce the Risk of HIV Infection The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the pathogen that destroys the body’s immune system allowing the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (Aids). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (Aids) is a disorder of the human immune system in a person infected with HIV, characterized by severe breakdown of the immune system that leaves a person very susceptible to opportunistic infections. An opportunistic infection is an infection that would probably not have the opportunity to invade the body if a person’s immune system were healthy....   [tags: Papers]

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The HIV/AIDS Pandemic in the Developing World

- Pandemic is a large scale epidemic affecting more than one country. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was first clinically diagnosed in the early 1980s but retrospective diagnosis suggests it existed well before this date. AIDS is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) of which there are several strains. AIDS is a syndrome (a collection of signs and symptoms) which develops from an impaired ability to fight disease i.e. it undermines the bodies defences against viruses, infections and malignancies....   [tags: Papers]

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The Link between HIV and the Development of AIDS

- The Link between HIV and the Development of AIDS The breakout of the AIDS pandemic during the early eighties is considered one of the biggest challenges in modern medicine. Twenty years after the first AIDS cases were recorded, we are far from developing a cure for this devastating pandemic. Although our knowledge of this condition remains limited, the vast majority of scientists now agree that the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, is the predominant cause of AIDS, and the notion that HIV equals AIDS is widely regarded as a fact by the general public....   [tags: Free AIDS Essays]

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Prevention for HIV/AIDS

- Prevention for HIV/AIDS Although anti-viral therapy exists to support people coping with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and AIDS, the AIDS epidemic is not over. Though it is not prevalent in the Untied States, 2.1 million people died of AIDS by 1999. Half a million children under the age of fifteen are HIV positive, mostly infected through mother-to-child transmission or sexual assault (2). Ninety percent of HIV infections occur the developing countries, leaving the poor and struggling to cope with the epidemic (3)....   [tags: Diseases Health Medical Essays]

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teens with hiv taking more risks

- Teenagers infected with HIV are more likely to engage in risky sex and drug use since the introduction of powerful medicines that effectively keep AIDS at bay, a new study finds. The trend, which began surfacing after highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) were introduced in 1996, points to the need for targeted interventions to reduce risky behavior and improve quality of life for those in this group, the researchers noted. Roughly a quarter of the 40,000 new HIV infections in the United States each year occur in people under the age of 21, according to the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention....   [tags: essays research papers]

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AIDS/HIV Related Stigma

- &#65279;Introduction Since the appearance of AIDS in the late seventies and early eighties, the disease has had attached to it a significant social stigma. This stigma has manifested itself in the form of discrimination, avoidance and fear of people living with AIDS (PLWAs). As a result, the social implications of the disease has been extended from those of other life threatening conditions to the point at which PLWAs are not only faced with a terminal illness but also social isolation and constant discrimination throughout society....   [tags: AIDS Essays]

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Rural HIV/AIDS in Southeast Ohio

- Rural HIV/AIDS in Southeast Ohio History Of all the known cases of HIV / AIDS in the United States "…5.5 percent were reported from nonmetropolitan statistical areas (non-MSAs). The Office of Management and Budget defines a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) as a county or group of counties that includes a city of 50,000 residents or an urbanized area with at least 50,000. Nonmetropolitan counties are all remaining counties (Gwinn & Wortley, 1996). "…6 percent of the female AIDS cases reported to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) during 1994 were residing in non-MSAs at the time of AIDS diagnosis (CDC, 1996)....   [tags: Case Management]

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Robert Gallo and the Role of HIV in AIDS

- Robert Gallo and the Role of HIV in AIDS Introduction In 1982, Robert Gallo from the National Cancer Institute in the USA, put forward the hypothesis that the cause of AIDS is a retrovirus. One year later, Myron Essex and his colleagues (1) found that AIDS patients had antibodies to the Human T-cell Leukemia virus Type-1 (HTLV-I), a virus discovered by Gallo a few years earlier. At the same time, Gallo and his colleagues (2) reported the isolation of HTLV-I from AIDS patients and advocated a role for this retrovirus in the pathogenesis of AIDS....   [tags: Free AIDS Essays]

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HIV/AIDS Public Health Policies: A Comparison Between South Africa and Cuba

- HIV/AIDS is still a current public health concern for all countries of the world. Research has helped progress the education and treatment of the virus, but some areas of the world still have difficulty with this public health concern. Out of all developing countries, South Africa has one of the highest percentages of their population living with HIV/AIDS while Cuba has one of the lowest percentages of their population living with the virus. In this paper, the public health policies of South Africa and Cuba regarding treatment, prevention and transmission will be discussed and compared....   [tags: Health ]

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Shocking Rates of HIV-AIDS Rates Among African American Women

- Every year there are millions of people dying. People are dying of cancer, lung problems, or disease. Sexually transmitted diseases may also lead to death. For example, the HIV virus is one reason why black women are dying. This virus has the power to weaken someone’s immune system. There have been studies that have shown how African American women suffer from viruses like HIV/Aids. According to a report from the CDC, recent epidemiologic reports show that black women are at risk for HIV infection along with other sexually transmitted diseases (Sharpe, 2012, Pg....   [tags: socioeconomic analysis, lifestyle]

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Role of Spirituality in Enhancing Quality of Life in Women with HIV in Cambodia

- Role of Spirituality in Enhancing Quality of Life in Women with HIV in Cambodia 1. PROBLEM AND RATIONALE Cambodia has been experiencing the most devastating HIV/AIDS epidemic in South-East Asia compared to all other countries in the region (NCHADS, 2009). With the mounting of an effective national public health anti-retroviral treatment program, HIV/AIDS prevention and care in Cambodia have been very successful, given its resource constraints. To date, the government has used clinical indicators such as CD4 and HIV RNA viral load to evaluate program effectiveness....   [tags: Research Proposal]

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus: HIV Transmission and Strategies for Reducing its Spread.

- The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the virus that causes HIV infection which destroys the immune system leaving the body unable to effectively fight infections and cancers (National Health Services, 2012). Despite the fact that over 1 million people in the US are infected, it is estimated that 1 in 6 are unaware of their infection, and thus, unknowingly spread it (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2013). The spread of HIV has been rapid worldwide and is considered a major epidemic....   [tags: infected blood, aids, immune system]

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Personal Statement On Hiv / Aids, Knowledge, Attitudes, And Education Of Nurses

- Planning My Visit Many nurses in our society approach HIV patients with a pre-conceived idea of how they should be treated. Nurses prepare for taking care of patients by studying and participating in clinical rotations. Unfortunately, many times HIV education is taught very little and never experienced during clinical practice. Nurses who have received instruction on how to care for HIV patients emotionally and physically will be able to better care for patients during the most critical times in their life....   [tags: Health care, Health care provider, Healthcare]

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Rna Based Approaches For Hiv Rna And Rna Molecules With Catalytic Activity

- 1.4.2 RNA-based approaches Ribozymes Ribozymes are RNA molecules with catalytic activity and can be engineered to cleave HIV RNA molecules at specific sites.231 Ribozymes targeting the U5 region, pol ORF, tat ORF or a site in the overlapping tat/rev ORF were tested in phase I clinical trials, but no antiviral effects were observed following the transplantation of CD4+ T cell or HSPCs transduced with MLV vectors.232 A hammerhead ribozyme targeting a site in the overlapping vpr and tat ORFs of HIV RNA advanced to phase II trials.233,234 Autologous HSPCs were transduced with an MLV vector that expressed the ribozyme under control of the MLV LTR....   [tags: RNA, DNA, RNA interference, Gene]

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HIV/AIDS: Medical Breakthroughs and Social Settings of the 1980s, the 1990s

- The HIV/AIDS epidemic may be one of the most devastating illnesses in American history due to its incurability and severe effects both on a person’s physical and mental wellbeing. Unfortunately, HIV/AIDS may also be one of the most stigmatized diseases from the period between 1980 and the present day due to its tendency to infect already stigmatized populations, namely intravenous drug users and gay men. Initially, this stigmatization persuaded many researchers to avoid testing potential treatments, which may have impeded progress....   [tags: incurable illness, virus]

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Stigma and Discrimination Experienced by People Living with HIV/AIDS at Health Care Facilities

- This study explored the prevalence of stigma and discrimination against PLHA in healthcare settings. Poverty level was high among the study participants, with 21% reporting an income below the International Poverty line of 1.25USD per day, whereas another 44% were earning less than 2USD per day. This can both be a driver to get HIV/AIDS as well as a consequence of being HIV-positive. Poverty makes individuals vulnerable to HIV, while those who are diagnosed as HIV-positive are vulnerable to fall into poverty....   [tags: World Health Organization studies]

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How Health Psychology Can Aid Nurses in Caring for Patients with HIV

- ... Homosexual men have always been at the forefront of HIV stigma and in 1985 Dougal et al conducted a study about homophobia on 128 nurses and physicians. The results showed that ten per cent felt that homosexual men were responsible for the spread of HIV and classed them as being irresponsible and dangerous (Senior and Viveash, 1998). Nurses need to address any negative feelings or attitudes they have towards HIV patients. If these are not addressed it can lead to HIV patients receiving a lower standard of healthcare (Engenderhealth, 2004b)....   [tags: stigma and behavior]

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Critical Analysis of an Article on HIV/AIDS Prevention Issues for Women

- ... This mainly includes poverty and disempowerment because women in lower living standards tend to be treated poorly by men since they are not seen as equals in society. Secondly, changing attitudes and behaviours of men will be an important issue to address because this concerns condom use against protection of HIV/AIDS. In order for this to be work, there must be social change in the cultures on beliefs and attitudes of men. Lastly, we need to understand that HIV/AID affects men and women differently; women are more susceptible physically and emotionally....   [tags: poverty, condoms, empower]

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Feeding the Children of HIV-Infected Mothers: The Arguments for Formula and Breastfeeding

- HIV-infected women in developing countries are faced with a difficult choice. Do they breastfeed their infant and potentially transmit the disease through breastmilk, or do they use supplemental feedings of expensive synthetic formula. Many women that desire to use supplemental feedings lack the financial means or necessary equipment to be able to provide adequate nutrition. There is the distinct risk that even if they are able to use supplemental formula unclean water could expose their child gastrointestinal infections or parasites....   [tags: Health ]

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AIDS/HIV

- Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), can be transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse, sharing contaminated needles and syringes, mother to child (perinatal) and contaminated blood product (National Association of Health Authorities, 1988). 1.2 PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH Late HIV diagnosis remains a major problem among black Africans in England. In 2007, about 42 per cent of black Africans diagnosed with HIV were diagnosed late (HPA, 2008a). This compromises their survival chances because evidence indicates that starting treatment with a CD4 cell count below 200 copies/mm3 (a measure of the degree to which an individual’s immune system is compromised) increases the risk of disease prog...   [tags: Health, Diseases]

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The Science, Technology, and Ethics of HIV Vaccine Research

- The Science, Technology, and Ethics of HIV Vaccine Research An annual report recently released by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS indicated that the number of HIV-infected individuals increased 10 percent in the last year, bringing the number of people worldwide who are now carrying the virus to over 33 million. According to the report, half of these new infections were in people15 to 24 years old, and there were 11 new infections a minute. Sub-Saharan Africa reportedly accounts for two thirds of the infected population and about 12 million AIDS related deaths....   [tags: AIDS Third World Countries Poverty Papers]

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We Must Prevent the Spread of HIV/AIDS

- HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. However, being HIV-positive, or having HIV disease, is not the same as having AIDS. When a person is infected with HIV the immune system tries to fight off the virus and does make some antibodies, but these antibodies are not able to defeat HIV. Some people do not feel ill at all when they are first infected. They may have no symptoms for a long time. However, some symptoms of HIV infection may include: “extreme tiredness, sometimes combined with headache, dizziness or lightheadedness; swollen glands in the neck, armpits or groin; continued fever or night sweats; weight loss of more than 10 pounds which is not d...   [tags: Aids Disorders Health Medical Essays]

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The new faces of HIV/AIDS: Our Children

- In the Land of Poz The new faces of HIV/AIDS: Our Children The condition known as leprosy was very well known in ancient history. Usually because of the fear associated with the disease and ignorance of the disease most societies were quick to label anyone with leprosy as an outcast. In fact, Jewish religion and law classified anyone who exhibited the symptoms of leprosy as “unclean.” In addition to having an ailment, which could be quite uncomfortable at times, people with leprosy had to suffer the indignities and humiliation associated with being unwanted by society....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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Will HIV and AIDS as the Black Death of the Twenty-First Century

- Will HIV and AIDS as the Black Death of the Twenty-First Century According to an article on BBC World Service, published on 25th October, 2001, the Black Death claimed 25 million lives in Europe and Asia between the 13th and 17th century. Now nearly 400 years later the British Medical Journal reports an estimated 65 million deaths from AIDS by the end of the decade. Obviously these figures are rough estimates, however they illustrate the severity of the Bubonic Plague and the impending severity of an AIDS epidemic....   [tags: Papers]

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Developing Antiviral Therapies to Cure HIV and AIDS

- Developing Antiviral Therapies to Cure HIV and AIDS When the disease called aids was first discovered to be a virus in the 80’s, many pharmacies prepared for this widely spread disease by stocking up on antibiotics. These antibiotics however, were only designed to treat bacterial infections. It was at this time that scientist discovered that this disease was actually caused by a virus and not bacteria. Because the AIDS virus was so widely spread it prompted scientists to search for a way to cure diseases that were caused by viruses....   [tags: Free AIDS Essays]

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The Impact of Globalization on the Spread of HIV/AIDS in South Africa

- Throughout history, the black people of South Africa have been oppressed by the country's apartheid government. In 1994, the apartheid era ended as the new, democratically elected president, Nelson Mandela, was sworn into office. Although the abolition of the apartheid era was an enormous turn-around for South Africa, throughout this transformation, a new underlying situation threatened the endurance of the country; a situation that would prove to be an even "more formidable foe than apartheid" (Kapp, p1202 2004)....   [tags: Outsourcing, Offshoring, Free Trade]

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Adult Behavior Patterns that Contribute to the Spread of AIDS/HIV

- Introduction It is during the ages of 18 and 24 that time of life that many adults are sexually active but not always in monogamous relationships. It is a time of life when one can easily contract either AIDS or another STD due to behavior. Young adults are working during the day and doing their socializing at night, and this socializing almost always includes substances such as alcohol and drugs to help alter their mood, or judgments. Thus causing the person to become easily overcome with doing “what feels right” and not “what is safe or will protect them.” Behavior is key in controlling AIDS....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Opposition to State-Mandated Premarital HIV Screening

- Opposition to State-Mandated Premarital HIV Screening When screening for HIV became possible in mid-1985, debates began concerning the role of such screening in controlling the spread of AIDS. One such debate concerned state-mandated premarital HIV screening. This policy was proposed to the CDC conference in February of 1987, but never received much widespread support, because it satisfied neither the proponents of public health nor the proponents of civil liberties (Reamer 37). This essay will show that the state is unjustified in enacting such policy and hopefully also shed some light on why such policy received so little support....   [tags: AIDS]

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Reducing the Risk of HIV Among Adolescent Girls

- According to the CDC, the majority of female adolescents will have had at least one sexual partner by the time they reach the age of 18. Once reserved for high school students, sex ed is now being introduced in junior high and even elementary schools. It is undeniable that our teenagers are becoming sexually active earlier and inevitably, are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections and HIV. While it is impossible to alter the choices of sexually active teens once they have been made, it is a mandate for those who interact with them to equip teens with the proper resources to make smart choices and offer suggestions to modify risky behavior....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Medicine in the Fight against HIV/AIDS and Cancer

- Medicine in the Fight against HIV/AIDS and Cancer Conventional (allopathic) medicine has been the mainstream Western approach to medicine ever since the early twentieth century. Previous to the widespread popularization of the allopathic tradition, other more holistic traditions of medicine were accepted and practiced without bias. The founding of the American Medical Association (AMA) brought with it a swift turnabout for other traditions and placed the monopoly of the industry solely in the hands of allopathic physicians....   [tags: Medical Treatment Chinese Papers]

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Corporate Social Responsibility with HIV / AIDS Drugs

- “Each year, just three diseases kill 5.4 million people worldwide. Malaria kills at least one million, mainly in developing countries, with 90% of the deaths in Africa. Tuberculosis causes 1.9 million deaths a year, almost all of them in developing countries, where resistance to the five major anti-tubercular drugs is spreading. Some 400,000 of the tuberculosis victims are also HIV positive. The yearly death toll for HIV/Aids is almost 2.5 million, with about 1.8 million concentrated in the Sub-Saharan Africa” The Times Higher 20/07/01 Assess the responsibilities of the pharmaceutical companies for providing low cost drugs to the poor people in the developing...   [tags: Social Responsibility Essays]

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Labelling and Stigmatization of Aids or Hiv Patients in Hong Kong

- Introduction Labeling and stigmatization, no matter it is due to illness or difference in race, social status, occupation, etc., is a huge and complex problem and common in history which cause many conflicts and even wars in the world. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), not only applied to the labeling theory, it suffered the most. People discriminate AIDS more severe than other infectious disease. Stigmatization induces discrimination, which is more painful and stressful than physical discomfort of the illness itself....   [tags: Sociology]

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AIDS/HIV Research

- This study used content analysis to identify dominant AIDS-HIV themes in the manifest news content of AP, Reuters, AFP, ITAR-TASS, and IPS. A systematic random sample of AIDS-HIV stories disseminated by the five wire services between May 1991 and May 1997 (both months included) was obtained. This decade was selected because several empirical studies of coverage in the 1980s have been conducted; however, few studies examine the 1990s. The decision to examine the print news media was driven by the nature of the issue being explored....   [tags: essays research papers]

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AIDS/HIV Report

- AIDS...Are You Afraid. This week when school starts, September 5th, a new child is enrolling. The school will not give out her name but they will give out more personal things for example, she is HIV infected. I was sad for the girl but i was also happy to hear this, because it will educate the kids at Windam Tech. Another reason is that i would enjoy letting this girl to be finally “let in” for once, and this would also be good for the community. How AIDS entered this world is uncertain ,people have their theories; AIDS came from monkeys, the government nfected people with the virus to control the population, and African Americans brought the virus from Africa....   [tags: essays research papers]

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US Government Misinterprets Ugandan HIV/AIDS Success Story

- US Government Misinterprets Ugandan HIV/AIDS Success Story The United States Government should embrace a comprehensive HIV prevention policy that emphasizes condom use, rather than the current policy which is largely based on misinterpretations of the Ugandan HIV success story. According to the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)—which manages most of President Bush’s “Emergency Plan for AIDS”—in 1991, 15 percent of Ugandans were infected with HIV. By 2001, the rate was 5 percent, a drop unmatched anywhere in the world....   [tags: Essays Papers]

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