What is art? And what is social change? Are two debates that have intersected at various points in discussions about the role of art in society, for several years. One of the lines of contemporary art that has prevailed mainly in the US and Europe are the artistic practices related to the vindication of political and public in the art. However, when we analyzing this phenomenon we can see that the "social turn" in the art has a close relationship with common problematic in the theory and history of art, which can trace with greater force from the historical Avant-Garde of the first half of the twentieth century and subsequently, the Neo Avant-Garde.
One of the focal points in the development of artistic practices during the twentieth century has is directly related to the status of the autonomy of the artwork, crucial issue in the shaping of artistic field, condition will be put in crisis successively along history. In this sense, the turning point of l 'art pour l 'art points to a disconnection between art and other areas of society and only serves its own purposes. It is important to remember that the idea of the art´s autonomy as well as science and morality from a Weberian perspective about of fields, are the cornerstones of the conceptualization of modernity.
The emergence of avant-garde from the late nineteenth century in Europe insert art´s autonomy crisis, because recognized in the statute provided a program of bourgeois society (Burger, 1984). A general characterization of avant-garde is it can be understood as a form of self-consciousness of artistic field, with a very clear interest to breaking the art´s autonomy itself. As example the "negation of art" by Dadaism, the "affirmation" by surrealist, th...
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...logue with the social and the political within a defined and determined as in the field of art space. It was from the many criticisms it receives French curator theory, that logical to understand, produce and historicizing community based artistic practices will increasingly move away from the field of art and seek meaning and explanation in other social realms.
Nicolas Bourriaud in his Relational theory and attempt to defend it as a "new and radical" way of understanding contemporary art, merely develop a false political and participatory discourse by simply creating or have relationships. But what justifies never Bourriaud is the context in which these practices are carried out, and as Claire Bishop criticizes specifically, those emblems of relational aesthetics are mere scenarios and systems of display or never called into question Examined (Bishop, 2012 , 87).
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