Risk, Demography, and Technological Evolution in Non-Industrial Populations

Risk, Demography, and Technological Evolution in Non-Industrial Populations

Length: 752 words (2.1 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Mark Collard’s lecture was about risk, demography, and technological evolution in non-industrial populations and he discussed the evolution of tool use among a variety of groups of hunter-gatherers and food-producing communities. Collard states that the number and complexity of tools varies greatly among populations and he focuses on why this variation exists. He starts off by discussing and analyzing toolkit variation in both hunter-gatherer and farming societies and then moves on to discuss overall technological variation in these societies and the possible explanation for it.
He lists four hypotheses that help explain this variation in toolkits among groups. They are the Diet hypothesis, the Risk hypothesis, the Mobility hypothesis, and the Population Size hypothesis. Collard states that the Diet hypothesis has to do with where the individual is hunting and what they are hunting. It is believed that a more complex toolkit is required in order to hunt moving or mobile animals. In addition, some environments, such as an aquatic environment, require more complex toolkits than terrestrial environments. The Risk hypothesis involves the risk of resource failure and the increasing complexity of task-specific tools compared to multi-task tools. The Mobility hypothesis basically states that the structure of the toolkit is limited by the amount an individual can carry without the help of domesticated animals or vehicles. This means that an extremely mobile individual would have a smaller toolkit so they could carry it all at once. The Population Size hypothesis uses cultural drift (similar to genetic drift) as a basis for toolkit variation. It says that the relative frequency of cultural traits within a population can be affected by ran...


... middle of paper ...


...ypes of tools, I think they forget to realize they can be used for other activities instead of just hunting. I think one reason that our ancestors started to drift towards more sedentary lifestyles was that they made advances in construction and technology, allowing them to build more stable, permanent residences. Not only were the number of different tool types in a toolkit increasing, but the tools themselves were also getting larger. These new types of tools could be anything from bowls and vases to wheels on a cart. If you look at Mark Collard’s lecture from an evolutionary standpoint, his thoughts on toolkit variation relate more to our most ancient ancestors and the development of the very first tools. Once one understands the basics of these initial primitive toolkits, the evolution of toolkits through our species’ history can be traced up to modern humans.



Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay on Is Demography A Discipline?

- Pre-Lab Questions 1. Demography is a discipline in Ecology that deals with population measures such as, age, size and overall structure are critical to demographic work. Demography is used to help understand a population’s growth pattern, although not all individuals are the same age and size or have the same survival and birth rates. Demography allows for greater depth and detail of a population’s structure to be characterized and analyzed. 2. There are two methods for collecting demographic data, static and dynamic....   [tags: Demography, Population, Death, Mortality rate]

Better Essays
1114 words (3.2 pages)

Japan And Brazil : Economics And Demography Essay

- Japan and Brazil – Economics and Demography Japan is a very populous country, ranking as 10th most populous with more than 125 million people. Looking back to 1990, Japan had a relatively young population, however; even then, the age distribution was still older than other developed countries such as the United States and France. Japan’s historical trend of having a relatively old age distribution has continued into the present day, currently Japan’s population pyramid is very top-heavy, with more than ¼ of the population in the old age cohort....   [tags: Demography, Population, Birth rate]

Better Essays
1215 words (3.5 pages)

Essay on Demography And Its Impact On Population

- 1. Demography is a discipline in Ecology that deals with population measures such as, age, size and overall structure are critical to demographic work. Demography is used to help understand a populations growth pattern, although not all individuals are the same age and size or have the same survival and birth rates. Demography allows for greater depth and detail of a populations structure to be characterized and analyzed. 2. There are two methods for collection demographic data, static and dynamic....   [tags: Demography, Population, Death, Mortality rate]

Better Essays
1138 words (3.3 pages)

Essay on Industrial Risk Policy in the Noida & Ghaziabad Industrial Belt

- OBJECTIVE OF STUDY • To study the Awareness level and comprehension about industrial all risk policy among Industrial units in Noida & Ghaziabad Industrial Belt. • Does it suit their requirement fulfill a package policy. • Provide suggestions and recommendations to tackle the situation for the future. SCOPE OF THE STUDY • It is being done on factories and industries only. • This study helps to understand the awareness of the policy. • Industrial units beneficiary/availing from the industrial all risk policy....   [tags: Study, Awareness, Comprehension, Industrial Unit]

Free Essays
1514 words (4.3 pages)

Essay Oppression And Demography - Oppression Or Demography?

- Oppression or Demography. Throughout the years females have undergone tremendous amounts of oppression. From our limited roles in society, to our confinements at home, we were seen nothing more than the lesser sex. Compared to males we were the inferior gender, in terms of knowledge, physicality, and stature. Now, one would ask why. What logical reason would make sense to explain this kind of thinking. Most feminists would argue it’s due to misogyny; the hatred of women. Looking through all of history, is it accurate enough to say that the oppression that females have undergone is the result of hatred....   [tags: Marriage, Woman, Gender role, Gender]

Better Essays
1499 words (4.3 pages)

Human Demography And Its Impact On Human Life Essay

- Population In the 21st century, the study of human demography has become a vital aspect to further the sustainability of our planet. In the last fifty years, the rapid growth in the world population has become a major issue as our environment can sustain a fixed number of inhabitants. In modern society, the efficacy of agricultural production and technological advancements has permitted an increased rate in human longevity. As a result, creating an exponential growth of populace in a short amount of time....   [tags: Demography, Population, Poverty, Birth rate]

Better Essays
1053 words (3 pages)

Essay on Demography Is The Study Of The Human Population

- Demography is the study of the human population (Macionis, 2013). One part of demography is looking at the effects population growth has, and figuring out how we can control them. The first factor in population change is fertility. Fertility is measured by the crude birth rate, which is an equation determining how many live children are born annually per 1,000 people in a population. While the crude birth rate does not take individual factors of a specific population into account, it is easy to use and gives a rough estimate....   [tags: Demography, Population, Population ecology]

Better Essays
923 words (2.6 pages)

Evolution And Evolution Of Evolution Essay

- All cultures have origin stories or legends to explain their beginning and the beginning of the world. Some culture stories are based in creationism, and others are based in the science of evolution. Evolution is a widely accepted theory of how species change over time. There are four forces of evolution-- mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection-- all of which have an effect on all species undergoing adaptation. From microevolution to macroevolution, change is happening to all the time....   [tags: Evolution, Population genetics, Genetics, Gene]

Better Essays
1295 words (3.7 pages)

Coping With Famine : The Changing Demography Of An Italian Village Essay

- In “Coping with Famine: The Changing Demography of an Italian Village in the 1590’s” Domencio Sella proposes depopulation in late sixteenth to early seventeenth century Northern Italy was not mainly the result of immigration, high morality or low fertility; but the choice not to marry and conceive. Sella focuses on data collected in the town of Villa d’Adda in 1574 and 1602. The hardship started in 1587/88 and lasted until 1602. The data from 1574 is used instead as a starting point. The data shows that the number of families in the area changes only from 161 to 160, entire families are not emigrating out of the town....   [tags: Marriage, Birth control, Demography]

Better Essays
1488 words (4.3 pages)

Demography Is The Branch Of Science That Studies The Changing Human Population

- Demography is the branch of science that studies the changing human population. Demographers track population changes in different countries and regions. The changes are represented in graphs and tables called survivorship curves and life tables. Survivorship describes the pattern of survival in a population, in this case, humans. Life tables track groups of organisms born at the same time throughout their life span, recording how many continue to survive in each succeeding year. Survivorship is displayed through three types of curves on a graph, types I, II, and III....   [tags: Population, Demography, Life expectancy, Rural]

Better Essays
744 words (2.1 pages)