Many studies have shown that resistance training improves strength and many other aspects in the elderly population. Although the literature covers a wide variety of such theories, this review will focus on major themes, which will emerge repeatedly throughout the literature reviewed. These themes are: high intensity resistance training improves the muscle mass, strength and hypertrophy, muscle hypertrophy was due to the increase in type I and II fibres and muscle mass and strength gains were slightly more or less the same for both men and women but the was an overall increase in strength adaptations (Williams & Stewart, 2009). Although this literature presents these themes in a variety of contexts, this paper will primarily focus on the effect of resistance training on the elderly population in terms of muscle hypertrophy and strength.
Human aging is inevitable; it is characterized by a decline in skeletal muscle mass, alongside with decreased muscle strength (Van Roie, Delecluse, Coudyzer, Boonen, & Bautmans, 2013). Resistance exercise has been characterized as an effective treatment strategy to counteract the loss skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength (Leenders, M., Verdijk, L. B., van der Hoeven, L., van Kranenburg, J., Nilwik, R., & van Loon, L. J.) (2013).
In Kemmler, W., & von Stengel, S. (2013) study it has shown that with exercise frequency of more than two sessions per week at relatively high intensity has to be applied to gain an impact on the musculoskeletal aspect of the body. Even in the very old population there is increase in muscle mass, strength and functional capacity of following resistance training (Leenders et al., 2013).
As we age, there is a progressive loss of muscle...
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...men aged 65-75 years. Gerontology, 42(4), 204-210.
Valeria, Z., Renato, G., Luisa, C., Bruno, V., Mauro, Z., & Matteo, C. (2014). Interventions Against Sarcopenia In Older Persons. Curr Pharm Des.
Van Roie, E., Delecluse, C., Coudyzer, W., Boonen, S., & Bautmans, I. (2013). Strength training at high versus low external resistance in older adults: effects on muscle volume, muscle strength, and force-velocity characteristics. Exp Gerontol, 48(11), 1351-1361. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2013.08.010
Wieser, M., & Haber, P. (2007). The effects of systematic resistance training in the elderly. Int J Sports Med, 28(1), 59-65. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-924057
Williams, M. A., & Stewart, K. J. (2009). Impact of strength and resistance training on cardiovascular disease risk factors and outcomes in older adults. Clin Geriatr Med, 25(4), 703-714, ix. doi: 10.1016/j.cger.2009.07.003
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