Giving and listening to speeches of any type is something that will happen all throughout a person’s life. Whether it is for school, work or just listening to a speaker we are all going to be taking in messages. How people give and receive these persuasive messages can be explained by The Rhetoric of Aristotle. Rhetoric is “discovering all possible means of persuasion” (Griffin, Ledbetter & Sparks, 2015). Within this idea of rhetoric there are multiple different proofs: inartistic proofs, artistic proofs, logical proof, ethical proof and emotional proof. Inartistic proofs are not something the speaker creates, but is still external evidence while artistic proofs contain logical, ethical or emotional appeals that are internal proofs (Griffin, Ledbetter & Sparks, 2015). A logical proof or logos “...comes from the line of argument in a speech”(Griffin, Ledbetter & Sparks, 2015). Aristotle regarded the enthymeme, when the speaker leaves out a premise that is already accepted by the audience that leads to an obvious unstated conclusion, as the strongest argument that could be used. On the other hand the ethical proof or ethos is the credibility of the speaker in the eyes of the audience which comes from perceived intelligence, virtuous character and the goodwill of the speaker (Griffin, Ledbetter & Sparks, 2015). This aspect of the theory has been the closest studied even though Aristotle had very few things to say about it. Finally, the emotional proof or pathos is based on the feelings that the speaker draws out of the audience (Griffin, Ledbetter & Sparks, 2015). This concept of pathos draws out five different ideas: anger versus mildness, love/friendship vs. hatred, fear vs. confidence, indignation v...
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...f hundreds and thousands over the course of history, it is important to be able to use these examples as a model of understanding this theory. If people can process fully how a speaker is making an argument and if it is truly based off fact or just emotion can allow people to have a more informed understanding. This also applies to when a person gives speeches. If a person knows how to reach their target audience effectively then they can achieve their desired results.
Griffin, E. A., Ledbetter, A., & Sparks, G. G. (2015). A First Look at Communication Theory (9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
Voegtle, G. (2015, September 7). 9 Dividend Paying Communication Techniques Bernie Sanders ' Campaign Implements Effectively. Retrieved April 20, 2016, from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/9-dividend-paying-communication-techniques-bernie-sanders-voegtle
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