The Oxford Dictionary has defined behaviour as the way in which one acts or conducts oneself, especially towards others. On the other hand, behavioural change is often a goal for a person to work directly with other people, group of people, population, organizations, or governments.(Glanz,Lewis, & Rimers, 1990, p. 17) Behavioural change can occur when the positive behaviours one wants are reinforced, and the acts of negative behaviour is either punished or not being responded to. In cognitive behavioural therapy, operant conditioning is being used by therapist to reinforce positive behaviours and extinguish ineffective or unhealthy behaviours. Most of the studies of behavioural change focus mainly on the individuals as the locus of behaviour.
“People are generally better persuaded by the reasons which they themselves have discovered than by those which have discovered than by those which have come into the minds of others.”- Pascal’s Pansees, 17th Century
However, social theory in behavioural change shows a framework of studies which moves a little bit away from the individual focus and indicates a larger influence of external factors such as the environment in producing a designated behaviour. For instance, Social Cognitive Theory by Albert Bandura; it’s circulating about the dynamic and reciprocal interaction of the person, environment, and behaviour. Nevertheless, the need of balancing between external and internal factors in behavioural change emphasises the individual’s locus of control. In personality psychology, locus of control is defined as the extent to which the individuals believe that they can control events that affect them, and it’s either external or internal con...
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Glanz, K., Lewis, F. M., & Rimers, B. K. (Eds.). (1990). Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Conner, M., & Norman, P. (1995). Predicting Health Behaviour: Research and Practice with Social Cognition Models. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Using Operant Conditioning in Therapy. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/psychological-therapies/cognitive-behavioral-therapy/using-operant-conditioning-in-therapy/. [Last Accessed 5th December 2013].
(2000). What Influences Self-Efficacy?. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/siegle/selfefficacy/section2.html. [Last Accessed 5th December 2013].
Observational Learning. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Observational_learning.html. [Last Accessed 5th December 2013].
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