Sampling, Sampling And Quota Sample Essay

Sampling, Sampling And Quota Sample Essay

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a. In statistics, a population is a collection of individuals, things, events, etc. The population is the topic that one wants to make inferences on, whereas a sample is a subset of the population that is being collected—to be studied. After the sample is studied in statistics, one draws an inference of the population. There are four general sampling methods used in statistics: representative sample, random sample and quasi-random sample, stratified and quota sample, convenience sample, and purposive sample. A representative sample should be unbiased and thus properly indicate a characteristic of the entire population. In a random sample nothing is biased; in other words, every individual, thing or event in the population has the same chance of being selected for the sample. Therefore, because of the randomness of the sampling, the selection of one item from the population in no way effects the selection of another item. A quasi-random sample is simply a number (nth), which is chosen randomly by the calculator. Then the random sample is created by choosing every n’th item from the population. Stratified and quota samples are used when the population is composed of many strata. However, one should note that stratified samples are selected randomly, whereas, a quota samples are selected un-randomly. A convenience sample is biased. This sample consists of a population that is easily accessible to the researcher. A purposive sample consists of items that support or are tied to the population.
b. A population is labeled finite if the measurements—individuals, events, etc.—can be counted. In contrast, an infinite population cannot be counted.
c. Descriptive statistics is a procedure of organizing sample data. This procedure allows ...

... middle of paper ... levels during study periods will affect students test performance.
c. Life expectancy is related to pet ownership.
5. An extraneous variable is a type of variable that can lower an internal validity in a correlational study. Extraneous variables are factors—that are not being studied and are undesirable--that influence the variables and thus outcome of the environment. Some common extraneous variables in psychology, biology, medicine, and neuroscience experiments may be cheating, lying or with holding information, pre-knowledge on a topic, etc.
6. A “within-subjects design” is when the researchers use the same group of subjects in more than one group or treatment. In contrast, a “between-subjects design” researcher does not use the same subjects in more than one group. Instead, the researchers have two or more groups of subjects being tested simultaneously.

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