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In the Russian revolution, there were no foreign powers involved, it was between the people, and the noble monarchy, however during the civil war, the white army had allies, including England, America, and France, who supplied them with arms, food, clothes, and equipment (Thompson, 199). Tsar Nicholas II held power tightly, when Europe was moving away from monarchy. All land belonged to the Tsar family, and noble landlords, while factories belonged to capitilists. At this time in Russian history, there were no labor laws established for workers. The conditions of labor in Rural, and Urban environments, were very bad. Before the revolution, the justice system made all laws in favor the ruling elite, and capitolists. The peasents were obloged to paying large taxes to landlords.
The majority of the Russian population was illiterate, poor, and had no access to upper education. Land ownership, and freedom of self-government were major proponents leading up to the Russian Revolution.
After the war with Japan, anti-tsarist feelings greatly increased, for the soldiers wanted peace. WWI also increased anti tsarist feelings, for the people did not achieve anything from fighting, there were great losses on battle front, living conditions became worse, and soldiers did not receive any rights after returning from the battle. After the soldiers returned from consecutive wars, autocracy was not able to control the country, and the rich and noble were not able to maintain their power. The relationship between the average citizen, and the rich and noble, reached an unbearable state because, neither workers nor peasants had any rights, and they were not allowed to make any political decisions.
After WWI, and the war in Japan, the people of Russia were yearning for change, and by February 1917 protests had out broken. Many women were chanting, instead of men, for the men were at war, and the women said “End the War!, “Down with the Autocracy!”, and “Give us bread” (Hacht, Hayes, 1).
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The leaders were very good speakers, they understood thoughts/feelings of the people, and they promised what the people wanted. For example, a Lenins’ Slogan “Peace for soldiers, land for peasants, factories for workers” was important to have a support of population ((Danilov, Kaculina, 89).
During the revolution, the fighting was between the civilians, and the Tsars’ army. The fight took about 3 days, and later during the year of 1917, the Tsar and his family were killed. The number of casualties on both sides was minimal, for during the Revolution in February 1917, only 300 people died, and 1400 were wounded (Gershunsky,Lozansky, 81). However during the October revolution, the fighting had ruptured into civil war. The main fighting was between the Red Army and White Army, however civilians indirectly contributed to the war. From October 1917 to December 1922, 11 million people were killed in civil war (Ismailova, 294).
The new system of government that replaced autocracy was communist dictatorship. The new government governed better than the previous government, for they listened and took action towards the needs of their people, however this was only during the early years of communism. The structure of government was a coalition of different liberal parties. Later in the revolution the Bolshevick party became a dictatorship, for they fought other parties among them. They had not yet created a constitution, but they had already created multiple political documents. These documents included, “Declaration of Rights of the Peoples of Russia”, “Peace Decree”, “Land Decree”, “Power Decree”, and “Decree of 8 hour work day” (Danilov, Kaculina, 94-96), (Gershunsky,Lozansky,89-91 ).
Most of the previously disenfranchised people were included in the new government, for in the new communist government the majority of people were peasants, workers, and soldiers. The local power was concentrated in the hands of workers, soldiers, and peasant committees. The division of society by classes was eliminated because in the principles of communism everybody was equal, and the civil rights of men and women became equal too (Thompson, 198), (Danilov, Kaculina, 96).
The Russian revolution was successful, for there was economic change, social change, and political change. After the revolution workers became the collective owner of their factories, peasants became the collective owners of their land, and soldiers had the same civil rights as everybody else. Another very important change after the revolution was that men and women became civilly equal, and the church was separated from the government. National inequality was eliminated, for all the nations in the Russian territory became equal, with local power, and freedom of political and economic decision. The minorities received freedom for their ethnic development. During civil war the Soviet Union was able to defend itself (Gershunsky,Lozansky, 89-91), (Danilov, Kaculina, 96).
The Russian revolution and American revolution both have many similarities and differences, however the main similarity was the desire to abolish tyranny, and to acquire civil rights and freedoms. First, the American and Russian people wanted to get rid of monarchy. The Americans wanted to free themselves from monarchy because they wanted civil rights. The Russians wanted free themselves from the monarchy of the Tsar because they wanted civil rights too.