Your search returned over 400 essays for "Chemistry"
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Chemistry: Acids and Base Theories

- ... He said, Aqueous solutions of acids give H+ ion. For example: NaOH → Na+ + OH−and Aqueous solutions of bases give OH- ion for example NaOH → Na+ + OH− Second description of acids and bases is found by Danish chemist J.N. Bronsted and English chemist in T.N LOWRY in 1923. According to them matter that gives protons are acid and matter that receive proton is base. With this description matters that aren’t thought to be an acid or base is now classified as an acid or a base. For example Boron trifluoride is act as an acid and forms a complex by receiving couple of electrons of Trimethylamine....   [tags: lewis’s electron theory ]

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Comparing Stories Your Shoes versus Flight versus Chemistry

- Explore how conflict between two characters is communicated in the short stories studied. Introduction: The short stories I have chosen to focus on for this essay are ‘Flight’ by Doris Lessing and ‘Your Shoes’ by Michele Roberts. I will briefly refer to a third, Graham Swift’s ‘Chemistry’. I will show the character’s desire for control or continuity which conflicts with the choices or sense of independence of another character also, the theme of the generation gap and imagery, dialogue to convey conflict or a sense of understanding by the characters....   [tags: Doris Lessing Michele Roberts Graham Swift]

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Coal Chemistry and Technology

- 1. Coal formation Coal was formed from remains of plants from several hundred millions years ago partially decomposed. These remains were settled in regions where waterlogged or swampy regions prevailed. These conditions avoid complete decomposition making possible the gradual peat formation. Peat is not considered coal actually, but is an essential step to coal formation. This formation process is called "coalification" and it is essentially a progressive change from peat to anthracite passing through different types of coals....   [tags: Coal Research Paper ]

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Chemistry: The Oxygen Family

- Also known as the oxygen family, chalcogens are sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium(Te), and polonium (Po). Oxygen (O) is also in group 16, where chalcogens are located on the periodic table. While it is defined as a chalcogen, oxygen and oxides are often separated from chalcogens because its chemical behavior is much different than that of the other elements in the group. The other elements in the group show similar patterns in their electron configurations resulting in similar chemical behavior....   [tags: Elements, Leonardo Da Vinci]

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Chemistry: Reversible Chemical Reactions

- Introduction; Most chemical reactions are reversible which means that they react both forwards and backwards. A forward reaction is generically A + B -> C + D and a backward reaction is C + D -> A + B. Higher concentrations of A and B at the beginning of the reaction cause it to shift right towards C and D before beginning to slow down as more C and D are created. Eventually, the amount of A and B being formed is the same as the amount of A and B being used, which results in chemical equilibrium, denoted with Keq....   [tags: calculated concentrations, equilibrium]

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Chemistry: Properties of Copper

- ... an alloy this was an important innovation. Various processes to extract copper from compounds weren’t discovered until around 5000BC. So the pure copper, which was found, was what they had found otherwise it was obtained from copper bearing ores. In due time it was discovery that copper and tin could be combined to form bronze, this was through heating the metals. The metals were placed into a clay crucible and then heated at a very high temperature inside a kiln containing a charcoal fire. Following the implementation of copper extraction, it was discovered that the process of combing metals gave them superiorities like strength, in bronze....   [tags: 29th element, symbol, metals]

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Organic Chemistiry: The Availabiltiy of Electron Density

- The reactivity of a bond or an atom towards a particular reagent in a compound is significantly affected by the availability of electrons. The influence availability of electron density is affected by following factors: inductive effect, mesomeric effect, electromeric effect and hyperconjugation. Inductive Effect In chemical makeup and science, the 'Inductive Effect' is an experimentally observable impact of the transmitting of charge through a chain of atoms in a molecule. It can also define as the process of electron displacement along the chain of carbon atoms....   [tags: inductive, mecomeric, electronmeric, effect]

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Bohr's Atomic Model

- ... Why couldn’t the electron exist in a limitless number of orbitals with slightly different energies (pg.104, line 4). Scientists began changing their view on the nature of the electron. They eventually discovered, through investigation of the hydrogen’s emission-line spectrum, that light could behave as both a wave and particle (pg.104, line 9). This discovery caused Dr. Brogile to point out that in many ways the behavior of electron in Bohr’s quantified orbits was similar to the known behavior of waves (pg.104, line 14)....   [tags: history of chemistry]

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Primo Levi’s The Periodic Table

- Primo Levi’s The Periodic Table Primo Levi’s personal relationship to his profession as a chemist shows that philosophically and psychologically, he is deeply invested in it. His book THe PeriOdic TaBLe shows that his methodology cannot be classified as either purely objective or purely subjective. He fits into the definition of dynamic objectivity given by Evelyn Fox Keller in her book Reflections on Gender and Science. Primo Levi’s methodology cannot be called purely objective. Being purely objective would mean being not influenced by personal beliefs or feelings....   [tags: Chemisty Chemistry Science Essays]

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Acid-Base Chemistry Lab

- The purpose of this lab was to determine the pH and total acidity of grape juice and wine. A second purpose was to experimentally determine the pKa of a monoprotic weak acid, polyprotic weak acid, as well as, a free amino acid, alanine. Acids and bases were defined by Bronsted-Lowry in 1923, in which acids were described as substances capable of donating a proton and bases are substances capable of accepting a proton (Thompson and Dinh 2009). In addition to defining acids and bases, Bronsted-Lowry further classified acids and bases as being either strong or weak....   [tags: Scientific Research ]

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Chemistry: Gas-Liquid Chromatography

- Extraction To obtain oils from plant materials steam distillation is typically used. Solvent extraction is also used to create a resinoid (resembling characteristics of resin). Solvent extraction is commonly used with volatile substances that may be lost with distillation. Solvent used are pentane, hexane, and mixes of solvents such as ethyl acetate and hexane which is commonly used in place of benzene (see Figure 2). Gas-Liquid Chromatography Gas-Liquid Chromatography is the process of separating complex mixtures into the components and measuring the individual components....   [tags: extraction, resinoid, benzene]

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History of Chemisty: Nuclear Power

- ... Scientists Peierls and Frisch pushed the atomic bomb by writing a paper that gave the theorized amount of uranium it would take to make a bomb equivalent to several thousand tones of dynamite and even included how the bomb could be set off, what the effects of the radiation would be, and how the uranium could be produced. The Military Application of Uranium Detonation committee also known as MAUD was created and supervised the research at several universities that went into creating the atomic bomb....   [tags: fission, atoms, risks, people, radioactive]

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Building the Ultimate Team in Fifa 14

- ... The chemistry of the team depends exclusively of the gamer choices. It’s higher or lower depending on the players they choose for the starting eleven, the manager he picks for the bench and the positioning of each one of the players. That way, it varies from match to match. Chemistry is determined by a player's relationship with the players around him. This depends on if the two players share the same nation, club, or league. Two players share a dead link, which will be represented with a red link, it mean the two players have different nationalities, different clubs, and different leagues giving them no chemistry together....   [tags: players, chemistry, coins]

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Personal Understanding of Hydrogen Fuel Cells Being the Future to Generating Electricity

- ... Organic chemistry makes me most enthusiastic, particularly optical isomers. What I find interesting. These molecules can appear to behave in a certain way however behave oppositely, biologically, which highlights where chemistry is an importance and an influence to other sciences. It amalgamates physical sciences, hence why I took physics and biology at AS level to delve into topics where Chemistry is involved. Understanding the structure of these molecules, mechanisms upon reaction and tests to prove what molecules are present at the end are like layers to a blueprint, adding more information to predicting outcomes....   [tags: chemistry, research, academic]

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Hermann Emil Fischer: The Fischer esterification

- Born Hermann Emil Louis Fischer in Germany, Fischer was best known for his work in the field of chemistry, including the study of sugars and purines . He also developed the Fischer projection, a symbolic way of drawing asymmetric carbon atoms, and discovered the Fischer esterification, a special type of esterification by refluxing a carboxylic acid with an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst . Fischer attended the University of Strasbourg in 1872, and earned a doctorate in chemistry with his study of phenolphthalein under Professor Adolf von Baeyer....   [tags: chemistry, acid catalyst]

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Invention and Inlfuence of the Microscope

- ... Sickness was running rampant and people who were sick most of times eventually died from it. Many of the people were getting the common cold, flu, and sometimes the plague. People did not know what disease they had; they just knew the symptoms of the disease they had. People around the world were looking for an answer on how to stop what was going on with them. Nobody likes to be sick. Everybody tried many ways to find cures to heal the population of the sick but whatever they did only worked for a few days not if it worked at all....   [tags: history of chemistry and technology]

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Stanislao Cannizzaro Quest for Knowledge

- ... Assisting with investigations of Salicin and glucosides, Cannizzaro studied chemistry for the next two years. The summer break of 1847 in an attempt to return to Palermo to finish studies a revolutionary outbreak against the Bourbons ruptured and Cannizzaro became an artillery officer. When the rebellion failed and being condemned to death Cannizzaro fled to Marseilles and soon to Paris, where he researched cyanamide and successfully synthesized cyanamide. After a few years of exile, Cannizzaro returned to Italy and in 1851 accepted a position as professor of physics, chemistry, and mechanics at the Technical Institute in Alessandria....   [tags: chemistry, professor, sunto]

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Dry Cell and Lithium Ion Cell Battery Analysis

- Introduction When Luigi Galvani, the Italian physician, touched the exposed nerve tissue in a pair of frog legs they twitched. He unwittingly started the world down the pathway of portable electricity. We have progressed greatly since that day in the mid 18th century. With the help of many scientists we have developed many different types of cells/batteries. The battery industry is a $46 billion industry with over 100 different types of cells. As the energy density rises at a rate of 5% per year, the demand of battery is growing rapidly....   [tags: chemistry, cost, practicality, impact]

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Development of the Periodic Table, X Rays and the Telescope

- ... These elements are called the transuranium elements. I think without the development of the periodic table we may not have different types of medicines, or maybe just generic products to help us along the way of life. For example, humans need Zinc. A doctor can simply tell a person how much Zinc he/she needs or a simple nutrition label can tell how much of the element is in the product. With the development of the periodic table, it gave scientists lead way of discovering new elements. There’s possibly even more elements just waiting to be explored and discovered....   [tags: history of chemistry and technology]

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Biography of Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev

- ... He graduated in 1855, where he won a gold medal for being first in his class. After a few years, Mendeleev’s thesis On Specific Volumes and The Structure of Siliceous Combinations, resulted in him being able to teach theoretical and organic chemistry at the University of St. Petersburg. Close to the end of the 1850s, Mendeleev studied abroad. Ventured to Heidelberg University in Sorbonne. Mendeleev built a lab there, and that is where he focused on molecular cohesion of capillarity and surface tension, alongside German chemist Robert Bunsen....   [tags: chemistry, periodic table, elements]

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Biography and Works of Henry Louis Le Chatelier

- ... Beneath the direction of the French mineralogist Ernest-François Mallard, Le Chatelier conducted experiments on explosive materials and published his first works of scientific research on the issues he studied. These studies led him to developments in measuring high temperatures, based on the thermocouple principle (Lette). During this time, Le Chatelier perfected the coupling of pure platinum with a platinum-rhodium alloy that gave rise to the thermoelectric pyrometer, known as the “Le Chatelier.” He also adapted an optic pyrometer for industrial use....   [tags: chemistry, principle, life, science]

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Antoine Laurent Lavoisier: A Brief Biography

- Antoine Laurent Lavoisier is considered to be the father of modern-day chemistry. He had an unbelievable impact on the way the world views chemistry today. From identifying elements to discovering the importance of the role of combustion, he played an essential part in the world’s scientific ideas and inventions. He was so influential that he is said to have an equal if not greater impact in chemistry as Newton did in physics. Because of these accomplishments, he is considered one of France’s and the world’s most outstanding scientists....   [tags: the father of modern-day chemistry]

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Protecting Those at War: The Bulletproof Vest

- ... They would have to cower away from their enemy or die. Today we see just the opposite. The first bulletproof vest was made in the United States was of silk material. The project came to attention after the assassination of President McKinley in 1901. The vests were effective against low-velocity bullets, but not against the new generation of ammunition. This, along with the high price of the silk material made the new invention hard to manufacture. The next type of bulletproof vest was used during World War II with ballistic nylon the vest was known as a flack jacket....   [tags: chemistry contributing to warfare]

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Biography of John Wilder Tukey

- John Wilder Tukey was born in New Bedford, Massachusetts on June 16, 1915. He passed away the 26th of July on 2000 in Princeton; New Jersey. He was the only child of Adah M. Tasker and Ralph H. Tukey. After Tukey was born his parents decided to leave New Bedford, but when he turned five years old they decided to move back. They both were secondary teachers, but his mother did not teach full time. Before going to college Tukey received an unusual education. He had home schooling. Since he was the only child his parents were very concerned with his education....   [tags: algorithm, transform, mathematics, chemistry]

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Radiation Pressure Effect on Polymerization Reactions

- A laser trap, or an optical trap, is created by tightly focusing a laser beam with an objective lens of high numerical aperture (NA).1 The trap is formed at the focal point of the objective, which is able to hold a small particle at its center. In other words, a dielectric particle near the focus will experience a force due to the transfer of momentum from the scattering of incident photons. The resulting optical force has two components: a scattering force in the direction of light propagation and a gradient force in the direction of the spatial light gradient....   [tags: Laser Beams, Chemistry, Molecules]

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The Development and Effects of Chemical Weapons

- ... In 1862, New York school teacher, John W. Doushty wrote to the US Secretary of war suggesting methods of how to use poisonous gas on the enemy. The next question that will be answered is how did natural resources limit the use of chemical weapons. The most significant development is the revolution in the life science and related technologies including a growing overlap between Chemistry and Biology. There is an increased understanding of the foundations of biological systems as a result, the mapping of the human and other genomes as well as the advances of the structural biology and the study of proteins....   [tags: the history of chemistry and technology]

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Darwin: The Man Who Changed the World

- ... He did, however, enjoy the chemistry lectures given there. His first year at the school was not particularly interesting, but another bright spot, besides chemistry, was that he was taught taxidermy by a freed black slave. Darwin attended meetings of a certain Plinian society, which was not amenable to the idea of a God, but instead created naturalistic theories of creation. He gave a speech there, but on a decidedly uninteresting topic: skate-leech eggs and sea-mat larvae. Interestingly, around this time Darwin sat through a geology lecture and found it so incredibly tedious that he vowed never to pursue it in the future....   [tags: chemistry, expeditions, scientific]

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Should Stimulant Medication be Used in the Treatment of ADHD?

- Of all the different treatments, stimulant medications work to change the brain chemistry to that seen in a brain lacking any psychological disorders. This makes them very effective as it gets to the root of the problem, as compared to therapies that try to mask the problem. The FDA approved stimulant medication affects neural transmitters in the brain, allowing for the neural pathways to work more efficiently. With the neurons firing correctly, the symptoms of ADHD are reduced. There is also other non-stimulant medications used to treat ADHD, but these are less commonly prescribed and less effective than the stimulant medication (Facts About ADHD)....   [tags: brain chemistry, psychological disorder]

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Understanding How a Battery Works

- Have you ever wondered how a small Duracell battery can power your remote for so long. It's not a process that's too to understand. It is important to know about batteries. If you know enough about the battery you can make your own and even decide which type of battery is right for you. There are many different types of batteries, there are even ones that depend on radioactivity. However, because of these many different types of batteries there are advantages and disadvantages, one could be useful but in a way still harm you, another could be not so useful yet are still better than most others....   [tags: chemistry, physics, electricity]

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Great Educational Advancements During the Renaissance

- During the Renaissance, great educational advancements occurred in geography, astronomy, chemistry, physics, and engineering. The discovery of ancient scientific texts that were hidden because they were considered heresy and witchcraft, was increased after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. Also, because of the invention of printing which would create new learning opportunities and allow new ideas. But, in the beginning, some see the Renaissance as a time of scientific regression. Humanists wanted people to study subjects like politics and history other then the study of philosophy or math....   [tags: astronomy, chemistry, physics, engineering]

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Biography of Mary Maynard Daly

- Can you envision a period where women were not able to vote, get into the topmost universities in America, and receive an education. For ages women were living underneath the shadows of men because they were not allowed to prosper, the only destiny they had for themselves were mother and wife. However, one lady broke numerous barriers and became the first African American woman in the United States to obtain a PhD in chemistry – Mary Maynard Daly. She was an activist for the African American community and active in several associations, hardworking, and proud fully lived her father’s legacy with her drive and determination....   [tags: career, chemistry, women]

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Medical School and Low Aceptance Rate

- About less than 300 students get accepted per year, depending on the medical school it can be less than that. If they raised their acceptance rate, more students would be able to go to medical schools, including myself. Since I want to attend medical school in the future, I have researched the acceptance rates and have seen that it is very low. I understand that is very competitive, but the way I see it, it is too extreme. Medical schools in California should increase their acceptance rate because of how low their rate is....   [tags: students, biology, chemistry, physics]

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What is Life by Erwin Schrodinger

- Erwin Schrodinger is a historic chemist who led a difficult life, but gave the scientific community multiple important contributions. Erwin Schrodinger’s life revolving around chemistry is full of contributions and essential advancements that he gave to the scientific community. Some of Schrodinger’s contributions consist of Schrodinger’s wave equation and Schrodinger’s book “What is Life” which led to valuable progression in biology thanks to his book (“Erwin Schrodinger.” Erwin Schrodinger. Dr.)....   [tags: chemistry, movement, electrons]

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Theory of the Process of Regeneration

- In the popular British Television Series, Doctor Who, an interesting theory was invented and proposed, the theory of Regeneration. The Doctor, who is the main character in Doctor Who, is a Time Lord. The Time Lords are a race of technologically advanced aliens from Gallifrey who possess two hearts and the ability to, you guessed it, regenerate. This ability allows the Doctor to be reborn every time he dies up to twelve times, except in the case of The Doctor who apparently can regenerate many more times now....   [tags: stereoisomerism, chemistry, rearrangement]

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Reaction to Meth in Video, Methamphetamine: The World’s Most Dangerous Drug

- The literary Methamphetamine: The World’s Most Dangerous Drug (2006) briefly demonstrates and elucidates the jeopardizes and current situation about the narcotic methamphetamine. Methamphetamine which is also called meth is a powerful drug that can bring addicts 6-12 hours of excitement;in addition, during the time the addicts will become extremely energetic and strong. However, at the time of people take the advantage from meth, meth will also destroy both humans’ body and brain. The damage from meth is 3 1/2 times more powerful than the cocaine....   [tags: addict, chemistry, transformation]

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The History of the Elements and Periodic Table

- Greek thinkers and early people noted around 400BC, that things are different from each other, and can be broken down into smaller groups. They used the words “element” and “atom” to describe different and the smallest parts of matter. For over 2000 years, the four “elements” of Earth, fire, water, and air were used to explain many stories of the world. Something had to of been done to organize our thoughts and observations of our elements. A method was needed by 1860 to organize the sixty elements known by scientists....   [tags: Chemistry, Science, research papers]

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Marie Curie and The Discovery of The X-Ray

- When defining the greatest scientist, it is considered someone who thinks out of the ordinary to find answers and explanations to determine the forces of science and their course of action. To prove their scientific excellence, a scientist may receive various awards to show public recognition. Marie Curie is considered the greatest scientist in European history because of her work and commitment to science that has left an impact on all of Europe. Despite the work of other great scientists, namely Antoine Becquerel, Marie Curie proved to be the greatest scientist in European history by earning many awards, becoming the first female scientist, and assisting in the discovery of the X- Ray....   [tags: european scientist, chemistry]

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Walter White: Breaking Traditional Views

- Walter White from the hit television show “Breaking Bad” is an unusual character. To give a little background, Walter White was once a very promising chemist, co-founding a multi-billion dollar company. For personal reasons, White sells his portion of the company and becomes a chemistry teacher at the local high school, as well as working part-time at a car wash for extra money. White starts becoming more and more ill, until he caves and goes to the doctor, where he is diagnosed with Stage III lung cancer....   [tags: chemistry, Methamphetamine, neurotism]

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The Invention of the Telescope

- ... The ocular lenses which you use to look through, body tube which is the tube you look through using the ocular lenses. The arms where you use to move the microscope and there is the base where which holds up the actually microscope. There is also a stage where you put your sample you want to examine on. Overall the microscope is mainly made out of plastic and glass. The main natural resource used to make the plastic of the microscope is petroleum. Most modern day microscopes used in labs outside of the school uses electricity and use light to help function the microscope....   [tags: history of chemistry, science tools]

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Mad Scientists and Mad Elements

- ... Scientists discovered that manganese covered the surface of the large teeth; and people connected this to the craze of the megalodons. The author also recaps the scandal of Pons and Fleischmann, who claimed to create cold fusion using palladium, a powerful element that is able to consume immense amounts of hydrogen in water. Their experiment however, was extremely flawed and consequently was denied. Finally, the most interesting story of the chapter is of the Roentgen's first discovery of x-rays, incorporating the element roentgenium....   [tags: chemistry, scientists, downfall]

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History of the Element Boron

- ... Time before Boron was rough. Since people didn’t have Boron they wouldn’t have made Borax. Which is a substance made to clean pretty much everything in your home. Also Boric acid is an important compound used in textile products. Also Boron is in the plates that shield your body from bullets also known as a bullet proof vest. In the United states, 70% of the boron is used for the production of glass and ceramics. So time before that they didn’t have the glass and ceramics that we have causing them to break even more easily than usual....   [tags: chemistry, borax, form]

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The Importance of Solar Energy

- ... They create electricity when hit by sunlight. They are flat-plates that have insulated glass-covered box painted black to maximize the collection of heat. Between the collectors water circulates in loops, where the water is heated, and then stored. These are organized in single cells which are put into larger groups and arrays. Another way to create electricity in PV is to concentrate energy from the sun to heat a fluid or make steam to power a generator. In conclusion, active energy is another type of solar energy....   [tags: electricity, pasive energy, chemistry]

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Aspirations to be a Top Forensic Scientist

- My career goal is to aspire to become one of the top Forensic Scientist in the country, and eventually become an International Baccalaureate Chemistry teacher. I developed my career off of my passion of science and math with the need capitalize on my capabilities and explore the nature of the world and be able to share my knowledge with the younger generation. For each payment, I have received I saved 50% of it towards a college savings bank account, 25% towards personal expenses, such as clothes, movies, sports etc, and the last 25% always goes towards helping helping out my mother with house expenses, though she does not approve but still appreciates and is grateful for, I contribute to he...   [tags: chemistry, intellectual, math]

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Factors Which Influence the Rates of Reactions

- ... The acids were Hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid. The zinc reacted quickly with the hydrochloric acid and created a lot of bubbles and it was followed shortly after by the zinc in sulfuric acid which also created bubbles. The zinc in the phosphoric acid reacted next with some bubbles and finally the zinc in the acetic acid reacted last with some bubbles. In the final part of phase one which was steps 9-11, five different metals were placed in Hydrochloric acid....   [tags: chemistry, experiment, collision theory]

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The Importance of the Carbon Element

- Carbon Carbon is one of the basic elements of matter (Bush 1230-1231). The name carbon comes from the Latin word "carbo" meaning charcoal.Carbon is the sixth most abundant element (Gangson). More than 1,000,000 compounds are made from carbon(Carbon (C)). "The Element Carbon is defined as a naturally abundant non-metallic element that occurs in many inorganic and in all organic compounds, exists freely as graphite and diamond and as a constituent of coal, limestone, and petroleum, and is capable of chemical self-bonding to form an enormous number of chemically, biologically, and commercially important molecules." Carbon is used in diamonds, petroleum oil, radiocarbon dating, smoke detec...   [tags: organic chemistry, carbon dating]

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Alkylation of Azole Derivatives

- ... The collected product was in a viscous, liquid form; and many efforts were made to purify the product by recrystallization. However, separating two different salts was very difficult, and these attempts were not successful. This same reaction was also repeated at room temperature, but the two reagents did not react. To prevent the diallylation, we followed the same procedure using allyl tosylate. The tosylate group is a less reactive, poorer nucleophile than bromide; therefore, it is less likely to remove the tosyl group....   [tags: synthesis of molecules, green chemistry]

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Acid Rain and its Impact

- Rain is a major component of the water cycle as it is held responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on Earth. (EPA USA, 2014) It not only provides suitable conditions for various ecosystems, but also provides water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation. (Andrei, 2012) However, since the start of industrialization in the 18th century, humans have been abusing such important features of life and created acid deposition. (The Ledger, 2014) The pH scale is composed of values starting from zero, the most acidic, to 14.0, the most alkaline....   [tags: Rain, Water, Chemistry]

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The Life of Marie Curie

- ... She finally went to Paris in 1891 and enrolled in the Sorbonne. She was so involved with her studies and that affected her health and she got ill from spending all her time on studies. She had very little funds, enough just to pay for buttered bread and tea, and her health also suffered from her poor diet. Curie continued to get her master’s degree in physics in 1893, and another degree in mathematics the year after in 1894. At this time she received permission to do a study on different metals and there magnetic properties....   [tags: radium, polonium, chemistry]

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Activation of Zero-Valent Magnesium using Acetic Acid for the Degradation of Triacetone Triperoxide in Ethanol

- Activation of Zero-Valent Magnesium using Acetic Acid for the Degradation of Triacetone Triperoxide in Ethanol Abstract Triacetone triperoxide (TATP), a cyclic peroxide, is an explosive frequently used by terrorists and amateur chemists due to the ease of synthesis and the availability of reagents. A degradation method for degrading TATP in ethanol (EtOH) was proposed using an activated, zero-valent magnesium (ZVMg) system. Different acids were tested to determine their effectiveness in activating Mg for the degradation of TATP, and short chain carboxylic acids, particularly acetic acid, were observed to have the greatest effect on the TATP degradation rate....   [tags: Chemistry]

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Analysis of Kinetic Rate Constant and Oxygen-Inhibition-Effect in Acrylate/Epoxide Hybrid Systems Photopolymerization

- I. Introduction Photopolymerization is a process that uses light instead of thermal energy to initiate the reaction that converts monomer to polymer. This process has led to increased productivity, improved physical properties and product performance, new capabilities for users, cost effectiveness, and environmental friendliness when compared with thermal processes. Ultra-violet (UV) formulated product usage has experienced growth for 35 consecutive years starting from 5,000 metric tons in 1970 to 95,000 metric tons in 2005....   [tags: Chemistry ]

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Profile Peculiarities in Semiconductor Etching: Origins & Techniques for Elimination

- As the dimensions of virtually every electronic device are pushed smaller and smaller, the ability to etch semiconductors with very small and very dense patterns becomes increasingly important. Increasing the pattern density naturally requires decreasing the lateral dimensions of the various structures etched. In order to maintain functionality at these sub-micron sizes, it is often necessary to etch structures with very large aspect ratios – on the order of 10-100. Dry etching using plasmas is the most efficient way to etch such structures; wet etch processes are crystal orientation dependent and it can be difficult if not impossible to obtain the desired aspect ratios....   [tags: Chemistry]

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The Transformation of CO2 to Linear Hydrocarbons Through Electrochemical Reduction

- 1. Introduction Due to the demand for petroleum products, the uncertainty of fossil fuel resources reported recently [6] and the greenhouse gas concern are the basis for this paper. The transformation of CO2 to linear hydrocarbons through electrochemical reduction was reported in [2,8,9]. C2H4 being of high yield but only on a small-scale. But by mathematical derivation of k = dM/nF and k = A ∙ e-Ea/RT presented in this paper which are formulated for the industrial production of the feed stock C2H4 for catalytic trimerization to 1-hexene for the cyclization to, C6H6, for the synthesis of 2-O-acetylsalicylic acid....   [tags: Chemistry]

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Limiting Reactant Lab Experiment Using Baking Soda and Vinegar

- Baking Soda and Vinegar: Limiting Reactant Lab Background The limiting reactant of a chemical reaction is the substance that places an upper bound on the amount of product that the reaction can produce. The limiting reactant places this upper bound because the reaction must stop once all of the limiting reactant is consumed. If the relative amount of reactants is altered, then the limiting reactant may change accordingly. For example, a balanced chemical equation of a certain reaction specifies that an equal number of moles of two substances A and B is required....   [tags: chemistry]

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The Behavior of PTCDA Molecules Absorbed on the TiO2(011)

- We have recently reported results of preliminary studies on the behavior of PTCDA molecules adsorbed on the TiO2(011) at very low coverage (approximately 0.05ML) [A. Tekiel, S. Godlewski, J. Budzioch, M. Szymonski, Nanotechnology 19 (2008) 495304]. There we have focused on the self-assembly process leading to formation of one-dimensional chains oriented along the crystallographic direction (Fig. 8a). These chains can include up to 20 molecules, which are uniformly oriented with their longer axis parallel to the substrate oxygen rows (orientation I – see Fig....   [tags: Chemistry]

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CuPc Molecules Absorbed on the TiO2(011) Surface

- Figure 6 STM images of CuPc molecules adsorbed on the TiO2(011) surface, panels a) and b) show sample before annealing, two distinct phases are observed, panels c) and d) illustrate sample after 2 hour annealing at 150°C, only phase II is visible, the amount of molecule dislocations, vacancies and defects is decreased after annealing, panels e) and f) show sample after two-hour annealing at 200°C, when completely new phase III is formed with up-right molecules, bias voltage +3.0V, tunnelling current 2pA....   [tags: Chemistry ]

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Gas Equilibriums: Examples of Reversible Reactions

- Gas Equilibriums: examples of Reversible Reactions Q1. Identify the general chemical and physical characteristics of gas equilibriums as a group. Explain the forward and reverse reaction mechanisms. Use nitrogen dioxide and hydrogen iodide as examples and explain how equilibrium is reached. The general chemical characteristic of gas equilibriums is when the concentrations of reactants and products do not change with time. This is known as the state of reversible reaction. At this state, pressure, density, colour and concentration can be recognised....   [tags: Chemistry ]

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Graphene and Its Properties

- Graphene and its Properties Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe and the fifteenth most abundant on Earth. It is the sixth element on the Periodic Table of Elements with four valence electrons that are used to bond with other atoms. Atoms tend to fill their outer shell with eight valence electrons to remain stable. This leads to atoms sharing or exchanging electrons to satisfy that requirement. This property lends to the versatile nature of carbon and explains the numerous forms that it comes in and why carbon is essential for all living organisms....   [tags: physical chemistry, carbon]

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Nanotechnology in Our Lives

- Nanotechnology in our lives; Is it true that good things come in small packages. Throughout the years, the technology available has increased drastically. Technology has evolved from the things that were once seen as unbelievable and mindboggling, to common everyday devices and some of which are now a part of us. Thanks to technology we are able to examine and solve problems now that were only a dream to many scientists 25 years ago. As we have increase our ability to use these devices, the developments and progress in artificial intelligence and molecular technology have created a new form of technology; Nanotechnology....   [tags: applied sciences, chemistry, physics]

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Atomic Structure, Moles and Periodicity

- Atomic structure, Moles and Periodicity The Periodic Table is guidance or map to access different elements specific information, such as: atomic mass, isotopic richness, nuclear spins, electronic configuration and the position of elements belong to which group and period in table. Over the past decades there were many Scientifics which help to improvement of Periodic table but few of them made the most influence and contribution on Periodic table such as : Johann Dobereiner ,John Newlands , Dmitri Mendeleev and Henry Moseley....   [tags: Chemistry]

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The Knorr Synthesis of Pyrroles

- The Knorr Synthesis of Pyrroles Experimental A mixture of ethyl acetoacetate 1 (7.52 g, 7.5 mL) in glacial acetic acid (18 mL) was prepared and cooled to 5oC while stirring. Sodium nitrate solution (2.1 g in 5 mL deionised water) was added at such a rate that the temperature of reaction did not exceed 7oC. Once this addition was complete the mixture was stirred with cooling for 10 minutes before being allowed to warm to room temperature. Zinc dust (4.0 g) was added to the reaction mixture in small portions so that the mixture refluxed gently, the reaction mixture was then heated to reflux for one hour....   [tags: Chemistry]

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A Career in Communication

- ... However, despite my applied chemical science degree, I decided to challenge myself by starting my career in the marketing field in order to expand my knowledge and with an eager to learn more. I began to study throughout internship as marketing executive and later as strategic planner trainee in the field of advertising. Those 6 months internship have given me a great emphasis of professional experience in both theoretical and practical, I quickly gained more understanding of marketing basics and also developed better interpersonal and communication skills before I began my career as real professional strategist in nudeJEH, a very well-known advertising company in Thailand....   [tags: experience, marketing, chemistry]

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A Study of Iron

- Iron is an important element to the scientific community, especially those involved in the branch of chemistry. Consequently, humans rely on iron for many different things. Iron is diverse from all other elements with regards to its natural occurrence, historic and contemporary uses, the origin of its name, and when, how, where, and by whom it was discovered. It also has unique characteristic physical and chemical properties. Without the discovery, and distinctive properties of iron, life on Earth would never be the same as it is now....   [tags: chemistry, table of elements]

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Legalizing Performance Enhancing Drugs

- It is common knowledge that chemistry plays a vital role in the world of sports. Sports drinks, pain medication, and dietary supplements are just a few of the myriad forms chemicals are involved in athletes’ everyday training. Even so, the controversial use of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) has evoked serious ethical debate. I believe PEDs are merely another chapter in the book of human improvement, and by legalizing them we can help men reach their fullest potential. Exactly what are performance-enhancing drugs....   [tags: chemistry in the world of sports]

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Biochemistry and Its Applications

- ... The 1950s saw the clinical introduction of the first two specifically antidepressant drugs: iproniazid, a monoamine-Oxidize inhibitor that had been used in the treatment of tuberculosis, and imipramine, the first drug in the tricyclic Antidepressant family. Iproniazid and imipramine made two fundamental contributions to the development of psychiatry: One of a social-health nature, consisting in an authentic change in the psychiatric care of depressive patients; and the other Of a purely pharmacological nature, since these agents have constituted an indispensable research tool for neurobiology And psychopharmacology, permitting, among other things, the postulation of the first aetiopathog...   [tags: the history of chemistry, branches]

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Biography of Marie Curie

- Marie Curie was one of the shy girls, but yet one of the most famous scientists in the world. She could care less about the money, the fame, and the attention, science and research are the only things she thought about. She never did understand why people were so interested in her, her discoveries, why her. Marie was born in Warsaw, Poland on November 7, 1867. Her polish name was Maria Sklodowska but everyone called her Manya. Her parents were teachers and all they talked about how school was school was so important and she needed to study hard....   [tags: Nobel Prize in physics and chemistry]

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The Properties of Seawater

- Water: it is the driving force behind our planet. It is what makes life possible on earth. Water is what runs so many other environmental and biological systems on our planet. But to know how water drives our planet, we first need to know what is the driving force behind water. Water has the ability to absorb and release vast amounts of heat. This helps to keep the earth’s surface thermostatic. This also helps regulate weather patterns. Heat currents travel from the equator to the poles and then back....   [tags: Chemistry]

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Background Information on Nickel

- Background Information on Nickel Nano wires can be made out of many different matierals to fit the specific need of the scientist. They can be made out of alloys, elements, oxides, and other materials. Additionally, they can be tailors to fit specific geometric requirements. In the semiconductor industry, when the demand for transistors is extremely high, many elements are experimented with. As time goes on, and technology advances, more and more objects can be put onto a substrate. A very common element that nanowires are being created and researched with is Nickel....   [tags: Chemistry]

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Chemical Composition of Glass

- Abstract Soda-based glass samples were fabricated in a laboratory scale using quartz sands that was a by-product of feldspar floatation in Tak Province, northern Thailand, and 25-wt% commercial-grade Na2CO3 as the main compositions. Fe2O3 of 0.1 to 10.0 wt% concentrations was doped into the glass mixture. Well-mixed and dried powders were melted in a ceramic crucible for 4 hr at 1250ºC using an electric furnace. Transparent and bubble-free glass samples were obtained as results. It was found that Fe2O3 dopant turned the otherwise colorless glass to dark brown....   [tags: Chemistry]

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Mixture and Compound Differences

- Mixture and Compound Differences 1 One difference between mixtures and compounds is that compounds have a certain composition as opposed to mixtures that can be varied. Chemical compounds are made up of at least two elements that are bonded together in a fixed mass ratio that can only be split apart by chemical means. And a mixture is a substance created by merging at least two different materials with no chemical reaction. Also compounds can only be separated if they are destroyed. But the elements in mixtures can be physically separated from each other easily....   [tags: Chemistry ]

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Chemical Bonding Essay Question

- Bonds are the attraction between atoms involving the transferring and sharing of valence electrons to achieve stability and complete its valence shell. With these interactions of molecules, which are formed by bonds, properties of life emerge. Bonds vary in type, with each having their own specific properties, effects and strengths. These varying types of bonds consist of: covalent, ionic and hydrogen. A covalent bond is the chemical bonding in which the attractive force between atoms is created by the sharing of electrons, resulting in the formation of a cell's molecules and is categorized into two subtypes, non-polar and polar....   [tags: Chemistry]

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Microencapsulation purpose and definition

- Microencapsulation Definition Microencapsulation is the technology of packaging solid, liquid and gaseous materials into small capsule by coating the materials with protective matrix or wall materials (Hogan et al. 2001; Cerdeira et al., 2007; Champagne and Fustier, 2007; Madene et al., 2005). In other words, it is a process in which tiny particles or droplets are surrounded by a coating, or embedded in a homogeneous or heterogeneous matrix (Gharsallaoui et al.,2007). The materials within the capsule that are surrounded by coating materials are known as core, internal phase or fill....   [tags: Chemistry]

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The Structure of Proteins

- The Structure of Proteins Introduction Campbell and Farrell define proteins as polymers of amino acids that have been covalently joined through peptide bonds to form amino acid chains (61). A short amino acid chain comprising of thirty amino acids forms a peptide, and a longer chain of amino acids forms a polypeptide or a protein. Each of the amino acids making up a protein, has a fundamental design that comprises of a central carbon or alpha carbon that is bonded to a hydrogen element, an amino grouping, a carboxyl grouping, and a unique side chain or the R-group (Campbell and Farrell 61)....   [tags: Chemistry]

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The Chemistry of Natural Waters

- Defined in Chemtrek as “The presence of the dissolved divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+. . . (which) gives natural waters chemical properties”, hard water has always been a curse to both animals and man 1 . It promotes scale, the buildup of magnesium and calcium to the point where a rock-like substance forms in household and industrial pipes, disrupts natural habitats and reproductive cycles of fresh water fish, and causes many health-related problems in humans 2 . To avoid such problems, it is important to understand ways that commercial businesses and homeowners can test for hard water....   [tags: Science Papers]

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Chemistry planning and designing lab

- Lab# Date: Topic: The reactivity series Problem: Which of the following metals are more reactive with acids – magnesium, zinc, aluminum, iron, lead, and copper. Hypothesis: Aluminum is the most reactive with acids because it occurs in group III. Aim: To perform a comparative test on which metal is the most reactive with acids. Experiment: A comparative test is done using time to find which metal has the fastest reaction Skill: P & D Apparatus : Equipment: 1. 6 beakers 2. Water 3. Measuring cylinder 4....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Chemistry and Electricity: The Electrochemical Reduction of Nitric Oxide (NO) to Hydroxylamine

- Many conventional chemical production processes offer quite some room for improvement in product yield, selectivity, and energy efficiency.. The development of alternative technologies with a more efficient use of resources has become a requirement for a transition towards global sustainability. Electrochemical alternatives are attractive from these perspectives, specially because electrodes bring about chemical change without the use of highly toxic reagents and usually in conditions close to ambient temperature and pressure....   [tags: energy efficiency, alternative technologies]

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Love: A Complex Mix of Chemistry, Psychology, Culture and Emotion

- Love is by far one of the most talked about, written about, expressed and implied feelings in the human array of emotions. The Beatles told us that “love is all you need”. Dr. Theodor Geisel, best known under the pseudonym Seuss, stated that “When you are in love you can't fall asleep because reality is better than your dreams.” Douglas Adams gave us a dry warning in his book The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, stressing that, in terms of love, “Avoid, if at all possible.” With all the artists, poets, writers, philosophers, scientists, and thinkers of the world giving us conflicting and equally meaningful views of love, can it really be explained....   [tags: essay on love]

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Chemistry: Effects of Digestive Supplement on the Human Body

- Introduction: The purpose of this lab was to determine the effects that pH had on lactase activity of four different digestive supplements that assist in the breakdown of lactose in the body. Lactase is an enzyme that digests lactose, it is also the primary sugar found in milk (BIOB 260 Lab Manual, 2014). Before it can be broken down lactose needs to be broken down into glucose and galactose for easy absorption into the bloodstream, this is done by the hydrolying of the monosaccharide (BIOB 260 Lab Manual, 2014)....   [tags: pH, lactase, blood stream]

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History of Chemistry: Family of Cyanoacrylate or Liquid Glues

- ... These products have made fixing our little mishaps easier and quicker. I will deal with the product Super Glue in this paper. First, before I can tell you what Super Glue is, I must tell you what it is not. It's not made from natural materials, but from man-made chemicals. Super Glue was not created to stop wounds from bleeding in World War II. Super Glue was really a mistake when it was first made. Scientists headed by Harry Wesley Coover Jr., was trying to invent a clear gun sight back in World War II....   [tags: glue, adhesives, products]

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Chemistry: New Era for Organic Semiconducting Polymers

- Semiconducting Polymers, Polythiophenes Introduction The discovery of poly(acetylene); a conjugated polymer in 1977 paved the pathway for a new era for organic semiconducting polymers.1, 2 Easy processability, low cost, mechanical flexibility, light weight, higher absorption coefficients of these conjugated organic semiconducting polymers made them promising candidates for the applications such as organic field effect transistors (OFETs), bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs).1, 3 Over the past decades extensive research has been carried out to investigate new conjugated materials to achieve higher efficiencies in BHJ solar cells and higher charge...   [tags: Semiconducting Polymers, Polythiophenes]

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Acid/Base Chemistry

- Yeast produce beverages that Americans twenty-one or older enjoy, they make drinks like beer, wine, and etc. One of the most widely seen genus and species is Saccharomycescerevisiae ( There are many different strands of this organism. But this particular yest genus is so useful that one company seems that they only work with it, Vinters Harvest provides these organisms to home brewers and theirmain yeast is this one. Yeast ferment sugars in order to produce energy and alcohol an unintended byproduct....   [tags: Scientific Research ]

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