Essay on The Roman Empire

Essay on The Roman Empire

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• The Roman-Byzantine Empire located in the west and the Sasanian Empire of Iran located in the east was imperial rivals with each other beginning in 530. The Byzantine Empire weakened by in the late sixth and early seventh centuries from challenges to the military, religious, and administrative authority. The Sasanian state was based on the principle of absolute monarchy, but many people lacked loyalty. Both Empires influenced the development of Islamic governing practices and religious doctrine. The home to Arabs was in a vast desert that was the Arabian Peninsula. Compared to the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires, the Arabian Peninsula lacked central organizing authority. It had no state structure, no common legal system, and no administrative center. Tribes were the largest unit of social and political organization. Along with that, resources were limited and all males were expected to be warriors because warfare became a lifestyle. Two centuries before Islam, Arabia became important to the commercial transit route between the Middle Eastern Empires and the Yemen. The main use was the city of Mecca, which grew to become one of the most influential commercial centers of the peninsula. Muhammad ibn Abdullah was born in 570 in Mecca. He is best known for being the Prophet of Islam. He experienced a number of revelations which he recorded into a single book, the Quran, which is the basis of the Islamic faith. The Hijra (migration) is one of the most intense events in Muslim history. Muhammad led his followers to Medina. He returns to Mecca in 630 and then died two years later. He is known to be a reformer, prophet, and a state builder. Abu Bakr was the successor to Muhammad and anyone following Muhammad was knows as a “Caliph or Righ...


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...h are the Sunnis and Shi’as. The difference between them is over who should hold the political leadership of the Islamic community and what the religious dimension of that leadership should be. During the eleventh century, ruling authority and military power passed from Arabs to Turks in the central Islamic land. By the middle of the century, a confederate Turkish tribe, Seljuk’s, became the lieutenants to the Caliph and defenders of high Islamic traditions. After 200 years of troubled occupation of the region and the launching of several Crusades, the Europeans were ejected from the eastern Mediterranean. Following the Crusades was the Mongol Invasion, which were unsuccessful.
Chapter Three
• After the Mongolian Revolution, the Islamic lands were devastated and now had to begin moving on from loss and work on recovering their political unity and cultural vitality.

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