Universalism as a concept is not inherently hierarchical or exclusivist, yet the term which originates from Western ideas inevitably has a decidedly Western influence, and therefore takes on a dominating role in application to global social movements, many of which cannot identify with the same cause (Nussbaum 446). As in the new sexual politics,...
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...the rigid neoliberalist constructs, but the methods and tools at their disposal are often those allocated to them by the existing systems of inequality. Therefore, by operating within neoliberalism’s previously defined constructs, such organizations not only stay stagnant within the world system, but also contribute to the systems of power and money. Under this exploitative structure the system of law and governance does not apply universally to all parties, and thus exacerbates the North-South divide. The economic, political, and social advantage of nations at the top of the hierarchical global economy grow stronger when institutions overpower the representation of the local in even the venues for reform. Consequently, the overwhelming presence of neoliberalism in purported reform movements attest to the lingering effects of capitalism on modern day social reform.
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