Schizophrenia is known as a psychotic disorder, characterized by hallucinations, delusions, fragmentation and disruption of thought, perception and loss of motivation and emotion, among other symptoms (National Alliance of Mental Illness, 2014). Individuals with schizophrenia experience positive and negative symptoms, and appear in the different types of schizophrenia such as paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated and residual type. Once the onset begins, schizophrenia goes through three different phases: prodromal, active, and residual. Each of these phases present at different times during the course of the illness. Schizophrenia is more common in men than in women and tends to develop in men at an earlier age, between 20 and 28, while in women it typically develops between the ages of 26 and 32 (Madaan et al., 2008). Madaan et al. (2008) note that roughly a third begin before age 19. A few rare individuals develop schizophrenia before age 12, but they constitute only a small percentage of the overall population.
Children and adolescent onset schizophrenia is a rare but devastating disorder, about 1 in 40,000 adolescents and 170,000 adolescents worldwide have schizophrenia (National Alliance of Mental Illness, 2014). Schizophrenia is particularly damaging because it causes both great mental suffering and serious social disruption to both the person experiencing the disease and their families (Os & Kapur, 2009). They generally need support and guidance as to how to adapt their lives in order to accommodate their new reality. There is a vast majority of schizophrenia research focus on adults, but not adolescents (Hollis, 2000). As such, there is a great deal of work remaining to be done to help better ...
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...e theory approach helps individuals improve these symptoms by identifying cognitive factors and distortions associated with schizophrenia (Rector & Beck, 2002). The cognitive focus of hallucinations (Beck & Rector, 2003), the individual is unable to discriminate between internally and externally generated events. In addition, there is a neuropsychological deficit in the internal monitoring system through the role of the cognitive biases such as their beliefs and expectations. Therefore, this theory helps individuals identify, test, and correct cognitive distortions in the content of voices. Identify, question, and construct alternative beliefs about the voices’ identity, purpose, and meaning. The overall goal is to help the individual recognize that the voices simply reflect either their own attitudes about themselves or those they imagine others to have about them.
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