Essay on Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy

Essay on Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy

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Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a technique that is part of a broader range of techniques that are commonly referred to as scanning probe microscopy. It has a wide array of applications in chemistry, biology, and even the material sciences. SECM uses a ultramicroelectrode to measure the local electrochemical behavior of a substrate in a solution. When introduced, the ultramicroelectrode acts as the electron conductor in the substrate and the added electrolyte acts as the ionic conductor in the solution.
Scanning probe microscopy really started to take off in the early nineties with the invention of ultramicroelectrodes. Ultramicroelectrodes allowed scientists to gather high resolution topography data of various substrates and biological samples. Within a decade the field started to come into its own. By the late eighties various scanning probe microscopy techniques had gained attention from the scientific community. This included techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy and electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy. It was through thorough analysis of these early methods that scanning electrochemical microscopy was developed.
The first SECM experiments can be traced back to Royce C. Engstrom. Engstrom was able to observe reaction profiles, as well as short-lived intermediates using techniques similar to modern SECM.1 Though Engstrom was one of the first to run SECM experiments, it is Allen J. Bard who is credited with the development of the SECM technique. In the late eighties Bard began experimenting with the recently discovered electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ESTM) technique. Through his experiments Bard found that that electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope was producing a c...

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...gstrom R. C.; Pharr C. M. Scanning electrochemical microscopy. Anal. Chem. 1989,61 (19), 1099A–1104A
2. Bard A. J.; Fan F-R F.; Kwak J.; Lev O. Scanning electrochemical microscopy: introduction and principles. Anal. Chem. 1989,61 (2), 132-138
3. Bard; Allen J.; Mirkin M. V. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy, 2nd Ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, Fl.,2012
4. Sun P.; Laforge F; Mirkin M. V. Scanning electrochemical microscopy in the 21st century. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2007, 9, 802-823
5. Edwards M. A.; Martin S.; Whitworth A. L.; Macpherson J. V.; Unwin P. R. Scanning electrochemical microscopy: principles and applications to biophysical systems. Physiological Measurement., 2006, 18 (23), 2281-2289
6. El-Giar E. E-D. M.; Wipf D. O. Preparation of Tip-Protected Poly(oxyphenylene) Coated Carbon-Fiber Ultramicroelectrodes. Electroanalysis., 2006, 27 (12), R63-R108

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