The author enters the discussion by pointing out that inclusion and moderation are co-requirements for the fundamental issue of political equality. He offers a perspective of deliberative democracy in which equality is the basic premise followed by moderation and inclusion and, consequently, leading to stability in the long run (ibid.: 731-732). Moderation, being concerned with how to justify political decisions, is supposed to be reached through reciprocity. When people listen to each other open-mindedly and behave rationally, they will shift their position to the better argument (ibid.: 740). Inclusion, dealing with the scope of the justification, can be obtained through publicity. This is about creating a public sphere in which the people are able to discuss political topics across ethnic cleavages (ibid.: 744).
Deriving from this short summary, I state the hypothesis that the key points of deliberative democracy are too ideal to be applied to deeply divided societies. Instead of being a system, it is similar to a protocol on how people should behave when they are confronted with having to resolve a conflict and having...
... middle of paper ...
Dryzek, John S., 2005: Deliberative Democracy in Divided Societies: Alternatives to Agonism and Analgesia. Political Theory 33(2): 218-242.
Horowitz, Donald L., 2008.: Conciliatory Institutions and Constitutional Processes in Post- Conﬂict States. William and Mary Law Review 49(4): 1213-1248.
Lijphart, Arend, 2004: Constitutional Design for Divided Societies. Journal of Democracy 15(2): 96-109.
O‘Flynn, Ian, 2007: Review Article: Divided Societies and Deliberative Democracy. British Journal of Political Science 37(04): 731-751.
Powell, Robert D., 2006: War as a Commitment Problem. International Organization 60 (Winter): 169-203.
Sisk, Timothy D., 1996: Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conﬂicts. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, U.S., Chapter 3: Democracy and Its Alternatives in Deeply Divided Societies: 27-45.
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