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...h are the Sunnis and Shi’as. The difference between them is over who should hold the political leadership of the Islamic community and what the religious dimension of that leadership should be. During the eleventh century, ruling authority and military power passed from Arabs to Turks in the central Islamic land. By the middle of the century, a confederate Turkish tribe, Seljuk’s, became the lieutenants to the Caliph and defenders of high Islamic traditions. After 200 years of troubled occupation of the region and the launching of several Crusades, the Europeans were ejected from the eastern Mediterranean. Following the Crusades was the Mongol Invasion, which were unsuccessful.
• After the Mongolian Revolution, the Islamic lands were devastated and now had to begin moving on from loss and work on recovering their political unity and cultural vitality.
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