The literature review research and articles ranged in dates from 1995 to 2013. These articles are composed of over 50 studies, with the results being compared and evaluated over a vast time. The researchers examined the students’ permanent school records, documented the students’ gender, socioeconomic status, grade retained or intervened, teacher assigned grades, reading and mathematics, and the students’ standardized test scores (Rust & Wallace, 1993). Grade appropriate standardized test...
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...d growth: A meta-analysis of assessment data for individual students.” Psychology in the schools 49(4), 385-398. Retrieved from www.web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.cu-portland.
Silberglitt, B., Jimerson, S. and Burns, M. (2006). “Does the timing of grade retention make a
difference? Examining the effects of early versus later retention.” School psychology review35(1), 134-141. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com.ezpoxy.cu-portland.edu/ehost/delivery?sid
U.S. Department of Education (1999). Taking responsibility for ending social promotion: A
guide for educators and state and local leaders. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
Wilson, V. and Hughes, J. (2010). “Who is retained in first grade? A psychosocial perspective.”
Elementary School Journal, 109(3), 251-266. Retrieved from:
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