The Middle Age was a time where scientific knowledge became lost or forgotten due to the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 AD. This led Europe into a Dark Age where technology led science, an age of faith had arisen, and scientific incentives were few. However, due to Muslim preservation of ancient writings, scientific advances and instruction did occur although few.
Muslims maintained the ancient science of Aristotle, Ptolemy, Galen, Etc. by translating them to Arabic and creating libraries throughout the Middle East. Rahzes, a great Muslim scientist arranged many encyclopedias of science and medicine that contained theories of both Hippocrates and Galen that assisted in medical advances such as the structure of the eye. If not for Muslims, then perhaps Europe would not have undergone a revival in the sciences. Much of the scientific instruction that did occur in Europe came from the establishment of universities between (1100-1400). Many of the first universities grew out of monasteries that religious orders organized in Paris, Cambridge, and Oxford. These were predominantly male institutions that began instructing students between the ages of 12-15 in a two part curriculum known as the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, and logic) and quadrivium (music, arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy). The curriculum used Latin translations of Arabic texts that were evidently translated from Greek writings. Being that universities originated from religious orders, much of Plato’s and Aristotle’s teachings had to be acceptable to those of Christianity. Augustine a bishop and Thomas Aquinas a priest removed pagan association with science and philosophy such as Aristotle’s eternal universe and Plato’s belief that...
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...s the source of life, mind, and emotion.
During the Renaissance, chemistry shared an association with medicine metallurgy, and alchemy. Paracelsus took these practices and incorporated them into research and teachings. He rejected most early medical beliefs of Hippocrates, Galen, and the four humors theory. Alchemy began to shift its purpose to preparation of medicines from plants and minerals to cure diseases. Paracelsus played an important role in this because of his contribution called iatrochemistry or medical chemistry. He determined that diseases resulted from foreign parasites invading the body and experimented with opium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and zinc in order to treat the illness. Paracelsus also concluded that fermentation and fertilization were mechanical-chemical processes that did not result in disease unless it was putrefaction.
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- Science in the Middle Ages 400-1400 The Middle Age was a time where scientific knowledge became lost or forgotten due to the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 AD. This led Europe into a Dark Age where technology led science, an age of faith had arisen, and scientific incentives were few. However, due to Muslim preservation of ancient writings, scientific advances and instruction did occur although few. Muslims maintained the ancient science of Aristotle, Ptolemy, Galen, Etc. by translating them to Arabic and creating libraries throughout the Middle East.... [tags: Middle Ages, Dark Ages, Renaissance]
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