Your search returned over 400 essays for "Dualism"
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Why Dualism is Rejected by Science

- Throughout history there has been many different theory’s that have been presented, in numerous fashions. From psychology’s inception there has been attempts to answer many different questions, how much of our animal heritage exists, are humans basically good, is human nature neither good nor bad, do humans possess free will, is psychology really a science. There has been a persistent question throughout the ages, how are the mind and body related. This question of if there truly is a mind, and if there is, how is it linked to the body has been the center of many debates since the beginning of psychology....   [tags: Dualism Essays]

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Cartesian Dualism and Gilbert Ryle

- Gilbert Ryle is well known in the philosophical world specifically as a behaviorist. According to Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy behaviorist are “followers in the ‘ordinary language’ tradition of analytic philosophy, while, for the most part, regarding behavioral scientific hopes as vain, hold views that are, in other respects, strongly behaviorists”(Hauser 1). In the middle of the twentieth century the ordinary language behaviorist movement was strongly covered by Ryle and Wittgenstein. These bright minds established a relationship; “In 1929 Ryle met Wittgenstein and struck up a friendship that profoundly altered the direction of Ryle’s Philosophical thinking”( Stroll 147)....   [tags: Cartesian Dualism, Mind-Body Problem]

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Cartesian Dualism and Gilbert Ryle

- Over the years, many philosophers have tried to answer the elusive mind-body problem. There has been a wide range of approaches to comprehend this matter, but perhaps none as renowned as Cartesian dualism. This theory, proposed by René Descartes in the early seventeenth century, is still central to modern metaphysical discourse. His teachings through the Meditations have been both revered and scrutinized, and still have withstood many other’s attempts to disprove them. One of his biggest critics of the twentieth century was Gilbert Ryle....   [tags: Cartesian Dualism, Mind-Body Problem]

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The Concept of Dualism

- I believe that the popular or "ghost in the machine" form of substance dualism best solves the mind body problem. My views in this area have been influenced by my twelve years of Catholic education. The soul, or mind, depending on your level of belief, was a complete and separate entity and was the center of a human being. The body was an ambulatory device that the soul directed. The idea that the mind is a separate entity and that it is independent of the physical body is the central point of substance dualism....   [tags: Dualism Essays]

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Philosophy of Mind: Dualism and Neutral Monism

- This essay will discuss the topic Philosophy of Mind (POM) which is split into four areas; Dualism, Materialism, Idealism and Neutral Monism. However, due to the depth of these four areas, only Dualism and Neutral Monism will be discussed more in-depth during this essay. Philosophy of Mind studies the relationship between the Mind and the Body. Dualism is an area of POM which argues the view reality is made of Mental things and Material things, with early dualists such as Descartes and Plato supporting this area....   [tags: Dualism, Neutral Monism]

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The Argument of Dualism

- Arguments of Dualism Dualism is the theory that mind and matter are two distinct things. The main argument for dualism is that facts about the objective external world of particles and fields of force, as revealed by modern physical science, are not facts about how things appear from any particular point of view, whereas facts about subjective experience are precisely about how things are from the point of view of individual conscious subjects. They have to be described in the first person as well as in the third person....   [tags: Dualism Essays]

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The Argument of Dualism

- In my mind, dualism is a more attractive view to take when considering the mind-brain issue. The idea that the mind is a separate entity and that it is independent of the physical body is the central point of dualism. One reason it appeals to me is because of my religion, my Catholic upbringing. Introspection is another good reason why dualism is a little more logical to me than materialism.. It logically explains why the mind and brain are separate. Also, the divisibility argument raises good points to allow dualism to appear to be the more attractive idea in my eyes....   [tags: Dualism Essays]

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Rene Descartes: Cartesian Dualism

- Descartian dualism is one of the most long lasting legacies of Rene Descartes’ philosophy. He argues that the mind and body operate as separate entities able to exist without one another. That is, the mind is a thinking, non-extended entity and the body is non-thinking and extended. His belief elicited a debate over the nature of the mind and body that has spanned centuries, a debate that is still vociferously argued today. In this essay, I will try and tackle Descartes claim and come to some conclusion as to whether Descartes is correct to say that the mind and body are distinct....   [tags: Cartesian Dualism, Mind-Body Problem]

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Cartesian Dualism vs Logical Behaviorism

- Are minds physical things, or are they nonmaterial. If your beliefs and desires are caused by physical events outside of yourself, how can it be true that you act the way you do of your own free will. Are people genuinely moved by the welfare of others, or is all behavior, in reality, selfish. (Sober 203). These are questions relevant to philosophy of the mind and discussed through a variety of arguments. Two of the most important arguments with this discussion are Cartesian dualism and logical behaviorism, both of which argue the philosophy of the mind in two completely different ways....   [tags: Cartesian Dualism, Mind-Body Problem]

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Descartes and Dualism

- Descartes and Dualism "I think therefore I am," the well known quote of Rene Descartes, is the basis of his theory known as dualism. The intermingling of mind and body or res extensa (extended substance) and res cogitans (thinking substance) displays Descartes' ideas of a "genuine human being" (Cottingham 7). Known as the father of modern philosophy, Descartes realized that one could not analyze a problem simply on the common sense level, but that one must "probe to the micro-level" (Cottingham 4)....   [tags: Dualism Essays]

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Unifying Dualism of Women in Society

- Sometimes traditional arguments cannot be effective because what is at stake is too threatening. In these cases, all we have left to achieve common ground are our narratives, our identities. If we know and can understand our history more comprehensively by our stories, we can begin building a better vision (Enos 136). Women are seen as both subjects and objects by society.We are cultural subjects, yet our very bodies are objectified by society in such a way that the line between subject and object may get blurred for us.The objectification of women has certainly had an affect on how a woman perceives herself as a subject.Paulo Freire, as cited in Kathleen Weilerís book, Women Teaching for...   [tags: Dualism Essays]

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Descartes' Theory of Substance Dualism

- Descartes' Theory of Substance Dualism Throughout the history of man, philosophers have tried to come up with an explanation of where our minds, or consciousness, came from and how we are able to have a nonphysical characteristic of ourselves. Does our physical brain automatically give us nonphysical characteristics like feelings, thoughts, and desires or is there something else there, the mind, that interacts with our bodies and makes us feel, think, and desire. Also, is the mind the only nonphysical entity in our universe or do other entities exist such as ghosts or souls....   [tags: Dualism Essays]

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Rene Descartes: The Concept of Dualism

- Rene Descartes' Argument from Divisibility is the argument in which he claims that the mind and the body are two completely different things and thus cannot be identical. His argument is that the body is divisible because it can be physically altered like being cut in half. His belief is that the mind is indivisible because it is not a physical thing. Descartes believed that if two things do not have identical properties then they couldn't be the same. What Descartes was suggesting was that human beings' bodies are separate from their thoughts and that when the body dies the mind still lives, which had undertones of suggesting that there is an afterlife....   [tags: Dualism Essays]

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Computational Complexity and Philosophical Dualism

- Computational Complexity and Philosophical Dualism ABSTRACT: I examine some recent controversies involving the possibility of mechanical simulation of mathematical intuition. The first part is concerned with a presentation of the Lucas-Penrose position and recapitulates some basic logical conceptual machinery (Gödel's proof, Hilbert's Tenth Problem and Turing's Halting Problem). The second part is devoted to a presentation of the main outlines of Complexity Theory as well as to the introduction of Bremermann's notion of transcomputability and fundamental limit....   [tags: Dualism Essays]

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Heidegger's Reading of Descartes' Dualism

- Heidegger's Reading of Descartes' Dualism ABSTRACT: The problem of traditional epistemology is the relation of subject to external world. The distinction between subject and object makes possible the distinction between the knower and what is known. Starting with Descartes, the subject is a thinking thing that is not extended, and the object is an extended thing which does not think. Heidegger rejects this distinction between subject and object by arguing that there is no subject distinct from the external world of things because Dasein is essentially Being-in-the-world....   [tags: Dualism Essays]

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Agent Causation and Dualism

- Agent Causation & Dualism The discussion of free will and its compatibility with determinism comes down to one’s conception of actions. Most philosophers and physicists would agree that events have specific causes, especially events in nature. The question becomes more controversial when philosophers discuss the interaction between human beings, or agents, and the world. If one holds the belief that all actions and events are caused by prior events, it would seem as though he would be accepting determinism....   [tags: Dualism Essays]

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Cartesian Dualism and the Union of Mind and Body

- Cartesian Dualism and the Union of Mind and Body ABSTRACT: Cartesian dualism and the union of mind and body are often understood as conceptions that contradict each other. Diachronic interpretations maintain that Descartes was first a dualist (in the Meditations) and later on developed his stance on the union of mind and body (Passions). Some authors find here a problem without solution. Nevertheless, in the last two decades, some interpretations have been developed intending to give a positive solution to the difficult relation between Cartesian dualism and the union of mind and body....   [tags: Dualism Essays]

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The Explication of Kim’s Pairing Problem and It’s effect on Substance Dualism

- Jaegwon Kim argues that the “pairing problem” is a serious issue for substance dualism. He thinks that dualism is unintelligible and aims to show that the “pairing problem” explicates this. The conclusion that Kim is presenting is that the mind as an immaterial substance cannot causally interact with physical objects and furthermore, not with anything at all; this renders minds futile thus leaving us the conclusion that substance dualism is also useless. I will be explicating what casual relations are, and the pairing problem to clarify that the pairing problem does render dualism unintelligible....   [tags: Jaewon Kim, substance dualism]

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Analyzing Individuation and Identity In Descartes´ Philosophical View of the Mind-Body Dualism

- Every since Plato introduced the idea of dualism thousands of years ago meta-physicians have been faced with the mind-body problem. Even so Plato idea of dualism did not become a major issue of debate in the philosophical world until the seventeenth century when French philosopher Rene Descartes publicized his ideas concerning the mental and physical world. During this paper, I will analyze the issue of individuation and identity in Descartes’ philosophical view of the mind-body dualism. I will first start by explaining the structure of Cartesian dualism....   [tags: Rene Descartes, Plato, Cartesian dualism]

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The Mind-Brain Problem Concerning Dualism and Materialism

- The Mind-Brain Problem Concerning Dualism and Materialism I am faced with the philosophical task of defending either dualism or materialism, depending on which one is most attractive to me. So either I support the theory of dualism, which is the belief that there is both a physical and a spiritual state, or I believe in materialism, which is the belief that everything that exists is material or physical. Although I believe materialism to be easier to prove, I find dualism more attractive to believe....   [tags: Dualism Essays]

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Anne Conway’s Critique of Cartesian Dualism

- Anne Conway’s Critique of Cartesian Dualism ABSTRACT: I describe and analyze Anne Conway’s critique of Cartesian dualism. After a brief biographical introduction to Conway, I sketch some of the influences on her philosophy. I then describe her non-Cartesian view of substance. According to Conway, there is only one substance in created reality. This substance contains both matter and spirit. A purely material or spiritual substance is, she argues, an impossibility. Next, I discuss several of Conway’s arguments against Cartesian dualism....   [tags: Dualism Essays]

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Tractarian Dualism

- While Wittgenstein’s Tractatus keeps issues of metaphysics and ontology at arm’s length, the world it presents seems altogether monistic in character. In Wittgenstein’s account, it is a world of objects and facts, a world which lacks selves, values, cognitive relations (such as belief), and God. I argue that the Tractarian world is nevertheless dualistic. I defend the view that the Tractatus points away from monism towards dualism and that Wittgenstein’s concepts of thought, sense, and understanding are an essential part of its structure....   [tags: Dualism Essays]

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The Importance of the Biology/Society Dualism to the Gendered Body

- The Importance of the Biology/Society Dualism to the Gendered Body The body has played an important part in sociology to explain the differences between the two sexes, and why these differences exist. A lot of social debate is about the relationship between the biological and the social. At one end of the debate there are those who see activities such as sexual behaviour entirely based on biology, they are called biological determinists who argue that there is biological bases for child rearing and different sexual orientations and also refer to pre- programmed behaviour....   [tags: Dualism Essays]

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Monism vs Dualism

- For centuries philosophers have debated on monism and dualism, two different philosophical views of the human person. Philosophers have been trying to decipher whether the person is made up of the mind, the body, or both. Monists hold the belief that existence is purely based upon one ultimate “category of being” this means that either the person is made up of only the body or only the mind (Morris p155). Dualists hold the belief that existence is based upon the body as well as the mind and its mental properties (Morris p155)....   [tags: Monism vs Dualism Essays]

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Monism vs Dualism

- Rene Descartes certainly didn't lack for credentials. As the "Father of Rationalism," "Father of Modern Philosophy," and originator of Cartesian geometry, he had more than enough interests to fill his spare time. But his role as "Father of Skepticism" helped popularize a major change in thinking about the nature of human experience. Dualism, or the doctrine that mind and body are of two distinct natures, is one of the key philosophical problems inherited by psychology....   [tags: Monism vs Dualism Essays]

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Conrad’s Thoughts on Dualism and Personality in The Secret Sharer

- “He had turned about meantime; and we, the two strangers in the ship, faced each other in identical attitudes.” (9) The captain, narrator and main character in the story of the Secret Sharer by Joseph Conrad feels isolated and alone on his new ship and crew. He has a surprise visitor that turns out to be a fugitive, Leggett, from the ship Sephora. Leggett and the captain have an immediate connection from the first meeting on the ship. The captain finds an alliance with Leggett because he feels he shares the same human experiences as Leggett....   [tags: Joeseph Conrad, Dualism, Secret Sharer, ]

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Explanations Offered by Dualism and Monism

- Dualism and monism are fundamentally different ideas but attempt to offer the same explanation to the problem of what our personal identity is made of. Both ideas give an interesting perspective but I believe that monism provides the most rational explanation. Dualism is the idea that the mind (i.e. beliefs) and body (i.e., brain) are two distinct things (substances), and could exist (at least theoretically) without each other. An argument for dualism is that P1. Pain (mental state) has no weight....   [tags: religrious beliefs and philosophies]

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- Descartes argues in favor of dualism, the mind is completely independent of the body and vice versa. We have a sense this kind of dualism exists when we say, “I am a mind with a body.” Descartes argues that the self exists in consciousness and that the body is simply a machine the mind controls. Further, dualists support their argument by comparing essences of both the mind and body; the mind is indivisible and free and the body is infinitely divisible and is determined by the laws of the physical universe....   [tags: Philosophy]

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Cartesian Dualism and Gilbert Ryle

- This essay will define Cartesian dualism, explain and critically evaluate Gilbert Ryle’s response to Cartesian dualism in his article, “Descartes’ Myth” and support Ryle’s argument on Descartes’ substance dualism. Cartesian dualism is a type of mind-body dualism formulated by the infamous Rene Descartes (1596-1650). Descartes’ dualism is about entities: he states there are two distinct kinds of entities, bodies and minds (1). All objects that exist or can exist belong to one of these categories....   [tags: descartes, the concept of mind]

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The Dualism of Joe Christmas

- William Faulkner’s protagonist, Joe Christmas’ trajectory and immoral decisions become the Siren’s song that tip him over the stern of the boat that is his life. Christmas’ path takes turns and twists that create a taciturn man who has been brought into the world unwanted; then, he ruthlessly moves forward looking back at his past in order to make decisions for his future. Light In August parallels Robert Frost’s “The Road Not Taken”, when Joe finds that he has reached a fork in the road and has to plan for kind of life he wants to lead, contradicting factors jumble his persona....   [tags: William Faulkner]

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Platonic Dualism versus Atman

- Dualism Vs Atman “What is really real?“ is a question that one has pondered at some point in his or her life. When this question is proposed many basic things become a complex never ending winding staircase of unsolved mysteries. Two philosophers who sought to find the answer were Plato and Shankara. Plato is found in history as one of Socrates star pupil and can be said to be one of the greatest philosophers in western philosophy. Shankara was commonly known throughout Indian philosophy. The two philosophers developed two ways of thinking: Plato Dualism and Shankara the concept of Atman....   [tags: Hindu notion of true self, philosophical analysis]

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Dualism: Concerns and Issues

- Dualism is a broad term that can encompass many areas within philosophy itself. In aspect to metaphysics, it classifies the types of entities in the world into two subcategories, physical and non physical substance. While this may appear to be a very wide and ambiguous opinion, it becomes very specific in regards to our own existence. Paul Churchland puts it very explicitly in his book Matter and Consciousness, and defines dualism as the idea that, “the essential nature of conscious intelligence resides in something nonphysical” (Churchland 1)....   [tags: Philosophy]

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Dualism and Artificial Intelligence

- Mind-body dualism is usually seen as the central issue in philosophy of the mind. The problem with mind-body dualism is that it is unknown whether the mind really is a separate entity from the human body as Descartes states in his argument, or whether the mind is the brain itself. Descartes believed that in a person existed two major components, the physical body and the nonphysical body which was called the mind or soul. As a scientist, Descartes believed in mechanical theories of matter, however, he was also very religious and did not believe people could merely be mechanical creatures that ran like “clockwork.” And so, it was Descartes who argued that the mind directed thoughts....   [tags: philosophy essays]

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Arguments Against Dualism

- Arguments Against Dualism Introduction The debate as to the true nature of human beings, the existence of free will and the validity of science is centered on two philosophical theories; dualism and materialism. Under dualism, the proponents believe that there are two kinds of matter that make up human beings which is the physical presence and the non-physical mind or soul . Materialism on the one hand proposes that man and matter is one and the same thing and there cannot be in existence any other non-physical entity therefore ....   [tags: human beings, free will, criticism]

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Analysis of The Allegory of the Cave by Plato, and Dualism

- knowledge. What is reality. These are the philosophical concepts that many renowned philosophers have concentrated on for centuries. One of these philosophers who was particularly concerned with this question was Plato. In an attempt to answer these questions, he wrote the “Allegory of the Cave” using the metaphor of the allegory to contrast reality with true enlightenment. Plato uses the dark of ignorance and the light of the accent into true knowledge to paint a picture of an individual’s rise to the understanding of true reality....   [tags: Knowledge, Light, Philosophy]

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Comparative Commentary: Dualism of Fire as a Symbol

- Laura Esquivel’s Like Water for Chocolate is the fantastic and romantic depiction of a young Mexican girl named Tita who, in accordance with Mexican tradition, cannot marry because she is the youngest girl in the family. The depravity her situation is only compounded by Mama Elena, her castrating mother, who does everything to make Tita’s life miserable. Tita’s only escape from her monotonous and demanding life comes when a fiery Pedro Musquez asks for her hand in marriage. Tita is crestfallen when she discovers that her own mother selfishly denies her Pedro, but this does not stop the fiery passion Tita and Pedro share....   [tags: Laura Esquivel, Like Water for Chocolate]

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Qumran: Identity, Spirits, Science and Dualism

- 1. The topic of my research is the coexistence and dualism of determinism and free will or, natural evil and moral evil, within the texts of the Dead Sea Scrolls. I am interested in this subject because I was intrigued by the debate it sparked among scholars and scientists alike. When applied to a religious backdrop it seems to be an especially complicated puzzle which can’t be easily solved rationally or scientifically. As I am determined to know what made ancient people tick, this subject falls near the center of my personal interests....   [tags: Biblical Research ]

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Dualism in Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho

- The characters in Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho (1960) each have a dual nature that is masterfully portrayed through character development and use of mirrors throughout the film. The very first shot in Psycho is zooming in from an open view of the city where it is a bright and sunny day. As the shot zooms in further and further it comes into a dark and shaded room that shows Marion Crane (Janet Leigh) and Sam Loomis (John Gavin) having an affair in a undisclosed hotel. This is dualistic image is just one example of many that Hitchcock has placed in this film....   [tags: Psycho Film Analysis]

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Western Dualism in The Great Gatsby

- It seems hard to believe in our period, when a three-decade lurch to the political Right has anathematized the word, but F. Scott Fitzgerald once, rather fashionably, believed himself to be a socialist. Some years before, he had also, less fashionably, tried hard to think himself a Catholic. While one hardly associates the characteristic setting of Fitzgerald's novels, his chosen kingdom of the sybaritic fabulous, with either proletarian solidarity or priestly devotions, it will be the argument of this essay that a tension between Left and religiose perspectives structures the very heart of the vision of The Great Gatsby....   [tags: The Great Gatsby Essays]

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Dualism of a Double Life in Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde

- Oscar Wilde’s novel, Picture of Dorian Gray, portrays the dichotomy of the double life led by Dorian Gray.1 The contrast between the portrait and Dorian personifies the universal battle of sin versus morale and ultimately serves as a moral compass for society.2 Dorian’s development of a double life identifies with the results of sociological oppression leading to confinement.3 The development of this contrasting lifestyle inevitably influences a fatal deterioration of his soul and heart.4 Oscar Wilde’s exaggeration of the effects of the double life of Dorian Gray within his novel Picture of Dorian Gray ultimately conveys the degradation due to a confinement of the soul, and personifies the d...   [tags: Sin, Homosexuality, Oppression]

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Dualism, One of Society’s Many Obsessions

- The Novel “The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde” centers upon a conception of humanity as dual in nature, although the theme does not emerge fully until the last chapter, when the complete story of the Jekyll-Hyde relationship is revealed. Therefore, we confront the prospect of a dual human nature explicitly only after having witnessed all of the events of the novel, including Hyde’s crimes and his ultimate eclipsing of Jekyll. The text not only presents the duality of human nature as its central theme but forces us to ponder the properties of this duality and to consider each of the novel’s episodes as we weigh various theories....   [tags: human nature, duality, novel]

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Dualism in Truman Capote's in Cold Blood

- To fully understand the purpose of In Cold Blood, one must explore Capote's strategy in writing such a tale. In his "In Cold Blood," Capote raises the possibility of rational order without ever fully endorsing it, often revealing that random and accidental events shape the history of the crime. Because of this, we as readers cannot pinpoint one exact reason for the incidents that occurred at the Clutter house that fateful night, and are forced to sympathize with two opposing characters within the story, Perry Smith and Alvin Dewey....   [tags: In Cold Blood Essays]

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Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, by Robert Louis Stevenson

- The depravity of man knows no bounds. However, neither are the positive qualities of man confined to the finite. For every virtue there is a sin. Every man is a playground for demons and angels alike. Robert Louis Stevenson illustrated this dual nature of a man in his novella Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Dr. Jekyll was the embodiment of success but like any bourgeois man struggled desires that violated the strict social mores and taboos of the Victorian age (Cohen 2). Three ways in which the dual nature of man is illustrated by Stevenson are, the development Dr....   [tags: Dualism of Man]

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Monism, Dualism, and Pluralism in American History

- ... In this era when the country was experiencing tremendous growth both in population and territory, many few that the expression of a unique national identity was needed to bind the widely diversified and rapidly growing population with the ideals of American republicanism. This vision of course neglects the fact that when the Europeans “found” America it was already the home of hundreds of different Native American tribes, some of which had developed quite complex societies, or the important part played by Amerindians, slaves, and women in building the nation....   [tags: Historians, America]

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Is Our World Dualistic?

- In his short story "I and My Chimney", Herman Melville makes an effort to keep his old chimney, a chimney he very much acknowledges. Even though he believes the "chimney is grand seignior here" (Melville), his wife however is against keeping it because she finds it as a burden and constantly complains on removing it in any way possible. It is seen that the narrator spends much of the story trying to describe how important the chimney was to him and the schemes his wife planes to get rid of the chimney....   [tags: Dualism Essays]

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Can One Exist Without Seperation?

- I have recently been introduced to several different essays including; Letter from a Birmingham Jail [King, Jr.], The Sunflower, and Memento (film). These essays and film are very diverse in subject matter ranging from segregation, the holocaust, violence and opposition. Although the titles mentioned above are all very diverse, they are all linked together through the theme of dualism. Dualism is a separation between two strongly opposing objects and whether one knows it or not, dualism is all around them every day (Comer)....   [tags: dualism, violence, segregation]

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What's the Opposite of God?

- When we think of God, we associate good, light, force, and entity. Basically every good thought or anything associated with good is directed towards God. Likewise, when we think of the Devil, we automatically think of evil, and darkness. Every negative thought and bad emotion is linked with the Devil. This thought process is similar to the notion of dualism. The literal definition of dualism is the division of something conceptually into two opposed or contrasted aspects, or the state of being so divided....   [tags: dualism, devil, force, light]

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Philosophy: Descartes Views on the Differentiation Between the Mind and the Body

- ... While both being ontologically separate substances, the essential basis of a claim referred to as Cartesian Dualism states that the unextended mind and the extended body still causally interact. Elizabeth had difficulty grasping the concept of this causal interaction as evident in her letter to Descartes whereby she requests an explanation of “how the soul of a human being (it being a thinking substance) can determine the bodily spirits, in order to bring about voluntary actions?” (Elizabeth 1643)....   [tags: brain, cartesian dualism]

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The Plain Sense of Things by Wallace Stevens

- “The Plain Sense of Things” by Wallace Stevens delicately explores a certain dualism that he finds in creativity by exploring the conflict between creativity and the lack thereof. He speaks of the point where creativity ends, where it dries up and becomes “inanimate,” but then goes on to point out how necessary that point of null inspiration is in the larger cycle of things. He uses the period between fall and winter, when the leaves have fallen and there is, as he explains, “A plain sense of things,” a “blank cold,” and a “sadness without cause” as a way to represent this stagnation of creativity that he views as a necessity....   [tags: dualism, creativity, stagnation]

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Cartesian Interactionism Theory

- Cartesian Interactionism paper Cartesian Interactionism is the theory that we are composed of two kinds of things. Both the Religious argument and the Knowledge argument suggest and agree that we are made up of more than just a physical shell, that we have an immortal part of us. Yet, the Mind-Body problem and the Overdetermination argument argues that this is certainly not possible. The Cartesian Interactionism belief is a plausible view of the connection between mind and the body. Cartesian Interactionism is the belief best supported by Rene Descartes, he states that the mind and body are two separate kinds of things, yet they have a casual influence on each other....   [tags: dualism, mind, body]

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The Mind-Body Problem

- With the number of brain injury cases observed and the continuous advances in neuroscience, this has proven to be strong evidence in supporting materialism. By defining what Cartesian dualists and materialists mean by the ‘brain’, ‘mind’, ‘body’ and ‘soul’, an argument on behalf of Cartesians dualists will be reached, that responds to evidence concerning brain injuries with the claims that the brain is only ‘an instrument of the soul’. This will lead to the conclusion that there is stronger contemporary support for materialism due to neuroscience and that the Cartesian dualism argument as it is, may be wrong....   [tags: Cartesian Dualism, Rene Descartes]

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To Resurrect a Ghost

- To Resurrect a Ghost Cartesian dualism has largely been replaced by empirical theories of the mind. Central to this development is Gilbert Ryle’s criticism of an immaterial ‘ghost’ inhabiting the material ‘machine’ of the body. A metaphysical self is incredible, and even if it is credible, both it and its manifestation in phenomenal experience are unknowable by others. Failure of this approach occurs when it is realized that existence of the physical is just as incredible as existence of the metaphysical....   [tags: Philosophy Dualism Papers]

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Appraisal of René Descartes

- In his works, Meditations on First Philosophy and The Passions of the Soul, René Descartes lays out his views on the mind. Descartes is a dualist, specifically an interactionalist, which is someone who believes that mental states and physical states are distinct from one another, yet still affect each other. This view, however, faces significant obstacles, to which Descartes believes he has an answer for. In this paper I will outline Descartes’ argument for the distinctness between the mind and body, explicate the problems his theory faces, and conclude that his dualist account cannot survive the objections....   [tags: Dualism, Argumentative Essay]

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Cartesian and Platonic Philosophical Themes in The Matrix

- This essay will examine the philosophical questions raised in the movie The Matrix. It will step through how the questions from the movie directly relate to both skepticism and the mind-body problem, and further how similarly those problems look to concepts raised by both Descartes’ and Plato’s philosophies. It will attempt to show that many of the questions raised in the movie are metaphor for concepts from each philosopher’s works, and why those concepts are important in relation to how they are presented in the film....   [tags: Cartesian Dualism, Descartes, Plato]

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Arguments fro Dualistic Theories

- Even though there are many cases and arguments for Dualism concerning mind - body, such as Descartes’ substance dualism, the theory does not often have hard, physical evidence to back up such premise like science does. The continued scientific progress over the past centuries has allowed us to better understand universal truths and the functions of the mind-body that were not able to have been explained scientifically in the past. Many complex, unexplained complexities have been simplified or “reduced” through chemistry,biology, or physics....   [tags: Descartes, philosophical analysis]

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René Descartes and Thomas Hobbes

- During the sixteen hundreds, the French philosopher René Descartes laid the foundations for the beginnings of Cartesian Dualism. In contrast, the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes argued against dualism in favor of materialism. Recently, Cartesian Dualism, and dualism in general has fallen out of favor as materialism arose as a more plausible and explanatory theory regarding the interrelationships between body and mind. The translation Descartes’ writing in the Meditations is far more cryptic than Hobbes’ writing in the Leviathan....   [tags: Descartes vs Hobbes]

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Use of Duality in Alfred Hitchcock’s Shadow of a Doubt

- Use of Duality in Alfred Hitchcock’s Shadow of a Doubt Alfred Hitchcock’s Shadow of a Doubt utilizes dualism to express the juxtaposition of good and evil. The dualism expressed throughout the film is not only done through the use of juxtaposing characters, it is also accomplished through the use of dualism within a character, as well as the literal duality of people as being placed in shots as two’s. This element allows the audience to be drawn in, creating intrigue and mystery around the plot and the characters, because the audience now wants to figure out the strange behavior that is being exhibited....   [tags: Movie Film Essays]

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Ontological Relativism and the Pragmatic Notion of Metaphysical Truth

- Ontological Relativism and the Pragmatic Notion of Metaphysical Truth ABSTRACT: I. Introduction The mind body problem resembles a black hole in the universe of philosophy: It takes a lot of energy which could be spent otherwise. Therefore, it would be liberating to show that it is not a problem at all. That is exactly what I shall do in this paper. Roughly, I shall argue as follows: First, I will show that the traditional mind body problem as a logical conflict will not occur if one is more decided in dualism....   [tags: Philosophy Metaphysics Research]

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How The Brain Works

- Current research shows that mental events cause physical events, and scientists believe examining single nerves is the key to understanding how the brain works as a complete unit. Understanding the brain at the nerve cell level will allow scientists to understand how human consciousness works (Blakeslee, 1992). Furthermore, the brain's thalamus is identified as the possible sensory connector because it fires 40 impulses per second that sweep through the entire brain (Blakeslee, 1995a). These findings are a serious implication to Dualism because it states the mind is not physical....   [tags: Anatomy, Nervous System]

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What It Is To Be Human

- What It Is To Be Human The body is socially constructed; and in this paper we explore the various and ever-changing constructions of the body, and thus of the embodied self......The one word, body, may therefore signify very different realities and perceptions of reality.....(Synnot 1992, 43) It has been said that in order to understand life and society, we as people must first understand ourselves. Who are we as a people. Who are we as individuals. Who are we as humans. These questions all present themselves when discussing a topic such as this....   [tags: essays research papers]

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I and My Chimney, by Herman Melville

- In his short story “I and My Chimney,” Herman Melville makes an effort to keep his old chimney, a chimney he very much acknowledges. Even though he believes the "chimney is grand seignior here" (Melville), his wife however is against keeping it because she finds it a burden and constantly complains on removing it in any way possible. It is seen that the narrator spends much of the story trying to describe how important the chimney was to him and the schemes his wife plans to get rid of the chimney....   [tags: I and My Chimney Essays]

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Descartes’, Spinoza’s, and Leibniz’s Response to the Mind-Body Problem

- Since Descartes many philosophers have discussed the problem of interaction between the mind and body. Philosophers have given rise to a variety of different answers to this question all with their own merits and flaws. These answers vary quite a lot. There is the idea of total separation between mind and body, championed by Descartes, which has come to be known as “Cartesian Dualism”. This, of course, gave rise to one of the many major responses to the mind-body problem which is the exact opposite of dualism; monism....   [tags: Philosophy, Greek]

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The Philosophy of Cognitive Science

- The Philosophy of Cognitive Science Psychophysical dualism — the distinction between mind and body — is the counterposition between essentially irreducible elements: the mind and body. Such a dualism implies the main ontological problem of the philosophy of cognitive science and philosophy of mind: the mind-body problem (MBP). The dualism and the referred-to problem has been insistently discussed in the philosophical tradition and several solutions have been proposed. Such solutions are properly philosophical or require a scientific approach....   [tags: Neurology Psychology Papers]

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Pragmatism as a Philosophy

- I have often heard people use the word pragmatic to describe actions, laws or feelings, but I never really looked at pragmatism as a philosophy before. As we studied this semester I found myself asking one question about each philosophy we covered. We discussed skepticism and the claim that we have no knowledge (Lawhead, W., The Philosophical Journey, 2009, p. 55). We compared rationalism and empiricism which posit that we do have knowledge, but disagree on whether that knowledge comes from intellect or experience (Lawhead, p....   [tags: Skepticism, Rationalism, Metaphysics]

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The Spirit In Context

- What are the possible points of agreement and points of tension between different religious schools of thought on the body, in relation to the Holy Spirit. How might Christians respond to these. Introduction Scripture seems to contradict itself with regard to the human body. Sometimes the body is seen as precious, for instance in 1 Cor 6:19-30, and sometimes as a hinderance to unity with Christ, 2 Cor 5:6-8. This seeming ambiguity within scripture has created distinct and conflicting schools of thought among Christian thinkers regarding the body and spirituality....   [tags: human body, the bible, holism]

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1869 words | (5.3 pages) | Preview

Exploring the Different Theories Involved in the Mind and Body Problem

- Exploring the Different Theories Involved in the Mind and Body Problem I will attempt to do this by firstly defining what the mind and body is secondly discussing what the mind and body problem is. Thirdly discussing the existing approaches to the problem and finally discussing the strengths and weaknesses of the approaches. The body is that which we perceive ourselves to be with our senses. It usually includes arms, legs a head and so on. The mind is that which is responsible for one’s thoughts and feelings, the seat of the faculty of reason....   [tags: Papers]

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Reasons for the Rejection of Anti-Realism in Relation to Mental Disorders

- ... Instead they support the idea that there is no clear indication of difference between having a disease and being healthy, rather it is a subjective feeling at best. To continue, Graham’s thoughts on realism require a rejection of opinions that attempt to reduce mental disorders to pure chemical and neurological issues. In an effort to do so, Graham raises two arguments on the behalf of anti-realism despite being a realist to show how such claims against realism and the idea that mental disorders exist are misguided....   [tags: psychologist George Graham]

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Courting Consciousness: The Future of Thinking Machines

- Star Trek: The Next Generation illustrates machines in the 24th century as having software with immense capabilities and astonishing aptitude to understand. One such machine is the android Data, who serves as a lieutenant commander on the Enterprise-D. Data demonstrates an extraordinary ability to contain knowledge, evolve programs as necessary, and analyze the experiences which it is involved in. Referring to Data as an it, becomes an important issue aboard the Enterprise-D. According to Commander Bruce Maddox, associate chair of robotics at the Daystrom Institute, Data is precisely an it; a machine incapable of thinking which is therefore only property....   [tags: Informative Essay]

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The Mind as a Function of the Body by Richard Taylor

- Science cannot explain everything but it strives to look for answers and relies on proof. Religion is based solely on faith and believes in many things that do not make sense and do not have proof to support its ideas. The belief that there is a substance beyond the element that takes up no space, but is still connected with the body is one of them. The belief that the mind or soul are not linked to the body and that they are both two separate substances. The body is one and the mind is another....   [tags: article analysis, science, psychology]

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Angelology and Satanology

- Some challenges facing Christians are the battles against temptation, sin and evil. The question is, do we have answers for what the Bible teaches about ethical dualism, the relationship between God and Satan, whether they are two eternal and equal forces that have struggled and will struggle for eternity, what the Bible teaches in the passages of Isaiah 14:12 – 17 and Ezekiel 28, what some of the common objections to my interpretation of these two passages are, and how the origin of Satan explains that God didn’t create evil....   [tags: Christianity, Sin, Evil]

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Evidences for Materialism

- Neuroscience, Brain Lesion Deficit and Alzheimer's is the best evidence for Materialism. Firstly, I'll explain what materialism is and its opposing theory, dualism. Then I'll describe the evidence for materialism and respond with how dualists would. I conclude that Materialism is the best mind theory due to scientific evidence. Materialism and Dualism are both theories based on where the mind is located. The mind consists of mental states. Mental states can be divided into three categories: cognitive, conative and affective....   [tags: Alzheimer's Disease Essays]

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Consciousness and fundamental act

- 1. Consciousness is the fundamental fact of human existence, from the view point of persons examining their own experience. There are various aspects of consciouness, such as perception, mental imagery, thinking, memory and emotions. I believe that consiouness is a property of some lower animals and machines. An ant for an example has a conscious mind about staying in covered areas during the rain and to panic when something attacks it. This shows memory, perception and thinking which shows that it does have a conscious....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Descartes Asks "Are You Your Brain or Your Mind?"

- Is the brain the mind. Is the mind the brain. Are they two wholly distinct things. If so, are you your brain or your mind. These questions, among others, were critically analyzed in the writings of Descartes. My aim in this short paper is to threefold: (i) To provide a general overview of Descartes’ argument(s) for his substance dualism theory, in particular, I’ll focus on his Divisibility Argument (or DA: I’ll continue to use this abbreviation for the remainder of my paper); (ii) To demonstrate why one might object to Descartes’ DA—and thus, object to Cartesian substance dualism altogether; and (iii) To provide an alternative conception of the mind, a ‘physicalist’ conception of the mind,...   [tags: human, mental, functions]

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Interpreting The Matrix through Descartes’s Philosophy

- Many ancient philosophers, including Plato, explored metaphysics in relation to reality before Descartes’s in-depth questioning of the subject. However, Descartes’s views on mind/body dualism differ greatly from Plato’s. As Marleen Rozemond (author of Descartes's Dualism) points out, Plato believes that the body is simply a vessel for the soul to use, while Descartes provides proof that the body and soul are interconnected (172). One does not simply use the other; though they are separate, the mind affects the body and the body affects the mind....   [tags: The Matrix Essays]

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Plato’s Tripartite Theory

- Question one To understand the logic behind Plato’s Tripartite theory it is important to recognize that his theory is just drawing comparisons from how societies operate and how human beings operate. What Plato is discussing with this theory is how a just society would operate as compared to how a just person would operate. He explains that just like society is split up into different institutions, such as the ruling class and the working class, the human being is also split up into different institutions....   [tags: Psychology ]

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Qualia and Epiphenomenalism

- The philosophical theory of dualism holds that mind and body are two separate entities. While dualism presupposes that the two ‘substances’ may interact, it contrasts physicalism by refusing to denote correlation between body and mind as proof of identity. Comparing the two theories, dualism’s invulnerable proof of the existence of qualia manages to evade arguments from physicalism. While a common argument against qualia—non-physical properties defined in Jackson’s Knowledge Argument—targets the unsound nature of epiphenomenalism, this claim is not fatal to the theory of dualism as it contains claims of causation and fails to stand resolute to the conceivability of philosophical zombies....   [tags: Jackson's Knowledge Argument]

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The Plausibility of Analytic Functionalism

- The tenets of analytic functionalism worked well at attempting to align the philosophies of behaviorism and the identity theory, and though there are many objections to the theory’s method of formulaic definition of mental states, I find that analytic functionalism is a plausible theory that describes the mind. I find that in determining a means in which to define mental states, analytic functionalism demonstrates an ontological method in which one can characterize the mind using statements that can endure more rigor than “folk psychology” alone....   [tags: Philosophy]

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2138 words | (6.1 pages) | Preview

Identity Theory

- This paper aims to endorse physicalism over dualism by means of Smart’s concept of identity theory. Smart’s article Sensations and the Brain provides a strong argument for identity theory and accounts for many of it primary objections. Here I plan to first discuss the main arguments for physicalism over dualism, then more specific arguments for identity theory, and finish with further criticisms of identity theory. Physicalism is the theory that the universe contains nothing other than the physical....   [tags: Psychology]

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The Relation of Consciousness to the Material World

- The Relation of Consciousness to the Material Worl The relation of consciousness to the material world is puzzle, which has its origin in dualism, a philosophy of mind which posits their fundamental separation. Dualism, in turn, has its roots in folk wisdom. The belief that humans are more than bodies and that there is something in human nature that survives bodily death has its origins in prehistory; it becomes explicit in the mythology of Ancient Egypt and Assyria and was formulated into a philosophical position in the Platonic thought of Ancient Greece....   [tags: Papers]

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696 words | (2 pages) | Preview

The Mind-Body Problem

- The Mind-Body Problem The mind-body problem, which is still debated even today, raises the question about the relationship between the mind and the body. Theorists, such as René Descartes and Thomas Nagel, have written extensively on the problem but they have many dissenting beliefs. Descartes, a dualist, contends that the mind and body are two different substances that can exist separately. Conversely, Nagel, a dual aspect theorist, contends that the mind and body are not substances but different properties....   [tags: Papers]

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954 words | (2.7 pages) | Preview

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