According to the video BC Battles: Caesar Super Siege the Roman military was so successful because they were a nearly professional, very large army consisting of more than 50,000 soldiers, between 10 legions. The Roman military used their technological advances to forge innovative armor and weapons, such as the gladius, a small stabbing sword. They had siege weapons, ballistae, which fires a lead shot, and used catapults to pummel the enemy from afar. They created obstacles for their enemies like sharpened sticks that acted as barbed wire on their walls. They utilized booby traps, such as wooden spikes, and placed them at the bottom of the trenches. They had cavalry, mounted troops, which was very effective against ground soldiers. In the battle of Alesia, Caesar decided to build a 12-foot wall around the already protected by a 6-foot wall, Alesia, and then builds another wall to protect his army from behind. This example shows how skilled Roman military leaders were at using complex military strategies.2
2. Using each of the criteria above, provide information from the text, documents, videos, and class notes to describe how each positively defined the Roman Republic. The Roman Republic was defined by:
Pragmatism (domestically) - The Romans were pragmatist (they used the common-sense approach). They took what worked from cultures like the Greeks and Egyptians. Domestically the Republic was full of comprise, the patricians compromised with the plebeians so they didn’t secede.
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...orm. “The Gracchus Brothers, Tiberius and Gaius, championed a land distribution plan that most in the Senate- wealthy landowners who stood to lose from this legislation- would not tolerate. When efforts at a political resolution failed, the elder brother Tiberius was assassinated.”1 (pg.189)
d. Constantine- “Constantine the Great, whose eventful reign changed everything because he was the first Roman emperor to be Christian.”1 (pg. 249) Grants religious toleration for Christians through the Edict of Milan, and the Council of Nicea, which sets forth the Christian Bible as we know it today. He also founded the city of Constantinople, the future capital of the Byzantine Empire.
e. Marcus Aurelius- Marcus Aurelius was the last of Rome’s “five good emperors.” He popularized Stoicism, urging people to “perform spiritual exercises, prayer and contemplation.” 1 (pg. 235)
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