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Your search returned 359 essays for "Behavorists":
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Emotions - Emotions are inferred states of overt behaviors exhibited after stimulus presentation. When stimulated, a peripheral neuron changes cell polarization causing the cell to fire and send a signal to the brain. Once received in the brain, the signal is processed for its meaning. From an evolutionary perspective, human and non-human behaviors are selected only if they are functionally adaptive and provide the individual with reproductive advantages. Emotional expressions are considered part of an individual's behavior repertoire....   [tags: Papers] 368 words
(1.1 pages)
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Biological and Psychological Explanations of Anxiety Disorders - Biological and Psychological Explanations of Anxiety Disorders Research has often concluded that no one biological or psychological theory can provide a sufficient explanation into anxiety disorders such as depression. The diathesis stress model explains psychological anxiety disorders as an interaction between a predisposition to the disorder and environmental stress. In terms of anxiety disorders, predispositions include aspects of biological and psychological factors. Often the main problem found with psychological explanations of anxiety disorders, especially the psychodynamic theory, is that is the theories are more difficult to test....   [tags: Papers] 484 words
(1.4 pages)
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The Key to Success in Education - A Mixture of Progressivism and Behaviorism is the Key to Success in Education Lee Beck, a teacher of thirty years, is my hero. Lee has an intense passion for teaching and an equal passion for children. It is this overwhelming passion and satisfactions in helping children excel in academics and in life that have inspired me to become a teacher. Pursuing a career in Education has led me to different philosophical perspectives of education that will be utilized in my future classroom. Behind every educational facility and educator lies a value system and set of beliefs that influence their philosophy of education....   [tags: Teaching Education Philosophy] 736 words
(2.1 pages)
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Face Your Life - There are many different modern perspectives of psychology. These modern perspectives are cognitive,psychoanalysis,humanistic-cultural,behavioral and evolutionary. Any change that happens in your life must come from you and your own efforts. Although a psychologist can guide you, no one can do the work for you. A small daily event can sometimes lay back a deep impact on your life. This is one such incident, where a normal routine incident taught me a very important principle of life. When thinking about a key event in regard to different personality theories, I felt that I could most relate that key event of my life to the humanistic and behavioral theory....   [tags: Personal Narrative, Personal Experience] 1341 words
(3.8 pages)
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy - Brief history of the theory and theorist. In it's simplest form, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, (or CBT as it will be referred to from here on out), refers to the approach of changing dysfunctional behaviors and thoughts to realistic and healthy ones. CBT encompasses several types of therapy focusing on the impact of an individual's thinking as it relates to expressed behaviors. Such models include rational emotive therapy (RET), rational emotive behavioral therapy (REBT), behavior therapy (BT), Rational Behavior Therapy (RBT), Schema Focused Therapy, Cognitive therapy (CT)....   [tags: Psychology, Rational Behavioral Therapy] 2449 words
(7 pages)
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Schizophrenia Case Study - Throughout psychology today there are six different theoretical models that seek to explain and treat abnormal functioning or behavior. These different models have been a result of different ideas and beliefs over the course of history. As psychology began to grow so did the improvements in research techniques. As a result psychologists are able to explain a variety of disorders in terms of the six different theoretical models. In the movie A Beautiful Mind it follows the mathematician John Nash as he struggles with schizophrenia....   [tags: Psychology ]
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Behaviorism: Modern Applications - Behaviorism is the study of human behavior and is based on the belief that all human behavior is learned. Behaviorism evolved during the 19th century and took hold in the early years of the 20th century. Notable behaviorists include Albert Bandura, Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner, Edward Lee Thorndike, Edward C. Tolman, and John B. Watson. These men opposed the study of consciousness believing that psychology should instead focus on only what could be seen, heard, or touched. The result was a science of behavior that viewed human beings as machines (Schultz & Schultz, 2008)....   [tags: psychology, compare, contrast]
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Modernism versus Post-Modernism - Modernism versus Post-Modernism Modernism explains science as the process of learning and that everything needs to be tested and measured in order to be truth and reality. Modernists believe that knowledge and expertise will ultimately solve problems and seek progression. Educators’ value discipline and order in their classroom and their goal is to measure the input and output of examinations by completing standardized testing. They look to create learners who strive to think analytically and critically....   [tags: Education, History]
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Coming to Terms with Free Will - Coming to Terms with Free Will Neurobiologists would like to treat the brain as a machine, tinkering with its parts and seeing how they interact as a mechanic might with a car engine. This kind of treatment works in many ways: when neurobiologists act like car mechanics they often succeed in explaining how our mental spark plugs interact with our mental pistons, and thus can perform useful tune-ups on the brain, along with other practical achievements. But to fully understand the brain, we must admit that in certain respects it is a very unique sort of machine, and one which raises problems unsolvable by car mechanic strategies....   [tags: Neurological Neurology Essays]
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Cognitivism - Cognitivism Cognitivism is considered the dominant approach in psychology today. The dramatic shift from behaviorism to cognitivism occurred in the early part of this century. After years of almost exclusively behaviorist research, psychologists and educators became discontent with the limitations of behaviorism. Although behaviorism encouraged observable and measurable research in the field of psychology, it did not incorporate mental events. This paper will present a general overview of the origin of cognitivism and a discussion of three widely accepted cognitive theories—the Atkinson-Shriffin stage model, Craik and Lockhart’s levels of processing theory, and the parallel distributed p...   [tags: Psychology Essays]
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Essay on Cheating and Plagiarism - From the information I gathered for this paper, plagiarism is a bigger problem than we all think. As far as I can tell plagiarism has been around since the existence of reading and writing. Our human race sure hasn't helped this matter by inventing the printing press in the late fifteen-century and the Internet in the late twentieth century. Plagiarism gets most of its press in the realm of education, particularly in places of higher education. Aside from the information I attained threw traditional research, I poled a few students here at Lake Superior State University....   [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers] 1597 words
(4.6 pages)
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The Symbolism of Self Violence - The Symbolism of Self Violence I enrolled in this class in semiotics in order to see if the semiotic approach would give me a greater understanding or give meaning to what I do for a living. It seems natural that I would try to employ the method with the problems that vex me the most. I hope that any reader of this text will appreciate the attempt at interpretation of meaning and not focus on the sensationalism or strangeness of the behaviors that I will describe. I must give credit for the idea of looking at the symbolism of self-violence to James Gilligan in his book, "Violence" in which he examines the symbolism of violence towards others (Gilligan , 1996) ....   [tags: Psychology Papers]
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The Science of Psychology - The Science of Psychology Psychology is defined as “the scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes supported by research”. The word psychology itself is derived from two Latin roots- “psyche” meaning mind and “logos” meaning study....   [tags: Papers] 1081 words
(3.1 pages)
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The Learning Perspective - The Learning Perspective The learning perspective what is it. This is the study of how exactly a person is effected through what they learn on a daily basis. Through family, their surroundings and behavior. The people who believe this line of thinking are called behaviorists. Many people look at the learning perspective in a suspiciouse manner not believeing or trusting any of the experiments. But there are many contributions and many limitations of the learning perspective. In the list of the contributions you will find all different types of positive aspects from the learning perspective....   [tags: Papers] 478 words
(1.4 pages)
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Philosophy of Education - Philosophy of Education I began my college education in 1987. I attended two full years and one part-time year before accepting a position with an engineering firm in 1992. I was employed there for the next nine years and was promoted three times. Even though this was a good stable career, I was not satisfied. I have always wanted to be a teacher. I never gave up hope and continued to take a class when I could. In the fall of 2001, I had the opportunity to work part-time and finish my degree. I am so excited to achieve my lifetime goal of becoming an educator....   [tags: Philosophy of Teaching Education Teachers Essays] 683 words
(2 pages)
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Piaget's Cognitive Theory - Psychology Piaget's Cognitive Theory Cognitive development is the development of thought processes, including remembering, problem solving, and decision-making, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. Historically, the cognitive development of children has been studied in a variety of ways. The oldest is through intelligence tests. An example of this is the Stanford Binet Intelligence Quotient test. IQ scoring is based on the concept of mental age, according to which the scores of a child of average intelligence match his or her age....   [tags: piaget piagets psychology development] 1077 words
(3.1 pages)
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Humanistic Workplace Paper - Humanistic Workplace Paper ABSTRACT In today's workplace, Humanism would concentrate upon the development of the employee's self-concept. If the employee feels good about him or herself then that is a positive start. Feeling good about oneself would involve an understanding of ones' strengths and weaknesses, and a belief in one's ability to improve. Learning is not an end in itself; it is the means to progress towards the pinnacle of self-development, which Maslow terms 'Self-actualization'....   [tags: Business Management Culture] 1662 words
(4.7 pages)
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Teaching Language after the Critical Period Has Been Extinguished in A Silent Childhood - Teaching Language after the Critical Period Has Been Extinguished in A Silent Childhood Childhood is such a precious, yet trenchant part of life. We all have memories of our days as children along with stories of lessons learned. Childhood is reflected by most as being a time of bliss and enlightenment. As I recall my childhood an avalanche of mixed feelings suffocates me. Would I be able to interpret these feelings if I had not learned language. More importantly, is it possible to teach language after the "critical period" has been extinguished....   [tags: Papers] 795 words
(2.3 pages)
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Mental Healing: Does Positive Thinking Act Upon Brain Neurons to Improve Health? - Mental Healing: Does Positive Thinking Act Upon Brain Neurons to Improve Health. Almost all of us have heard of a scenario such as this one: A woman battling cancer has lost almost all hope of recovery. She has not been able to turn to her family for support for fear of their reactions to her illness. One morning she finally breaks down and tells her husband about the cancer. Instead of being devastated and turning his back on his wife, the husband supports the wife, every step of the way, and she gradually seems to improve....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]
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Absence of Evidence, or Evidence of Absence; A paper on Animal Consciousness - Absence of Evidence, or Evidence of Absence. A paper on Animal Consciousness Consciousness is a difficult term to grasp; so much so, that many scientists will not even attempt to define the term, much less search for it’s evidence. Most however, do agree that consciousness must include certain aspects; specifically cognition, self-awareness, memory, and abstract thought. Lesley J. Rogers describes consciousness as, “related to awareness, intelligence, and complex cognition, as well as language....   [tags: essays research papers fc]
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2069 words
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Self Types and Their Differences Across Generations and The Life Cycle - Self Types and Their Differences Across Generations and The Life Cycle With modernization, the quest for knowledge of oneself has become a major preoccupation for many Americans. "Who am I?" "Know Thyself" and "Unto thine own self be true"--Such are the themes of wall plaques, self-help manuals, and religious maxims. When surveying older individuals' reflections on the whole of life, one 83-year-old nun told one of my student researchers: I would tell any young person to be your own self....   [tags: Individualism Community Compare Contrast] 1991 words
(5.7 pages)
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Importance of Spiritual Freedom in Anthony Burgess' A Clockwork Orange - The Importance of Spiritual Freedom Revealed in A Clockwork Orange Anthony Burgess is one of the greatest British writers of the twentieth century. His masterpiece, A Clockwork Orange, is unrivalled in depth, insight, and innovation. The novel is a work of high quality - almost perfection. The novel's main theme deals with free choice and spiritual freedom. More specifically, "[The ethical promise that 'A man who cannot choose ceases to be man'] can be taken as both the explicit and implicit themes of the novel" (Morgan 104)....   [tags: Clockwork Orange Essays] 859 words
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My Philosophy of Education: Combining Progressivism, Essentialism and Behaviorism - My Philosophy of Education: Combining Progressivism, Essentialism and Behaviorism Upon being faced with the task of writing my philosophy of teaching, I made many attempts to narrow the basis for my philosophy down to one or two simple ideas. However, I quickly came to the realization that my personal teaching philosophy stems from many other ideas, philosophies, and personal experiences. I then concentrated my efforts on finding the strongest points of my personal beliefs about teaching and what I have learned this semester, and came up with the following....   [tags: Teaching Education School Teacher Essays] 828 words
(2.4 pages)
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Behaviorism and Fundamental Psychologists and Their Contributions - Behaviorism and Fundamental Psychologists and Their Contributions The study of Behaviorism dates can be traced back to the classical Greek philosophers, and goes into the nineteenth and twentieth-century psychology. Below is a list of fundamental psychologists and their contributions. * Greeks Philosophers and psychologists have been intrigued with the human thought process for thousands of years, with one of the first being the Greek philosopher Aristotle. He presented some of the first operational methods in how human learning and memory are formed....   [tags: Papers] 973 words
(2.8 pages)
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Improving Our Ability to Make Decisions - Decision-Making Process: Improving Our Ability to Make Decision Facing a situation, you have to decide. For example, the fire surrounds you: What do you do. Jump through the windows and risk to kill yourself or to wait the firemen and risk to be burned to death if they come to late. Every decision that we make or don’t make shapes our future. Everyone tries to make good decisions. However, it is easy to overlook an important factor, miss a desirable option, or base the decision on unreliable information....   [tags: Decision Making Process Essays]
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Reluctant Learners and the Causes - Reluctant Learners and the Causes In order to discuss how technology motivates reluctant learners, we must first agree upon what exactly a reluctant learner is. According to Joyce M. Herzog, a reluctant learner is one who "is not interested in life at all, is not interested in what you are teaching, and is not able to learn in the time-frame or manner of presentation" (2002). There are several reasons as to why the student may feel the way he/she does. As a teacher, one must be very careful to make sure to take into consideration all of the reasons as to why a student may feel reluctant to put forth the necessary energy in the classroom....   [tags: essays papers]
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Today's Realities and Yesterday's Models - Today's Realities and Yesterday's Models Today's realities do not necessarily fit yesterday's models. In a universe where shifting paradigms are the norm, scientists are in continued search to establish cause and effect relationships between events that can be modeled. We see behaviorists scurrying for specific reasons as to why two youths could commit such heinous acts in Colorado. Their existing models could not predict such atrocity. Meteorologists and environmentalists are developing an explanation for global warming....   [tags: Economy Economics Employment Essays]
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Comparison of Theories on Personality - Comparison of Theories on Personality Abstract This paper is a comparison of three different viewpoints on the subject of personality. Carl Jung, B.F. Skinner, and Carl Rogers all had very different outlooks on what defined someone’s personality. As an added feature I have included myself as a theorist because my views are also different from the previous mentioned theorists. This paper will also look briefly into the background of each theorist because their views on life began in their childhood....   [tags: Papers] 1267 words
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Wolfgang Kohler's Contributions to Learning - Wolfgang Kohler's Contributions to Learning Learning affects an individual's behavior through cognition in many ways. One of the most obvious ways is the acquiring of a skill. Kohler, a Gestaltist, was a believer in the value of perception and insight in terms of our cognition and how we are more than our behavior… that we actually have mental processes that govern our capacity to solve problems and make decisions in regards to learning and behavior. Kohler performed many experiments with chimpanzees to assist his theory about perception and insight....   [tags: Papers] 992 words
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Behavior: Nature vs. Nurture - For centuries psychologists have argued over which plays the larger role in child development, heredity or environment. One of the first theories was proposed in the seventeenth century by the British philosopher John Locke. Locke believed that a child was born with an empty mind, tabula rasa (meaning "blank slate") and that everything the child learns comes from experience, nothing is established beforehand. Years later, Charles Darwin brought forth his theory of evolution, which led to a return of the hereditarian viewpoint....   [tags: genetics vs environment]
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Turing: Concept of Computation - Turing: Concept of Computation Turing's analysis of the concept of computation is indisputably the foundation of computationalism, which is, in turn, the foundation of cognitive science. What is disputed is whether computationalism is explanatorily bankrupt. For Turing, all computers are digital computers and something becomes a (digital) computer just in case its 'behavior' is interpreted as implementing, executing, or satisfying some (mathematical) function 'f'. As 'computer' names a nonnatural kind, almost everyone agrees that a computational interpretation of this sort is necessary for something to be a computer....   [tags: Computers Computational Systems Papers]
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Philosophy of Teaching Statement - Philosophy of Teaching Statement As a freshman in college, I was faced with one of the most important decisions of my life. I had to decide where I wanted my college education to go and what I wanted to become as an adult. My whole freshman year, I struggled to make a decision. My family encouraged me to major in business, because even if I didn’t like my job they felt that I could make a lot of money and have financial security. They didn’t feel like education was the right career for me....   [tags: Educating Education Essays Teacher] 1103 words
(3.2 pages)
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Educational Goals and Philosophy - Educational Goals and Philosophy When I finally decided what I wanted to do with my life, the ultimate answer was that I wanted to become a teacher. Of course, after telling my family and friends what I had determined, they all wanted to know why. At first, my answer was simple, and the words “just because I do” were uttered from my lips all too frequently as I realized that I had not given any serious thought as to the reason why I had chosen the teaching profession....   [tags: Education Teaching Teachers Essays] 1044 words
(3 pages)
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My Philosophy of Education - My Philosophy of Education My philosophy of teaching is based on theories or ideas of philosophers and psychologists such as the Sophists, Plato/Socrates, Functionalists, Rousseau, Experimentalists, and Piaget as well as others. I will discuss my views on the nature of humans, the nature of knowledge, the purpose of education, the method in which I intend to conduct my classroom, the importance of library media in schools, as well as my plans of professional development. The nature of humans is a combination of both heredity and environment....   [tags: Philosophy on Teaching Teachers Essays] 877 words
(2.5 pages)
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Language Acquisition - What is language. Language is a set of arbitrary symbols that enables every individual in the community to communicate and interact. These symbols contain acceptable meanings by the society and culture. Possessing a language is essential in all human; every normal human speaks but nonhuman does not. Acquisition, on the other hand, means learning or getting. Therefore, language acquisition basically means the learning or the gaining of a language. Language acquisition is normally viewed as a part of cognitive science....   [tags: Language ]
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Viral Advertising - Viral advertising is a relatively new craze that has quickly become the next big thing in marketing. A word of mouth (WOM) strategy, it forces marketers to create branded videos that consumers like so much that they want to share it with friends. To achieve viral success, an ad must create enough buzz to generate one million views, which is the standard tipping point where a video can go from popular to viral status (Teixeira, 2013). This task proves difficult not only because it’s centered on the premise of asking consumers to market a brand for free, but also because of the uncertainty that surrounds the entire phenomenon....   [tags: viral video phenomenon]
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Philosophy of Education - Philosophy of Education Education is an essential element to the life of every person. Teachers must have a philosophy of teaching to be effective in the classroom. No matter what way of teaching an educator chooses, it should positively affect his or her students and help to keep them on track to growing into strong intelligent adults. If a child is placed in a positive environment, then it will help shape them into good citizens. According to Plato, a student's environment determines his or her morals and character....   [tags: Philosophy of Teaching Statement] 819 words
(2.3 pages)
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Development During Adolescence - Adolescence is the developmental stage between childhood and adulthood; it generally refers to a period ranging from age 12 or 13 through age 19 or 21. Although its beginning is often balanced with the beginning of puberty, adolescence is characterized by psychological and social stages as well as by biological changes. Adolescence can be prolonged, brief, or virtually nonexistent, depending on the type of culture in which it occurs. In societies that are simple, for example, the transition from childhood to adulthood tends to occur rather rapidly, and is marked by traditionally prescribed passage rites....   [tags: Human Development Teenagers Essays] 1667 words
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Behavioral Learning Theories - Behavioral Learning Theories Most theorists agree that learning occurs when experience causes a change in a person's knowledge or behavior . Behaviorists emphasize the role of environmental stimuli in learning and focus on the behavior, i.e., an observable response. Behavioral theories are based on contiguity, classical and operant conditioning, applied behavior analysis, social learning theory and self-regulation/cognitive behavior modification. Early views of learning were contiguity and classical conditioning....   [tags: Papers] 879 words
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Children's Private Speech - Children's Private Speech Walk into any classroom or playground full of young children aged from four years old through to six or seven, and you will be overwhelmed by the constant noise. Now think back to your own childhood, and try to recall if it was that noisy when you were that age. If you can¡¦t , you are probably like the majority of people. But you will definitely remember the adults in your life telling you to ¡§shut up¡¨, ¡§be quiet¡¨ and ¡§sshhh¡¨. Many Psychologists have noted what is actually being said in all this noise, and attempted to establish what level of communication is actually taking place, and the purpose of this communication....   [tags: Papers] 1320 words
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Animal Belief - Animal Belief If Mary believes a bone is on the lawn, then she literally believes that, though her belief may be mistaken. But, if her pet Fido rushes up to what is in fact a bit of bone-shaped plastic, then Fido does not believe that there is a bone on the lawn. However, the best explanation for Fido’s behavior may be that he initially believed there was a bone on the lawn. Unless we are methodological or analytical behaviorists, the claim that we can best explain the behavior of dumb animals by treating them as if they literally held beliefs (and desires) subject to various rationality constraints is hardly surprising....   [tags: Philosophy Language Papers] 3378 words
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Educational Philosophies - Educational Philosophies Many different ideas of the correct educational philosophy exist. Highly acclaimed psychologists and educators developed these varying philosophies. Each of these philosophies have their strengths and weaknesses and have their positives and negatives in different situations. It is our job as educators to sift through this list of philosophies to find our own style and philosophy. We must research the pros and cons of each philosophy and pick and choose which sections of each idea to take out and make our own....   [tags: Philosophy Education Psychology Essays] 1580 words
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Animal Communication - Throughout this course of study, the concept of language as the demarcation between animals and humans has prevailed. Further, as we have seen in our class readings, many claim that it is through language that our "consciousness" and "cognitive" skills are developed. Accordingly, these skills are necessary for us to interpret and conceptualize our world. What this infers is that because we have these skills and the "brute" animals do not, animals do not possess the ability to analyze or think about their world....   [tags: essays research papers] 2707 words
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Child Psychology - Child Psychology I.     Purpose of paper:      Child Psychology, study of children’s behavior-including physical, cognitive, motor, linguistic, perceptual, social, and emotional characteristics-from birth through adolescence. Child psychologists attempt to explain the similarities and differences among children and to describe normal as well as abnormal behavior and development. They also develop methods of treating social, emotional, and learning problems and provide therapy privately and in schools, hospitals, and other institutions....   [tags: Research Psychological Papers Children]
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Humanistic Psychology - Overview: Throughout history many individuals and groups have affirmed the inherent value and dignity of human beings. They have spoken out against ideologies, beliefs and practices, which held people to be merely the means for accomplishing economic and political ends. They have reminded their contemporaries that the purpose of institutions is to serve and advance the freedom and power of their members. In Western civilization we honor the times and places, such as Classical Greece and Europe of the Renaissance, when such affirmations were expressed....   [tags: essays research papers] 1419 words
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Clockwork Orange - Clockwork Orange In all of my reading, I have come to the conclusion that Anthony Burgess is one of the greatest literary genius’s of the twentieth century. His masterpiece, A Clockwork Orange, is unrivaled in obvious depth, insight, and innovation. The novel is a work of such quality, such perfection, that it seems to be genuinely written by a literary demigod. The novel's main theme deals with free choice and spiritual freedom. More specifically, "[The ethical promise that 'A man who cannot choose ceases to be man'] can be taken as both the explicit and implicit themes of the novel" (Morgan 104)....   [tags: essays papers]
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Abraham Moslow - Abraham Moslow The theorist I chose was Maslow, he was born in 1908 in Brooklyn, New York. He was the first of seven children born to his parents, Jewish immigrants from Russia. His parents, hoping for the best for their children in the New World, pushed him hard for academic success. He became the psychologist who many people consider the founder of a movement called humanistic psychology. The movement developed as a revolt against behaviorism and psychoanalysis, the two most popular psychological views of the mid- 1900’s....   [tags: Papers] 1623 words
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Panic Disorder - Panic Disorder You become terrified for no apparent reason; your heart feels as though it will beat right out of your chest; you sense an overall feeling of doom and you get dizzy. Am I dying, or am I just crazy. If you are crazy, then so are 2.4 million other people in the United States. Panic disorder, one of many anxiety disorders, is a serious and potentially debilitating illness. This illness is treatable, however, only one-third of those who suffer will actually be treated. What is panic disorder....   [tags: Papers] 1370 words
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The Advantages of a Humanistic Approach in Adult Education - Introduction Behaviourism is the analysis of observable behaviour (Driscoll, 2005, p. 29). There is no doubt about the influence that behaviourism has had on education. It has been used in many situations that call for behaviour modification. These modification methods are taught to adults who will use them to change their own behaviour when they wish to lose weight, quit smoking, or alter another aspect of how they behave. Behaviourism as a learning approach has many limitations. Proponents of this method would agree that the only evidence we have or require of a learner gaining knowledge is from observing their behaviour....   [tags: Education, Teaching]
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Behaviorism - Background and Description of Behaviorism in Relation to Learning The background of behaviorism is associated with many scientists. Behaviorism started back in 400 BC with Aristotle. Aristotle believed in association and that "the objects being associated are similar, or opposite, or near each other". Then, behaviorism came into play with Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist. He studied the behavior of dogs and how they would salivating (conditioned reflex) when shown just the food dish without food (conditioned stimulus or conditioned response)....   [tags: Psychology Psychological Essays]
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Assess and Outline Analytical Behaviourism - Analytical Behaviourism is an empiricist view that was popular in the 1950s, and 60s. It was regarded as a scientific study of the mind, unlike psychological behaviourism. Popular behaviourists include Tom Nagel, Hempel and Ryle. Behaviourists believe that every time we talk about the mind we are infact talking about either actual, or possible, behaviour. So we are speaking about just physical substances and attributes, and nothing non-physical. Behaviourists reject the existence of mental states `sui generis', (as something in their own right)....   [tags: Philosophy] 550 words
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Autism - Diagnostic Summary Paper AUTISM Autism is a disorder that impairs the development of a person's capacity to interact with, communicate with, and also maintain regular "normal" bonds with the outside world. This disorder was described in 1943 by Leo Kanner, an American psychologist. Autism is considered one of the more common developmental disabilities, and appears before the age of three. It is known to be four or five times more common in males than in females. It most cited statistic is that autism occurs in 4.5 out of 10,000 live births....   [tags: essays research papers] 714 words
(2 pages)
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Biology - Biology is the science of living systems. It is inherently interdisciplinary, requiring knowledge of the physical sciences and mathematics, although specialities may be oriented toward a group of organisms or a level of organization. BOTANY is concerned with plant life, ZOOLOGY with animal life, algology with ALGAE, MYCOLOGY with fungi, MICROBIOLOGY with microorganisms such as protozoa and bacteria, CYTOLOGY with CELLS, and so on. All biological specialties, however, are concerned with life and its characteristics....   [tags: Biology]
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psychology - As described, there are 10 different perspectives of early psychology. These perspectives are: Structuralism, functionalism, Gestalt psychology, Behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, physiological, evolutionary, cognitive, and cultural and diversity. I will only be looking at three of these perspectives still in common use today here is a summary of each. The behavioral perspective "focuses on the observable behaviors; thus it does not speculate about mental processes such as thinking." (Davis and Palladino, 2005).Unlike the other approaches, the behavioral perspective accentuates how it is important to learn and understand and doesn't focus on coconscious....   [tags: essays research papers] 1088 words
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Diversity in Early Education - One hundred years ago, people did not leave their hometown, much less move their families into multicultural neighborhoods filled with diverse children from all over the planet. However, that is changing. With a more globalized world, minorities are finally represented throughout the country, and diversity is becoming more important than ever. In schools, some has been done to address this drastic reduction in prejudice and increase in opportunities. While completely integrating diversity into classrooms is a challenge due to differences in cultural behavior, and misconceived notions of diversity education, there are many studies which are benefiting multiculturalism and strategies created...   [tags: hometown, multicultural neighborhoods]
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theories of philosophy - When we view the philosophy of mind we encounter many problems, the main being that although there are many theories on this topic it is impossible to prove any of them and thus this problem is still unresolved. How is it that we can understand more about the universe and science than ever before but do not understand what it is that enables us to understand, that is the mind. To answer this rather complicated problem there are many solutions, or theories, each with their good points but none which are totally convincing, though some seem more though than others....   [tags: essays research papers] 2496 words
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Behavioral and Psychodynamic Psychology in the Treatment of Addictions - Assignment One - Introduction to Psychology With 2,405,518,376 (World Statistics, 2014) users around the world there is no doubt that some users are bound to develop addiction. “Internet addiction is when a person has a compulsive need to spend a great deal of time on the Internet, to the point where other areas of life (such as relationships, work or health) are allowed to suffer.” (Better Health Channel, 2011). With this scientists around the world are fighting to beat these addictions. Two theoretical perspectives that play heavily into the treatment process are Behavioural and Psychodynamic psychology....   [tags: cognitive behavioral therapy, internet addiction]
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John B. Watson & Behavioral Psychology Part 2 - Contributions to Psychology During the zeitgeist of Watson’s early career, the focus of psychology was on the analysis of the conscious mind. During the late 1800’s, Sigmund Freud, a leader in psychology at the time, had proposed theories of psychology that focused on the conscious and unconscious mind. He explained behavior as a response to the desires of our unconscious and conscious minds, implying that individuals did not have much control over their behaviors or thoughts. In the early 1900’s, during Watson’s career, the country was recovering from the First World War....   [tags: zeitgeist, contributions]
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Learning Theories Used in the Classroom - The Case Study of “The Solar System” Introduction             The case study that I chose was the case of “The Solar System”.  Out of all the three lesson plans, I found Mr. Johnson’s lesson plan to be the most interesting and elaborate. It also included innovative ways to touch on multiple learning styles using both text and visuals. Learning Theories Used In The Classroom Behaviorism             According to Moreno (2010) , the term “learning”, can be defined as a “relatively permanent change in our thoughts, feelings, or behavior that results from experience “ (p.150) However, there are many theories psychologists have created that describe how people learn from infancy to adultho...   [tags: teaching techniques, education]
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The Associations Between ADHD Symptoms and Boredom Proneness, Sleep Disorders, Self-Esteem, and Academic Achievements - BACKGROUND: Previous tests have revealed associations between ADHD symptoms and boredom proneness, sleep disorders, self-esteem and academic achievements in children. These affects can influence the overall academic achievement dramatically, especially the affect that academic achievement receives from self esteem in particular when a result of ADHD. A test was performed on a group of fifth and sixth graders where it was revealed that the scores on a self-esteem test are able to more accurately estimate the result of the child’s academic achievements, even more so than standardized tests....   [tags: Medical Research ]
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The Film Philadelphia- Prejudice on an Innnocent Man - ... He was uneducated on the disease itself; all he knew was what social media resources had portrayed of the people who contracted this fast spreading disease. Miller was a homophobe who didn’t want anything to do with the case and even stated he didn’t want the case for “personal reasons.” He later in the film revealed, “As a kid you’re taught that queers are funny, queers are weird, they dress up as their mother, they’re afraid to fight, they’re a danger to other kids, and that all they want to do is get into your pants.” (Philadelphia Film 1:16:00) Millers initial prejudice has to do with the over sexed thought of gay men....   [tags: LGBTQ community, erotic lifestyles]
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Consumption Overpopulation and Its Effects on the Environment - ... The very first idea is the fatalistic belief program that block the actual risk perception. “Humans can not harm the Resource Base” (p.449). The second premise is that the complicity of the concerns regarding the environment blocks the individual awareness of risk. He Concludes that a call for “education and consensus building” (P.472) in raising the environmental risk of awareness. Comparison and Contrast Environmental Environmental risk perceptions also allowing loss aversion, unrealistic optimistic attitude, and heuristic assist in understanding the way humans go towards their resource consumption problem....   [tags: maximum capacity of Earth]
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Smooth-Running Working Machine with Behavior and Personality Assessments - Behavioral and Personality Assessments Many of us have dealt with differing personalities at work and through our normal day-to-day activities. As leaders, it is imperative that we understand our own strengths and weaknesses as well as those around us. Performance and team dynamics are very much influenced by behavior styles and differing personality traits. As leaders, or individuals, the ability to measure and capture personal traits and behavioral, or personal branding styles, are key to the success of organizations....   [tags: performance, leader, organization]
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Summary of Tom Wolfe's The Right Stuff - Tom Wolfe writes in the book “The Right Stuff” about early jet pilots that demonstrated extreme bravery, and behaviorisms that enabled them to be part of a furtive group of individuals. It has been said that these men usually assemble in groups among themselves in a way that solicited the men to be a part of a privileged membership. It is these pilots with proven courage, and abilities that will go forward testing the next barrier; space. These tried and tested men have willingly placed themselves in danger day in and day out yearning for the spot up the ladder to the top of the pyramid....   [tags: the right stuff]
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The Cognitive Revolution and Scientific Study of Psychology - The cognitive revolution in psychology was a period during the 1950’s and 1960’s which involved radical changes to two major concepts in psychology which are consciousness and causality. It was also a period that saw to the abolishment of traditional science values of dichotomy and the worship of atomisation in science, replacing reductive micro deterministic views of personhood with holistic top-down view (Overskeid, 2008) The aim of this essay is to give an account of what constitutes the cognitive revolution, and also assess the contributions that the cognitive revolution has made to the scientific study of psychology....   [tags: Psychology]
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Possible Causes and Effects of Internet Addiction - Psychodynamic focuses on the conscience and unconscious mind of an individual where as Behaviourism, is based on the behaviour of the individual without taking into account any thoughts of the individual. The two theories are both deterministic and both believe that our current behaviour is a result of previous events. A behaviourists would suggest that psychology is a science of behaviour, not a science of mind, the sources of an individual's behaviour is external, in the environment, not internal....   [tags: psychodynamic, behaviourism, mental health]
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Ways In Which Behaviourist Concepts May Be Incorporated Into More General Theories - Ways In Which Behaviourist Concepts May Be Incorporated Into More General Theories Behaviourism is focused on what individuals actually do rather than what they may be thinking or feeling. It is difficult to measure the thinking or feeling of individuals. Therefore observing individual behaviour is important because behaviour can be interpreted: this could be achieved through observation in terms of speech, speed of movement and facial expression. Behaviour can be observed directly and interpreted....   [tags: Papers] 1811 words
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The Historical and Cultural Factors that Contribute to the Development of the Learning Perspective - The Historical and Cultural Factors that Contribute to the Development of the Learning Perspective The study of how humans learn is a dominant component of the learning perspective. The study of behaviour in this perspective and is also commonly known as the Behaviouristic Approach, as they believe that behaviour is the only valid data in psychology. Behaviourism developed simultaneously in the United States and Russia in relation to many factors. Traditional Behaviourists believed that all organisms learn in the same way, and could be explained by the processes of classical and operant conditioning....   [tags: Papers] 2109 words
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Burrhus Frederic Skinner: An Advocate for Behaviorism - I decided to write my essay on B.F. Skinner, whose full first name is Burrhus Frederic. Skinner was born on March 20, 1904 and past away on August 18, 1990. He is considered an influential psychologist, who is known as an advocate to behaviorism. Skinner became interested in the field of psychology through the work of Ivan Pavlov on conditioned response, articles on behaviorism by Bertrand Russell, and ideas of John B. Watson, the founder of behaviorism (“World of Biology,” 2006). Skinner believed that people tend to work harder and learn quicker when they are rewarded for doing something right than when they are punished for doing wrong....   [tags: influential psychologists] 992 words
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Behaviorism: Types, History, and Today - Behaviorism is one of the many schools of psychology and it has one main overall focus. The main overall focus is it studies how a human behaves and is supposed to behave in order to detect human behavior discrepancies. As a behaviorist view, everything you see has a set behavior and should perform a certain, similar to robots. Watson stated that “psychology as a behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is … prediction and control” (1913, p.158)....   [tags: psychology, human behavior, Skinner]
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Philosophy of Child Development - Through my studies of Early Childhood Education, I have come to form my own philosophy on child development. In HCCF 467: Philosophies and Theories of Child Development, I took the Teacher Belief Inventory which assisted me in expressing my individual philosophy on child development. This inventory is a list of 30 statements for which you rate how strongly you agree or disagree. A number of points are given to each answer given, and then these scores are added up in three categories: cognitive-developmental, cultural-training/behaviorist, and maturationist-socialization....   [tags: Child Development ]
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Explanation of Human Behavior - Psychology as the article states is “it is a broad discipline, essentially spanning subject matter from biology to sociology. Psychologists have doctoral degrees. They study the intersection of two critical relationships: one between brain function and behavior, and another between the environment and behavior. As scientists, psychologists follow scientific methods, using careful observation, experimentation and analysis. But psychologists also need to be creative in the way they apply scientific findings.”(APA, 2014) How psychology developed into science is when Wilhelm Maximillian Wundt whom a German physician philosopher, physiologist and professor and also the founder of modern...   [tags: psychology, science, theories]
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Behaviorism Theory - A learning, or behavioral theory, in terms of human development, follows the view that the focus of psychology should be behavior, the way we act. A behaviorist places value on attributes that one can see and therefore study, as opposed to the invisible attributes, such as thinking, feeling, and other brain activity that occurs without one even knowing (Craig & Dunn, 2010, p. 14). There are three important modern behavior or learning theorists: Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, and B. F. Skinner. However, as stated by William Crain John Locke was the “Father of environmentalism and learning theory”, although Ivan Pavlov and B.F....   [tags: Psychology, Watson, Skinne, Locke] 1090 words
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Theoretical Perspectives Curriculum - Introduction Learning theories are used to develop curriculums that explain learning models used in education. These models help simplify education from the earliest stages of childhood through formal education. This paper will explore the learning theories and how they can be applied in developing a curriculum for learning and teaching language. The curriculum will include the epistemology, motivation, and methods of learning Cognitive Jean Piaget and John Dewey helped develop the theory of Cognitive Development....   [tags: Education]
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Constructivist Learning Theory - The very first thing one must know about the constructivist theory of learning is the premise that learners arrive at learning situations with prior knowledge and proceed to take and active part in building new knowledge upon that prior knowledge as they experience new things and reflect on those collected experiences (Learning Theories Knowledgebase, 2012). This theory directly contradicts the behaviorist learning theory in which learners are believed to arrive at learning situations with “clean slates” of understanding....   [tags: Education]
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Evaluation of Research Into Factors that Influence the Development of Attachments in Humans During First Year of Life - Evaluation of Research Into Factors that Influence the Development of Attachments in Humans During First Year of Life Attachment is a mutual and instance emotional relationship between an infant and its caregiver(s). Attachment aids many key functions for the survival of the child as it ensures closeness of the caregiver ensuring safety. Attachments provide a emotionally secure base from which promote self development. Attachments also act as a model for later emotional relationships....   [tags: Papers] 651 words
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Excessive Behavior in The Great Gatsby - Excessive Behavior in The Great Gatsby Excessive behavior is seldom a good thing. The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, is a love story that takes place during the Roaring Twenties. Excess frequently leads to unhappiness. In this novel, Tom’s excessive behavior leads to the unhappiness of himself and other people. Tom’s excessive wealth, carelessness, aggressiveness, and abusiveness lead to the death of Mr. and Mrs. Wilson and Jay Gatsby, resulting in unhappiness for Tom as well as everyone involved....   [tags: Great Gatsby Essays] 616 words
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A New Educational Philosophy for Law Enforcement Training - Since the mid 1980’s there has been a paradigm shift in law enforcement from the military policing model to the community oriented policing model (Breci & Erickson, 1998; Pliant, 1998; Rosenbaum & Yeh, 1994; Thayer & Reynolds, 1997; Varricchio, 1998). In the military model, police react to events in the community (Thayer & Reynolds, 1997). Community problems filter up the chain of command and solutions filter their way back down. Police respond when a crime is committed. There is little contact with the members of the community until the crime has already happened....   [tags: Law Enforcement ]
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Behaviorism, Constructivism, and Cognitivism: Multiple Approaches To Learning - A. Behaviorism, constructivism and cognitivism are relatively common theories used in the classroom as ways to approach student learning. Behaviorism focuses on observable behavior, such as students answering questions correctly, or being able to follow directions to complete a task as instructed. Characteristics of a classroom that uses behaviorism might be memorization of facts, writing vocabulary words, or a token reward system to inspire the desired behavior and decrease undesired behaviors....   [tags: Education]
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The Causes of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders - Individuals who experience stress usually are unaware of the symptoms that could lead into having serious post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). Some PTSD symptoms can contribute to a number of factors such as being delusional, wanting to be left alone, numb, and the feeling of being on the edge. These symptoms require some form of clinical assistance. Psychoanalysis determines patient’s problems with identifying critical stressors to avoid serious health complications. This paper will review two research events that affect selected participants within particular socioeconomic groups....   [tags: Diseases/Disorders]
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