Response Inhibition in Children with ADHD Essay example

Response Inhibition in Children with ADHD Essay example

Length: 1423 words (4.1 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Gray (1982, as cited in Pliszka, S.R., Hatch, J.P, Borchederding, S.H., & Rogeness, G.A., 1993) proposed that human beings have a behavioral inhibition system (BIS) whose function is to analyze new stimuli or process old stimuli that have been associated with punishments in the past. According to Gray the BIS controls behavioral inhibition, which causes the organism to avoid the new stimuli or will stop the organism from performing behavior that has caused there to be past punishments. On the opposite end of the spectrum exists the behavioral activation system (BAS), which processes stimuli related to reward. Quay (1988, as cited in Pliszka et al., 1993) expanded on Gray's theory to develop his own theory of childhood emotional and behavioral disorders. He argued that in some populations there might exist differences in the BIS and BAS meaning that individuals with high levels of activity in the BIS would be more sensitive to signals of punishment, while individuals with high levels of BAS activity would show less avoidance to punishment causing behaviors. Quay argued that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will show decreased activity in the BIS, leading to a lack of behavioral inhibition.
Pliszka et al. (1993) attempted to test Quay's theory empirically by investigating whether children with ADHD were less responsive at a physiological level to signals related to punishment than normal children in a classical conditioning experiment. Based on Quay's theory, they hypothesized that children with ADHD will show less of a conditioned response (change in heart rate and skin conductance) to a conditioned stimulus that has been paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (white noise) than normal childr...


... middle of paper ...


...in go/no-go tasks, people with ADHD are more impulsive than others and the study by Pliszka et al. shows a trend that suggests that children with ADHD show less of a conditioned response (change in heart rate and skin conductance) to a conditioned stimulus that has been paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (white noise). With repeated experiments that include a greater number of participants, it may be possible to find more support for Quay's theory.



Works Cited

Gomez, R. (2003). Underlying processes in the poor response inhibition of children with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Attention Disorders, 6, 111 – 122.
Pliszka, S.R., Hatch, J.P, Borchederding, S.H., & Rogeness, G.A. (1993). Classical conditioning in children with ADHD and Anxiety Disorders: A Test of Quay's Model. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21, 411 – 423.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Essay

- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Introduction Among the behavioural disorders that are commonly diagnosed, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent among youth and children. It is a persistent disorder that is attributed to neurobehavioral problems. About 3%-5% of all the children in America are affected by ADHD (NINDS Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Information Page, 2011). The disorder is characterized by inability to concentrate or focus on a task and exercise behavioural inhibition that is normally related to age....   [tags: Health, Mental Illness]

Powerful Essays
2122 words (6.1 pages)

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Essay

- Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as a behavioral disorder of childhood onset (by the age of 7 years) characterized by symptoms of inattentiveness and impulsivity/hyperactivity. Based on the type of symptoms that predominate, ADHD is classified as following:  Combined type: both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms are present  Predominantly inattentive subtype  Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive subtype  Not otherwise specified (NOS): individuals presenting with atypical features Sex/Age Ratio: • ADHD is a developmental disorder that requires an onset of symptoms before age 7 years....   [tags: ADHD Essays]

Free Essays
1064 words (3 pages)

Adult Attention Deficit Disorder: Auditory and Motor Cognitive Inhibitions

- Early findings on ADHD lead to the conclusion that ADHD was a child's learning disability which either disappeared or was minimized enough to be a non-issue with age. It wasn't until much more recently that research on ADHD and adults had advanced sufficiently to identify the deficiencies as they developed. An early article by Barkley et al. (ADHD/ODD, 2001) found that while children with ADHD aged 5-12 may be lacking in their ability to properly encode information when compared with their respective peers, these symptoms often disappear with the onset of adolescence....   [tags: Disease/Disorders]

Powerful Essays
1729 words (4.9 pages)

Essay about Children With Adhd And Adhd

- Children with ADHD to medicate or not to medicate Not all children are created equal when it comes to the issue of how children should behave. Some children who have a difficult time in certain areas are considered highly hyperactive. Hyperactivity is defined as, “Extremely active or too active, affected with or exhibiting hyperactivity; broadly more active than is usual or desirable” (“Hyperactive,” n.d). Parents often battle with the decision of whether to get their child tested for the reasoning of the hyperactivity overload of not being able to sit still for a short period and the inability to focus on certain task....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Powerful Essays
1525 words (4.4 pages)

Self Regulation Of Children With Adhd Essay

- ... Therefore, it is important to have interventions in place to help children who struggle with ADHD stay on task and improve their academic performance. Research had reported improvements in on task behaviors and academic performance for children with ADHD when self-regulation interventions are in place. Negative aspects of ADHD and self-regulation. According to Cotton, Baker, and Wilson (2014) up to eighty percent of children with ADHD are socially rejected by their peers. This make it extremely hard for students with ADHD to make friends, and also exhibit expected behavior....   [tags: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]

Powerful Essays
1027 words (2.9 pages)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Medication Essay

- According to the National Institutes of Health attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders (NIH, 2008). All children show the same symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, as they are clinically related, although children with ADHD show symptoms more severe and frequent. Children diagnosed with ADHD should take medication as a part of treatment because it helps control the associated side effects of inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity....   [tags: ADHD, Disorders, Children]

Powerful Essays
641 words (1.8 pages)

A Rise in ADHD Diagnosis Analysis Essay

- “’When people don’t fit in, we react by giving their behavior a label, either medicalizing it, criminalizing it, or moralizing it,’ Nigg says,” (Koerth-Baker n.p.). Professor Joel Nigg, a professor of psychiatry at Oregon Health and Science University, made this statement in reference to the growing amount of people diagnosed with ADHD and prescribed medicine for it. The amount of people with prescriptions has increased immensely over the past several years, and will continue to grow over the next several years....   [tags: prescriptions, adhd, adderall, ritalin]

Powerful Essays
1811 words (5.2 pages)

Essay about Children and ADHD

- Give the fact that many children (and adults, for that matter exhibits some level of the symptoms of ADHD (i.e., inattention, impulsivity, or over activity), what approach could be used to ensure that children are appropriately identified with ADHD. The child who is showing some symptoms of ADHD should get the proper diagnoses and the parents should bring their child to a specialist. First of all, the child would be seen by a pediatrician or a child psychologist. The specialist would gather information from everyone, the school, caregivers or parents....   [tags: Behavior Disorders, Psychology]

Powerful Essays
706 words (2 pages)

The ADD/ADHD Controversy Essay

- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders. ADHD is a broad term, and the condition can vary from person to person. There are an estimated 6.4 million diagnosed children in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The condition is also known as attention deficit disorder (ADD), though this is considered an outdated term. The American Psychiatric Association released the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) in May 2013....   [tags: ADD/ADHD Essays]

Powerful Essays
630 words (1.8 pages)

ADHD Essay

- ADHD Upon shadowing a fourth grade teacher at Deer Ridge Elementary School, I decided to talk with her about the students in her classroom. Mrs. Riley first set the scene of the school for me by stating that it was in the southwest suburban area of Fort Wayne, Indiana, and this particular school was not hurting for money. She then began to explain the different children in her classroom. There were twenty-eight students from a variety of different backgrounds. There were also two students with ADHD....   [tags: Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder]

Powerful Essays
2437 words (7 pages)