In the Apology, Socrates is “guilty” with three new charges that consist of corrupting the youth, not acknowledging the gods acknowledged in the city, and introducing new divinities. Throughout all the accusations, Socrates remains calm and thoughtful; such a clever man he is. Socrates then presents a remarkably multilevel strong defense, proving his innocence.
One of the approaches Socrates takes to prove his innocence is a comparison between horses and all living and artificial things. ‘Do people in general improve them, whereas one particular person corrupts them or makes them worse? Or isn’t it wholly the opposite: one particular person – or the very few who are horse trainers – is able to improve them, whereas the majority of people, if they have to do with horses and make use of them, make them worse? (25b) First, horse trainers improve horses. Second, enhancement does not come from the ones who use the horses. Third, there are more horse owners than there are horse trainers. Therefore, corruption comes from most people while the improvements come from a small group of specialties. This concludes that what is in fact true for horses, is true for all living and artificial things as well.
Another approach Socrates takes is demonstrating that Meletus does not care for the youth. ‘I, men of Athens, reply that it’s Meletus who is guilty of playing around with serious matters, of lightly bringing people to trial, and of professing to be seriously concerned about things he has never cared about at all.’ (24c) First, Socrates is saying that Meletus has no concern for the youth. Second, you cannot charge another person for corrupting the youth if you show no concern for them. Therefore, since Meletus has no...
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...nt up; first, specialists are not responsible for the corruption of the youth. Secondly, people who contradict themselves make false charges. Third, people who unintentionally corrupt the youth are not guilty. This concludes that Socrates is a specialist in his field, corrupted the youth unintentionally, and was falsely accused, which logically leads to Socrates being not guilty, and not having a reason to be punished.
To accept Socrates main point – that he is innocent of all charges brought against him —one has to accept his premises and conclusions, which is sound. His premises and conclusions do seem to fit together in unison, which does prove that he did his part in proving to the court and to everyone that he was being charged with ridiculed charges. Once again, this man is such a great and admiring person to look up to. Lawyers are always “something else”.
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