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Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding by David Hume

- David Hume wrote Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding in 1748, right in the middle of the Enlightenment and on the eve of the Industrial and Scientific Revolution. So it only makes sense that some of the ideas and comparisons used are slightly outdated, but science, if anything, helps his argument regarding causality. Hume is ultimately concerned with the origins of causality, how we are able to gain knowledge from causality, and if we can even call the knowledge derived from causality real knowledge....   [tags: David Hume, Enlightenment]

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How We Gain Knowledge and What We Do with Knowledge: David Hume

- David Hume was an imperialist philosopher who revolutionized scientific argument and methodology with his skepticism. His arguments about the way people though up to his day, and still today, are fundamental in explaining how we gain knowledge and what we do with this knowledge. Hume helped pave a road leading toward a higher state of consciousness for humanity with his theory concerning the perceptions of the mind. He divided the minds perception into two distinct group's impression and ideas. With these two classifications Hume rationalized the depths of human understanding....   [tags: David Hume, Knowledge, philosophy]

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David Hume - Naturalistic Metaethics, Politics, and Psychology

- David Hume - Naturalistic Metaethics, Politics, and Psychology ABSTRACT: According to the views expressed in this paper, influences unrelated to the conclusions of Immanuel Kant and G. E. Moore respecting what they saw as the appropriate foundation for moral systems seems to have been at work in the reactions of both to the earlier criticisms of David Hume. Building on a "recent meeting" with Hume in a pub on Princes Street in Edinburgh, I develop the suggestion that both Kant and Moore were loyal to traditional notions of an intuited, non-prudential basis for ethical injunctions....   [tags: Philosophy David Hume]

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On Emotion and Value in David Hume and Max Scheler

- On Emotion and Value in David Hume and Max Scheler ABSTRACT: While some philosophers tend to exclude any significance of emotion for the moral life, others place them in the center of both the moral life and the theory of value judgment. This paper presents a confrontation of two classic positions of the second type, namely the position of Hume and Scheler. The ultimate goal of this confrontation is metatheoretical — particularly as it concerns the analysis of the relations between the idea of emotion and the idea of value in this kind of theory of value judgment....   [tags: David Hume Max Scheler Philosophy Essays]

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David Hume and Future Occurrences

- In An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding, David Hume demonstrates how there is no way to rationally make any claims about future occurrences. According to Hume knowledge of matters of fact come from previous experience. From building on this rationale, Hume goes on to prove how, as humans we can only make inferences on what will happen in the future, based on our experiences of the past. But he points out that we are incorrect to believe that we are justified in using our experience of the past as a means of evidence of what will happen in the future....   [tags: Philosophy Hume Philosophical Essays]

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David Hume on the Existence of Miracles

- In this paper I will look at David Hume’s (1711-1776) discussion from the An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, Section X, Of Miracles regarding whether it is a reasonable assumption to believe in the existence of miracles. I will first discuss why the existence of miracles matters and how miracles relate to our understanding of the laws of nature. Secondly, I will look at how Hume argues that it is never reasonable to believe in miracles. I will then provide objections to this argument which I feel support the idea that belief is not only reasonable but a necessary condition for a faithful life....   [tags: phylosphical analysis]

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Of the Standard of Taste by David Hume

- David Hume’s essay, "Of The Standard of Taste," is one of the most revered of the copious works on what is referred to as aesthetics. Although, he is better known for his other works, such as, "A treatise of human Nature," "An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding," and "An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals," all in which he shows how limited a role reason has in the lives of humans. This subjective view is also present in "Of The Standard of Taste": aesthetic judgments are based on personal feeling more than they are on reason....   [tags: principles of morals, aesthetic judgement]

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David Hume's Of the Standard of Taste

- David Hume’s essay “Of the Standard of Taste” addresses the problem of how objects are judged. Hume addresses three assumptions about how aesthetic value is determined. These assumptions are: all tastes are equal, some art is better than others, and aesthetic value of art is defined by a person’s taste(from lecture). However, Hume finds the three beliefs to be an “inconsistent triad”(from lecture) of assumptions. If all taste is equal but taste defines the aesthetic value, how can it be that some art is good and others bad....   [tags: Literary Analysis]

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David Hume's Of the Standard of Taste

- Introduction Aesthetics is, to put it simply, the study of art, beauty, and judgments thereof. As society tends to not view art as a functional endeavour, this branch of study may seem pointless; in fact a well-known aesthete and self-proclaimed Professor of Aesthetics, Oscar Wilde, stated “All art is quite useless.” However, this sentence is misleading, and the same man also said "Aestheticism is a search after the signs of the beautiful. It is the science of the beautiful through which men seek the correlation of the arts....   [tags: aesthetics, subjectivism, perspective]

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Quest on the Mind: David Hume

- David Hume, the insightful philosophical wonderer who asks the questions about ourselves the limitations we are bound to, and what truly makes human beings what we are. In specific Hume is trying to persuade us into the understanding of matters of fact, in which we base our lives upon and form habits towards certain things and how we grow accustom to other things surrounding us. After all, we do not know how things are going to turn out to be, we can only assume from previous experiences we have had, that things will turn out the same as they did in past through cause and effect and in Hume’s words custom and habit....   [tags: insightful philosophical wonderer]

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The Bundle Theory by David Hume

- The mystery of consciousness has puzzled humans for thousands of years. We feel pain, hunger, and countless other perceived emotions that we know to be true. We are all aware that we are conscious; however, nobody has discovered whether or not the human body is organized in a specific way that leads to consciousness. The fact is that the existence of consciousness, the very essence of knowledge, is undeniable, regardless of the lack of a concrete systematic organization of facts to explain it....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume's Theory of Ethics

- David Hume is considered to be one of the big three British empiricists, along with Hobbes and Locke, and lived near the end of the Enlightenment. The Catholic Church was losing its control over science, politics and philosophy and the Aristotelian world view was being swallowed up by a more mechanistic viewpoint. Galileo found the theory provided by Copernicus to be correct, that our earth was not the center of everything, but the celestial bodies including the earth circled the sun. Mathematicians abounded....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume: Vices and Virtues

- Hume: Vices and Virtues Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems such as those regarding existence, reality, knowledge, values, the human mind and language. “I think, therefore I am” is a famous quotation that attempts to define this study very simply, and the philosopher quoted was Rene Descartes, a 17th century Frenchman who is widely regarded as the Father of Modern Philosophy. David Hume was an 18th century Scotsman who is considered by many to be the most important philosopher ever to write in English....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Philosophy of David Hume

- "The human brain starts working the moment you are born and never stops until you stand up to speak in public." –( George Jessel ). One can say or try and dissect the brain and try to figure what’s going on inside of it and that’s what Philosophers today try to accomplish, but a question can be raised from this. Why is that why must the brain be dissected. This question is raised for the simple fact that Philosophers really want to know what’s going on the human brain. This can also go back to “knowing” and believing in something that can be proven as a fact....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume and Justice

- David Hume is considered a reputable and influential philosopher whose empirical approach provided a basis for a number of moral principles. Although the complexity of Hume’s expressive nature and intellectual thought is somewhat mindboggling to most readers, the importance of the account of justice can be seen as significant and of relevance to many values and morals in even today’s society. Hume’s discussion of moral virtues in his book An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals addresses the importance of justice in terms that relate to its sole foundation and further exemplification of moral distinctions....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume´s Philosophy

- Hume’s Epistemology David Hume was a Scottish philosopher known for his ideas of skepticism and empiricism. Hume strived to better develop John Locke’s idea of empiricism by using a scientific study of our own human nature. We cannot lean on common sense to exemplify human conduct without offering any clarification to the subject. In other words, Hume says that since human beings do, as a matter of fact, live and function in this world, observation of how humans do so is imminent. The primary goal of philosophy is simply to explain and justify the reasoning of why we believe what we do....   [tags: Ideas,Impressions]

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David Hume And The Middle Of A Philosophic Dialogue

- ... He defines an impression as type of perception which involves actual experience i.e. hearing, seeing, or feeling. Thirdly he defines an idea as another form of perception of the mind which involves thinking of something instead of actually (first hand) experiencing it. From these definitions he argues that: (1) All ideas are derived from impressions and impressions only. (2) The idea of a “self” or “self-identity” must arise from impressions because all ideas definitionally must. (3) There is no impression that exists as a persisting thing....   [tags: Mind, Perception, Consciousness, John Locke]

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David Hume's Argument on Passion and Morality

- Why is incest deplorable amongst humans, but not for dogs. What makes it acceptable for a man to kill a deer, but wrong if he kills another man. Why do these lines get drawn between humans and animals. David Hume has an answer to these questions. Though many philosophers, like Saint Augustine, argue that humans are morally different from animals because of their capability to reason, Hume states that it is passion and sentiment that determines morality. In his book, Treatise with Human Nature, Hume claims that vice and virtue stems from the pleasure or pain we, mankind, feel in response to an action not from the facts that we observe (Hume, 218)....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume 's Theory Of Induction

- ... This is where habit of thought comes into play. Habit is defined as a settled or regular tendency or practice. Part of the reason that we expect certain things to happen just as they have before is because they have happened that way before. A great example of this is the weather. Most people expect, out of habit and past experience, the weather to be hot during the summer and cold during the winter. But those of us who reside in Texas, and other states known for their ever fluctuating weather, know that those expectations aren 't always met with the results we predict or expect....   [tags: Inductive reasoning, Reasoning]

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Philosophy: John Locke, David Hume

- This is a philosophical question that has been proven ultimately difficult to answer. I believe it is as a result of the complexity of the consent theory. For a theory that places high emphasis on autonomy and freedom, the most obvious basis for legitimate political authority should be some form of voluntary, self-assumed obligation. However, some philosophers such as John Locke and Charles Beitz argue that tacit consent can ground obligation to obey the state’s law while others such as Hanna Pitkin and David Hume counter this argument with the opinion that tacit consent is not sufficient to ground political obligation....   [tags: political theory essay ]

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An Analysis of David Hume's Affirmation

- David Hume makes a strong affirmation in section IV of an Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Hume states, "I shall venture to affirm as a general proposition, which admits of no exception, that the knowledge of this relation is not, in any instance attained by reasonings a priori; but entirely from experience." In this statement, when discussing "knowledge of this relation," Hume is referring to the relation between cause and effect. This argument can easily be dismissed as skeptical, for it puts all knowledge of this sort in doubt....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Analysis of Suicide by David Hume

- Analysis of Of Suicide by David Hume "I believe that no man ever threw away life, while it was worth keeping." In David Hume's essay "Of Suicide," the philosophical argument of justified suicide is pursued. However, the underlying argument focuses on the injustification of the government and society condemning and forbidding such an action and the creation of superstitions and falsehoods of religion and God. Hume argues that the last phases that a person goes through before taking his life is those of "disorder, weakness, insensibility, and stupidity," and that those traits, when obvious to the mind, doom him to a death by his own decision....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume on Sentiments and Reason

- In Appendix I., Concerning Moral Sentiment, David Hume looks to find a place in morality for reason, and sentiment. Through, five principles he ultimately concludes that reason has no place within the concept of morality, but rather is something that can only assist sentiment in matters concerning morality. And while reason can be true or false, those truths or falsities apply to facts, not to morality. He then argues morals are the direct result of sentiment, or the inner feeling within a human being....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume's Theory of Knowledge

- Knowledge is gained only through experience, and experiences only exist in the mind as individual units of thought. This theory of knowledge belonged to David Hume, a Scottish philosopher. Hume was born on April 26, 1711, as his family’s second son. His father died when he was an infant and left his mother to care for him, his older brother, and his sister. David Hume passed through ordinary classes with great success, and found an early love for literature. He lived on his family’s estate, Ninewells, near Edinburgh....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Of Miracles by David Hume

- "Of Miracles" by David Hume In David Hume?s paper ?Of Miracles,. Hume presents a various number of arguments concerning why people ought not to believe in any miracles. Hume does not think that miracles do not exist it is just that we should not believe in them because they have no rational background. One of his arguments is just by definition miracles are unbelievable. And have no rational means in believing miracles. Another argument is that most miracles tend to come from uncivilized countries and the witnesses typically have conflicts of interest and counterdict each others experiences....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume and His Thoughts

- David Hume and His Thoughts Hume begins his argument by observing that there is “a great variety of taste, as well as of opinions, which prevails the world.” This diversity is found among people of the same background and culture within the same group and is even more pronounced among “distance nations and remote ages.” A “standard of taste” would provide a definite way to reconcile this diversity. By taste, Hume refers to impressions or emotional responses associated with beauty and ugliness....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Pragmatism, Empiricism and David Hume

- Pragmatism, Empiricism and David Hume Pragmatism is based on the philosophy that ideas must be tested and re-tested, that experiences dictate reality. Pragmatists also believe in no absolute truths or values existing. David Hume argues that, “no proof can be derived from any fact, of which we are so intimately conscious; nor is there anything of which we can be certain, if we doubt this” (Treatise 2645). Hume’s empiricist ideals were roots to early pragmatic thought, by way of the theory that, in our reality, nothing is certain and everything that can be sensed must be constantly qualified to find a place in reality....   [tags: essays research papers]

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David Hume 's Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding

- ... On the other hand, ideas in those situations are often mistaken as equivalent to impressions. Hume argues that new complex ideas are derived from the combination of simple ideas, which were copied from earlier feelings, or sensations. To support his argument, he proposed the “Copy principle”, which states that all ideas are copied from impressions. Ideas built from impression can arise independently of their impressions, and each of them is distinct from the others. Hume offers two arguments as foundation for his principle....   [tags: Mind, Thought, Logic, Philosophy]

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David Hume's Theory of Causality

- What Came First: The Chicken or the Egg. David Hume moves through a logical progression of the ideas behind cause and effect. He critically analyzes the reasons behind those generally accepted ideas. Though the relation of cause and effect seems to be completely logical and based on common sense, he discusses our impressions and ideas and why they are believed. Hume’s progression, starting with his initial definition of cause, to his final conclusion in his doctrine on causality. As a result, it proves how Hume’s argument on causality follows the same path as his epistemology, with the two ideas complimenting each other so that it is rationally impossible to accept the epistemology and not...   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume's Theory of Knowledge

- Empiricism (en- peiran; to try something for yourself): The doctrine that all knowledge must come through the senses; there are no innate ideas born within us that only require to be remembered (ie, Plato). All knowledge is reducible to sensation, that is, our concepts are only sense images. In short, there is no knowledge other than that obtained by sense observation. Remember that according to Descartes, what I know first and foremost are my ideas. It is only later that he seeks to know if the extramental world exists, and so he begins with his ideas and then moves towards real being (rather than vice versa)....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume 's Principles Of Uniformity Of Nature

- ... Induction, as Hume puts it, is when a certain primes makes the conclusion more likely. For instance by observing an animal such a humming bird and analyzing it 's characteristics such as the birds colour, shape, anatomy, one can generalize and conclude that all other humming birds share the same characteristics as the one they observed. Inductive knowledge involves generalization and predicting the outcome based on our past sensory experience. It is basically what we determine to be a pattern or rule based on examples that we see....   [tags: Logic, Inductive reasoning, Scientific method]

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David Hume and Future Occurrences

- David Hume, in An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding, discusses how we cannot predict the future. Even though our experiences and our reasoning tell us that objects act in a predictable way, we still cannot prove how objects will act in the future based upon previous interactions. After biting into a piece of pizza we expect an enjoyable taste. This enjoyable taste is expected because our past experiences have proven this to us. Even though we think we can predict that the pizza will act the same as our previous experiences, it may just blow up upon biting....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume's Argument Against Belief in the Existence of Miracles

- David Hume was a British empiricist, meaning he believed all knowledge comes through the senses. He argued against the existence of innate ideas, stating that humans have knowledge only of things which they directly experience. These claims have a major impact on his argument against the existence of miracles, and in this essay I will explain and critically evaluate this argument. In his discussion 'Of Miracles' in Section X of An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding, Hume defines a miracle as “a violation of the laws of nature and as a firm and unalterable experience has established these laws”1....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume and Karl Marx’s Critiques of Religion

- Where does religion come from. Many have tried to answer this question, only leaving us with more questions than answers. This essay will focus on two philosophers David Hume and Karl Marx both has strong critiques on the existence of God. Both going against the design argument, the design argument is the argument for the existence of God or single creator; however, with Hume’s empiricist and Marx's atheist they both attack the design argument in different ways, ultimately coming to the same conclusion and that is there is no God....   [tags: religion]

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The Effect of Rene Descartes and David Hume on the Philosophical World

- Rene Descartes and David Hume both have had a profound effect on the philosophical world. Both these philosophers are associated explicitly with two separate schools of philosophy which are Rationalism and Empiricism. It is this division between Rationalism and Empiricism that allows for Descartes and Hume to present differing accounts of the mind and mentality. Descartes is widely recognized as the father of modern philosophy, he is a rationalist, who considers knowledge of the metaphysical as existing separate from physical reality believing that truth cannot be acquired through the senses but through the intellect in the form of deductive reasoning....   [tags: rationalism, empirism]

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David Hume's Distinction Between Natural and Artificial Virtues

- In David Hume’s A Treatise of Human Nature, he divides the virtues of human beings into two types: natural and artificial. He argues that laws are artificial and a human invention. Therefore, he makes the point that justice is an artificial virtue instead of a natural virtue. He believed that human beings are moral by nature – they were born with some sense of morality and that in order to understand our “moral conceptions,” studying human psychology is the key (Moehler). In this paper, I will argue for Hume’s distinction between the natural and artificial virtues....   [tags: A Treatise of Human Nature]

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A Defense of David Hume's Moral Sense Theory

- In this paper I will defend David Hume’s Moral Sense Theory, which states that like sight and hearing, morals are a perceptive sense derived from our emotional responses. Since morals are derived from our emotional responses rather than reason, morals are not objective. Moreover, the emotional basis of morality is empirically proven in recent studies in psychology, areas in the brain associated with emotion are the most active while making a moral judgment. My argument will be in two parts, first that morals are response-dependent, meaning that while reason is still a contributing factor to our moral judgments, they are produced primarily by our emotional responses, and finally that each ind...   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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A Treatise of Human Nature: David Hume´s Philosophy

- It seems most appropriate, before having any mention of Hume’s philosophy, to briefly enunciate the concept of empiricism. Prior to Immanuel Kant’s solicitation of Transcendental Idealism, the schools of epistemological thought were divided into rationalism and the aforementioned empiricism. The former is the belief that knowledge is innate, and that logic and reason are the chief methods of acquiring that knowledge. Conversely, empiricists believe that knowledge is sensory, or experience, based; in essence, that human beings are tabula rasa....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume 's Philosophy / Free Will Essay

- ... Hogan). If we are not free to do so then there is no point in our existence as a whole because sinning would be a concept outside of our control. The teachings of Jesus are based on the fact that we can freely choose at all times. For example, if we are asked to repent then we’re obviously free to choose whether to repent or not. If we apply the Libertarianism view to this question then it is simple to understand that human beings would be considered completely free. To say that humans are completely free is wrong because there’s no way that everything we do is one hundred percent up to us....   [tags: Free will, Determinism, Causality, Metaphysics]

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David Hume's Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion

- ... As an empiricist and a skeptic, he calls to “let us become thoroughly sensible of the weakness, blindness, and narrow limits of human reason.” (131) Philo believes that because humans have been historically ignorant about science and the universe, that humanity especially has no right to speculate about theology. He continues by calling out the “contradictions which adhere to the very ideas of matter, cause and effect, extension, space, time, motion; and in a word, quantity of all kinds, the object of the only science that can fairly pretend to any certainty or evidence....   [tags: skepticism, philosophy]

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Philosophy of David Hume

- Philosophy in itself is an unidentifiable subject matter because of the lack of specificity in the fields it touches upon. It is “defined” as a way for humans to strive for ourselves in this reality in which we live in. No one person has the answers as to who we are and why we are living. The value of philosophy changes in character as history changes, thus the meaning of philosophy is what we as individuals perceive it to be. Though subjective, there are core ideals that unite the beliefs of all philosophy, such as the idea of the self....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Agreeing With David Hume's Theory on Miracles

- I will argue that Hume's argument is plausible in explaining why it is highly improbable for a miracle to occur because no testimony given by a person can establish a miracle, as it would require an explanation that overrules the laws of nature, which is highly unlikely. I agree with Hume's argument, and believe that it is correct; however, there are some objections I have in regards to some of his points. The central claim that Hume is trying to make is that no testimony given by a person can establish a miracle....   [tags: philosophy, beliefs, miracle]

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David Hume’s Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion

-      In Hume’s Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion we are introduced to three characters that serve the purpose to debate God and his nature, more specifically, what can mankind infer about God and his nature. The three characters; Demea, Philo, and Cleanthes all engage in a debate concerning this question and they all serve the purpose of supporting their views on the subject. It is the “argument from design” put forth by Cleanthes that is the focal point of the discussion, and it is Demea and Philo who attempt to discredit it....   [tags: Hume Religious Essays]

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David Hume

- David Hume Hume, David, 1711-76, Scottish philosopher and historian. Hume carried the empiricism of John Locke and George Berkeley to the logical extreme of radical skepticism. He repudiated the possibility of certain knowledge, finding in the mind nothing but a series of sensations, and held that cause-and-effect in the natural world derives solely from the conjunction of two impressions....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume

-       "There are more things n heaven and Earth than dreamt of in your philosophy" (Shakespeare, 211).  This quote from William Shakespeare's The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark presents quite an idea.  It suggests that in our modern philosophy we have not even began to scratch the surface of what causes the nature of things around us.  Our philosophy is centered on the idea of cause and effect.  Whether a person realizes it, every standpoint that they argue from is based on a cause and/or its effect.  There isn't necessarily anything wrong with this, but most people don't bother to analyze what the true connection is between a cause and it's effect.  David Hume does an outstanding job...   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Comparing David Hume and Immanuel Kant

- Comparing David Hume and Immanuel Kant David Hume and Immanuel Kant each made a significant break from other theorists in putting forward a morality that doesn’t require a higher being or god, for a man to recognize his moral duty. Although Hume and Kant shared some basic principals they differed on their view of morality. In comparing the different views on human will and the maxims established to determine moral worth by David Hume and Immanuel Kant, I find their theories on morality have some merit although limited in view....   [tags: Philosophy Morality Papers]

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David Hume's Anti Miracle Belief

- The problem of miracles is an ancient one that has persisted for most of human history, but that has been addressed with some depth only in the last few centuries. The great empiricist philosopher David Hume was one of the first to present an analysis of miracles that tried to explain why they are created (by human beings themselves, in Hume’s opinion) and why people are so ready to believe in them. This is an important field of study, as with greater knowledge of the character of physical law, one finds more and more (rather than less) accounts of miracles being touted as exceptions to natural laws....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume’s Treatment of Mind

- This paper critically examines Hume’s argument against the knowledge/existence of substantival mind. This denial is rooted in his epistemology which includes a theory of how complex ideas which lack corresponding impressions are manufactured by the imagination, in conjunction with the memory, on the basis of three relations among impressions: resemblance, continuity and constant conjunction. The crux of my critique consists in pointing out that these relations are such that only an enduring, unified agent could interact with them in the way Hume describes....   [tags: Philosophy Papers]

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Analysis of Suicide by David Hume

- Hume on Suicide ONE considerable advantage that arises from Philosophy, consists in the sovereign antidote which it affords to superstition and false religion. All other remedies against that pestilent distemper are vain, or at least uncertain. Plain good sense and the practice of the world, which alone serve most purposes of life, are here found ineffectual: History as well as daily experience furnish instances of men endowed with the {2} strongest capacity for business and affairs, who have all their lives crouched under slavery to the grossest superstition....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume and Future Occurrences

- Hume asked, "what reason do we have in thinking the future will resemble the past?" It is reasonable to think that it will because there is no contradiction in supposing the future won't resemble the past. But it is also true that is possible for the world to change dramatically and our previous experience would be completely useless in judging future experience. We want to say that past experiences have been a good predictor. We are compelled to do so and it is almost as if we can't help ourselves....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Different Viewpoints of Empiricist Philosphers: John Locke, David Hume, George Berkley

- Empiricists are philosophers who argue that knowledge comes from sensory experience. This means that whatever we experience through our senses are the only ideas that can be epistemically justified. John Locke, David Hume, and George Berkley are three of the most influential empiricists in modern philosophical history. Though sharing the same premise about knowledge stemming from sensory experience and having some common ground in certain areas, each philosopher had different views on what we can and cannot know through empirical evidence about the universe....   [tags: state, justification, sensory experience]

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Enquiries Concerning Human Understanding by David Hume

- The way in which a concept comes to exist in one’s mind is itself a concept worth examining. Many philosophers have looked for the origin of thought in the human mind, and many different reasons for this origin have been put forth. As a philosopher, it is only fitting that Hume would propose his own framework for human thinking. For Hume, perceptions are developed either as the understanding of the outside world, or as recollections of these events or alterations of these memories within the mind¹....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism, 2015]

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David Hume on Miracles

- Hume’s empiricist ideology clearly informed his position on the topic of miracles. In the following, I will examine Hume’s take on empiricism. From this it will be possible to deduce how Hume’s empiricism played a prominent role in influencing his belief on miracles. First, what were the principles of Hume’s empiricism. Hume claims that everyone is born with a blank slate (tabula rasa). The tabula rasa receives impressions which are products of immediate experience. For example, the color of the computer screen I am looking at represents an impression....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume's Mind Game

- Hume's Mind Game The human mind is a very intricate machine. There have been many people that have attempted, and failed, to explain how the human mind operates. After reading Hume, I was in agreement with a lot of what he was explaining. Hume, in my mind, has come the closest to uncovering the minds operations. Robert Hume dealt with a lot of what Decarte talked about in his writings. The difference between Decarte and Hume is that Hume "ironed out" a lot of the "wrinkles" that Decarte left behind....   [tags: essays research papers]

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David Hume: On Miracles

- In explaining Hume’s critique of the belief in miracles, we must first understand the definition of a miracle. The Webster Dictionary defines a miracle as: a supernatural event regarded as to define action, one of the acts worked by Christ which revealed his divinity an extremely remarkable achievement or event, an unexpected piece of luck. Therefore, a miracle is based on one’s perception of past experiences, what everyone sees. It is based on an individuals own reality, and the faith in which he/she believes in, it is based on interior events such as what we are taught, and exterior events, such as what we hear or see first hand....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume On Empiricism

- Hume On Empiricism The ultimate question that Hume seems to be seeking an answer to is that of why is that we believe what we believe. For most of us the answer is grounded in our own personal experiences and can in no way be justified by a common or worldly assumption. Our pasts, according to Hume, are reliant on some truths which we have justified according to reason, but in being a skeptic reason is hardly a solution for anything concerning our past, present or future. Our reasoning according to causality is slightly inhibited in that Hume suggests that it is not that we are not able to know anything about future events based on past experiences, but rather that we are just not rationa...   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Free Will And The Concept Of A Person

- ... Moreover, going against the libertarian point of view Hume proclaims, “For as actions are objects of our moral sentiment, so far only as they are indications of internal character…it is impossible that they can give rise either to praise or blame, where they proceed not from these principles, but are altogether derived from external violence” (Perry, Fischer, Bratman 414). Hume remarks that morality would be impossible according to a negation of necessity and causes, which could not even exist....   [tags: Free will, Determinism, Causality, David Hume]

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The Absurdity Of A Simple Time Telling Device

- ... He first argues that something created from an intelligent designer is comprised of many complex parts. Secondly, there must be orderliness and not chaos, the pieces cannot just exist, but they must be able to function together. Thirdly, there must be delicacy towards putting the parts together, there can exist alternatives, but it must be built in a certain way. Fourthly, object must be purposeful; it must reach some goal (Paley 178). Since the universe complies with his four criteria he concludes that there must exist an intelligent universe creator whom he calls God....   [tags: Teleological argument, Existence, David Hume]

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Human Nature as Viewed by Thomas Hobbes and David Hume

- Human Nature as Viewed by Thomas Hobbes and David Hume Thomas Hobbes in Chapter 13 of Leviathan, and David Hume in Section 3 of An Enquiry Concerning the Princples of Morals, give views of human nature. Hobbes’ view captures survivalism as significant in our nature but cannot account for altruism. We cover Hobbes’ theory with a theory of Varied Levels of Survivalism, explaining a larger body of behavior with the foundation Hobbes gives. Hume gives a scenario which does not directly prove fruitful, but he does capture selfless behavior....   [tags: Philosophy Essays]

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David Hume’s Two Definitions of Cause

- David Hume’s Two Definitions of Cause David Hume’s two definitions of cause found in both A Treatise of Human Nature, and An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding have been the center of much controversy in regards to his actual view of causation. Much of the debate centers on the lack of consistency between the two definitions and also with the definitions as a part of the greater text. As for the latter objection, much of the inconsistency can be remedied by sticking to the account presented in the Enquiry, as Hume makes explicit in the Author’s Advertisement that the Treatise was a “work which the Author [Hume] had projected before he left College, and which he wrote and published not...   [tags: Philosophy Essays]

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John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume

- Locke, Berkeley, and Hume Enlightenment began with an unparalleled confidence in human reason. The new science's success in making clear the natural world through Locke, Berkeley, and Hume affected the efforts of philosophy in two ways. The first is by locating the basis of human knowledge in the human mind and its encounter with the physical world. Second is by directing philosophy's attention to an analysis of the mind that was capable of such cognitive success. John Locke set the tone for enlightenment by affirming the foundational principle of empiricism: There is nothing in the intellect that was not previously in the senses....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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John Locke, George Berkeley and David Hume

- John Locke, Berkeley and Hume are all empiricist philosophers. They all have many different believes, but agree on the three anchor points; The only source of genuine knowledge is sense experience, reason is an unreliable and inadequate route to knowledge unless it is grounded in the solid bedrock of sense experience and there is no evidence of innate ideas within the mind that are known from experience. Each of these philosophers developed some of the most fascinating conceptions of the relationships between our thoughts and the world around us....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Suicide's Origin in Literature

- David Hume’s “Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion” shields suicide while Emile Durkheim’s “Suicide and Modernity” unearths the causes. Durkheim and Hume label suicide differently because their perspectives varied from the moral structures in their positions. Their causative ideas of suicide are just as dissimilar as their definitions. One of the motives tied to suicide is morality; a topic that has powers vested in the justification and deconstruction of the act. Not only is morality a central subtopic, agency under Durkheim and Hume holds a strong position that affects the way suicide works....   [tags: David Hume, Emile Durkheim, Suicide]

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What Are Aesthetics?

- When questioning something as controversial as the possibility of a standard of aesthetic judgment, one must take into account the many different perspectives that already exist on the matter. For centuries now, some of the greatest philosophers such as David Hume and Immanuel Kant have attempted to answer this timeless question. However, understandings and interpretations of art are constantly evolving. This has made a clear concise answer difficult to find. Throughout this essay, I will discuss previous opinions and beliefs on the matter, primarily focusing on the ides of philosopher David Hume, then touching on Noel Carroll’s critique of Hume’s philosophy, and then go into further detail...   [tags: David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Philosophy]

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Negative Impact of God on the Minds of David Hume, Christopher Smart, and William Cowper

- Negative Impact of God on the Minds of David Hume, Christopher Smart, and William Cowper David Hume was one of the most influential writers and philosophers of his time. Hume was the second son of Joseph Hume, laird of Ninewells, a small estate in Berwickshire. He was born and raised in Edinburgh, and studied law at Edinburgh University. He left the University without taking a degree with him, however. He spent the next three years living at his fathers, occupying his time primarily with reading and pondering ideas, later to be used in his works....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]

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Cause and Effect in David Hume’s An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding

- Cause and Effect in David Hume’s An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding In An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, David Hume states, “there is not, in any single, particular instance of cause and effect, any thing which can suggest the idea of power or necessary connexion” (Hume, 1993: 41). Hume establishes in section II that all ideas originate from impressions that employ the senses (11). Therefore, in order for there to be an idea of power or “necessary connexion,” there must be impressions of this connection present in single instances of cause and effect; if there are no such impressions, then there cannot be an idea of “necessary connexion” (52)....   [tags: Philosophy Religion Essays]

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David Hume’s an Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals

- Hume was the first thinker to point out the implications of the "representative theory of perception." He had inherited this theory from both his rationalist and empiricist predecessors. According to this view, when one says that he/she perceives something such as an apple, what it actually means is that the one has in the mind a mental idea or image or impression. Such a datum is an internal, mental, subjective representation of something that I assume to be an external, physical, fact....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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David Hume on Human Being and Human Knowledge

- Hume is an empiricist and a skeptic. He develops a philosophy that is generally approached in a manner as that of a scientist and therefore he thinks that he can come up with a law for human understanding. Hume investigates the understanding as an empiricist to try and understand the origins of human ideas. Empiricism is the notion that all knowledge comes from experience. Skepticism is the practice of not believing things in nature a priori, but instead investigating things to discover what is really true....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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Should Free Will Be More Believable Than Determinism

- ... This means our actions, or causes, are outside of our control. Elements such as environment, upbringing, and genetics are all responsible for our behavior. The statement then supports the idea that if people are all-around good, moral people that they simply got lucky in life. Contrary to this, if people are bad and do something morally wrong or irresponsible it is not their fault, but their environmental upbringings or genetics. To support these statements Holbach offers another view on the topic: “When it is said, that man is not a free agent, it is not pretended to compare him to a body moved by a simple impulsive cause: he contains within himself causes inherent to his existence; he...   [tags: Free will, Determinism, David Hume, Causality]

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Comparing Plato’s Symposium and David Hume’s An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding

- Comparing Plato’s Symposium and David Hume’s An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding Philosophy, when broken down into the original Greek, is philos, which means love, and logos, which means word. Thus philosophy is the love of words or linguistics. There is not one way of viewing this love of words. Both Plato and David Hume examine philosophy in their texts, Symposium and An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, respectively. I will outline, then compare, these two philosophers’ views of philosophy to show that philosophy is a balance....   [tags: Comparison Compare Contrast Essays]

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John Locke : A Philosophical Doctrine

- ... Adam Smith is recognized as the father of the free market. Smith developed an all new form of working the free enterprise system, which all together altered the term “wealth of nations.” Smith concluded that such a term does not mean the lump sum of money in the king’s pocket- but the overall prosperity of the nation as a whole. Air go- the wellbeing of the citizens is what defines a healthy and blossoming nation. Among the previously mentioned term “wealth of nations” Adam Smith also changed the idea of self-interest in the free market....   [tags: Philosophy, Immanuel Kant, Karl Marx, David Hume]

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Metaphysics as Addressed by Kant and Hume

- Metaphysics as Addressed by Kant and Hume In the Prolegomena, Kant states that reading David Hume, "awakened him from his dogmatic slumber." It was Hume's An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding that made Kant aware of issues and prejudices in his life that he had previously been unaware of. This further prompted Kant to respond to Hume with his own analysis on the theory of metaphysics. Kant did not feel that Hume dealt with these matters adequately and resolved to pick up where Hume had left off, specifically addressing the question of whether metaphysics as a science is possible....   [tags: Papers Kant Hume Philosophy Essays]

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Locke and Hume on Inequalities of Distribution

- Discuss, compare and contrast the ways in which Locke and Hume defend inequalities of distribution. Does either offer a more convincing defence. Why. This essay seeks to examine the inequalities of distribution of resources and the defences of these inequalities provided by John Locke, in Of Property , and David Hume in Of Justice . Both writings set out the scene in which their theories would evolve. Locke starts with the idea that everything is held in common, and ownership is acquired through ones labour....   [tags: equality, social justice]

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Hume And John Stuart Mill

- ... For instance, moral rights. People have a preconceived notion that some laws are unjust. As a result, movements are formed in attempt to change the law(s), like that of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. who fought against segregation laws. At that point in time some people believed that segregation laws were perfectly fine and just, but many did not feel as if they were and went against them. Although appearing as completely unjust in the eyes of others, it was morally right for these civil rights leaders to fight for equality....   [tags: Morality, Ethics, Aesthetics, Moral]

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Aristotle And Hume 's Views On Morality

- ... Children cannot be considered virtuous to Aristotle because to be virtuous, one must be aware of their qualities and good habits. Virtue to Aristotle is partly intellectual and partly moral, meaning that some virtuous traits are taught to us and some are learned through experience. To be considered good, one must simply do the right thing, but really, doing the right thing is not that simple, it’s nearly impossible. In better words, Aristotle states “to experience these emotions at the right times and on the right occasions and towards the right persons and for the right causes and in the right manner is the mean or supreme good, which is characteristic of virtue” ....   [tags: Ethics, Virtue, Morality, Human]

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Empiricism Versus Rationalism: Descartes and Hume

- Rationalism and empiricism have always been on opposite sides of the philosophic spectrum, Rene Descartes and David Hume are the best representative of each school of thought. Descartes’ rationalism posits that deduction, reason and thus innate ideas are the only way to get to true knowledge. Empiricism on the other hand, posits that by induction, and sense perception, we may find that there are in fact no innate ideas, but that truths must be carefully observed to be true. Unlike one of empiricism’s major tenets, Tabula Rasa, or blank slate, Descartes believed that the mind was not a blank slate, but actually came pre-loaded, if you will, with ideas, which are part of our rational nature an...   [tags: philosophy, god, science]

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The Question of Free Will: Descartes, Hume, and Nietzsche

- The power of acting without necessity and acting on one’s own discretions, free will still enamors debates today, as it did in the past with philosophers Nietzsche, Descartes, and Hume. There are two strong opposing views on the topic, one being determinism and the other “free will”. Determinism, or the belief a person lacks free will and all events including human actions are determined by forces outside the will of an individual contrasts the entire premise of free will. Rene Descartes formulates his philosophical work through deductive reasoning and follows his work with his system of reasoning....   [tags: Free Will Essays]

Term Papers
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Locke, Barkley And Hume, The Real World

- ... In this concept, the real world is made up of groups colorless, tasteless, soundless, odorless units of matter. According to Locke, sensations such as color, taste, sound, and odor are produced by the powers, the arrangement of matter, of primary qualities. Secondary qualities exists in the sense that objects have the ability to act on our senses and create sensations or impressions like color, smell, taste, touch, sound, and temperature. These sensations are explained to be produced because of the size, shape, texture, motion, and weight of miniature units of matter that everything is made up of....   [tags: Mind, Metaphysics, George Berkeley, Perception]

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Hume on Revolution

- Hume on Revolution David Hume offers a well conceived plan for the formation of government and its political workings. Furthermore, he grants that in special circumstances the citizens of a particular government may revolt. However, with respect to obedience and disloyalty, Hume gives no formal rules for revolution. We would like something more from Hume regarding revolution and, more specifically, what he considers justified revolution. Some authors, such as Richard H. Dees, find the basis for Hume’s account of justified revolution in his historical works....   [tags: Government Politics Papers]

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Hume on Miracles

- Hume on Miracles It is evident in David Hume's writing of "An Equity Concerning Human Understanding" that he does not believe that miracles take place. Hume is a man of logic, who believes in experience over knowledge. Of course it is hard for such a man to believe in extraordinary claims without being there to witness them. Especially when such events require a lot of faith. In order for an event to be deemed a miracle, it must disobey the laws of nature. However, it is these same laws that disprove almost any miracle that has ever been reported....   [tags: Empiricists, Empiricism]

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