Researching the Decline of Shorebirds and Their Risk of Extinction Essay

Researching the Decline of Shorebirds and Their Risk of Extinction Essay

Length: 809 words (2.3 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Policy- and decision-makers claim information about the causes of population declines which drive species on the brink of extinction. However, it is pointed out that the causes of vulnerability remain unclear to explain the variation to the risk of extinction. According to Reynolds (2003), vulnerability is determinate by both the decline of species population and the reduction of their geographical range. These two forms of vulnerability are affected by species intrinsic biological traits, extrinsic human induced effects and adverse factors. These drivers of vulnerability have been the main targets of recently studies to explain the causes and processes of extinction.

It is suggested that extinction risk is not distributed by chance between taxa, because closely related species could share intrinsic biological traits which make them more vulnerable to extinction (Bennett & Owen 1997, Gaston & Blackburn 1997, Freckleton et al. 2002). This scenario is used to understand how intrinsic factors could make some species vulnerable to extinction. For instance, species with low rates of fecundity and large body sizes are more susceptible to extinction than the opposite due to their insufficient ability to adapt their life histories in a fluctuating environment. Strong sexual selection is also considerate important, because species with exaggerated traits or sexually dimorphic have higher selection which reduce their genetic variability (Morrow & Pitcher 2003). Finally, migratory species are more susceptible because they should face more risks in breeding and stopover areas than resident species.

On the other hand, it is clear that intrinsic factors by themselves are not explaining the entire extinction phenomenon, because species vu...


... middle of paper ...


... and threat ranking (Purvis et al. 2005). Criterion A include populations or range decline, but it is concentrate only with change over time and no with the current range size, therefore there is no included circularity. Another assumption is that using IUCN Red List categories as the response variable is that the extinction risk of species in a given category is independent of the criteria under which it qualified for listing.

We look at the influence of human-induced drivers (extrinsic factors hypothesis), species’ biology drivers (intrinsic factors hypothesis), and their interaction in: 1) measures of vulnerability between the three main groups of shorebirds (gulls, sandpipers, and plovers); 2) measures of vulnerability per region where shorebirds live; and 3) and differences between IUCN threat status and population trends which are measures of vulnerability.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Decline of Amphibians Essay

- Introduction When researching the population decline of amphibians as a global issue, it is evident that there have been drastic changes in the past 30 years. Mike Lannoo from the U.S. Declining Amphibian Task Force says that there have been significant losses in amphibian populations for an extensive period of time (No Single Reason, 1999). Stuart et al. (2004) stated that according to scientists at the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), at least 427 species, roughly 7.4%, are at a dangerously high risk of extinction (Kaylor, 2006)....   [tags: Animal Research ]

Better Essays
1421 words (4.1 pages)

Essay about The History of Earth's Mass Extinctions

- The History of Earth's Mass Extinctions The four billion year history of earth has witnessed five mass extinctions, and some scientists believe that we are on the verge of the sixth.1[1] If we are in the midst of the next mass extinction, we are in the very early stages of an evolving, and escalating process. The most recent, or fifth mass of the extinctions occurred 65 million years ago at the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods. Images of an asteroid colliding with the planet, decimating the dinosaur population have been in circulation since the early 80’s.2[2] Being the most recent mass extinction, thousands of scientists around the world have investigated it, and el...   [tags: Anthropology Essays Paleontology Papers]

Better Essays
1621 words (4.6 pages)

Researching The Underlying Cause in The Decline of Sony's Sales Essay

- Our research results suggest that the decline in Sony’s sales was not driven by the economic chaos seen this past year. The economic issues just made Sony’s underlying issues more prominent. These include a lack of desired innovation, and increased competition. The interviews conducted provided a lot of information regarding potential consumers buying motives and strategies for purchasing a TV. However; more research is needed to get a clear idea of the issues, and their specific effects on the sales of Sony....   [tags: Corporate Sales]

Better Essays
2159 words (6.2 pages)

The Causes Of Marine Life Extinction Essay

- The Causes of Marine Life Extinction Did you know that more than 90 percent of all organisms that have ever lived on Earth are extinct. According to Pandey, the author of Humans Pushing Marine Life toward ‘Major Extinction’, nearly 10,000 species go extinct each year, and this rate is estimated to be 1,000 times higher than the natural extinction rate (1). Human beings are causing irreversible damage to the oceans and their wildlife, which is being led by two major reasons: Commercial fishing or over-fishing, which damaged the marine environment and caused a loss in the marine life diversity, and pollution, which is a primary way of the extinction causes that drastically modifies the marine...   [tags: Marine biology, Ocean, Extinction, Oceanography]

Better Essays
1941 words (5.5 pages)

The Extinction Of The Earth Essay

- The Earth is far and away the most biodiverse planet in our solar system, with about 8.7 million more unique species than the other 8 planets (UNEP). However, the Earth’s commanding lead is shrinking; not because the other planets are increasing biodiversity, but because Earth’s is decreasing. According to the World Wildlife Fund, we as a planet are losing 1,000 to 10,000 more species than the natural rate. Since the total number of species is hard to pin down, this can mean anywhere from 200 to 10,000 species going extinct per year (World Wildlife Fund)....   [tags: Extinction, Endangered species]

Better Essays
1204 words (3.4 pages)

A Specie's Vulnerability to Population Decline Essay

- Policy- and decision-makers claim information about the causes of population declines which driving species on the brink of extinction (). However, it is pointed out that the causes of vulnerability remain unclear to explain the variation to the risk of extinction (). According to Reynolds (2003), vulnerability is determinate by both the decline of species population and the reduction of their geographical range. These two forms of vulnerability are affected by both species’ mortality and habitat loss, which are the causes of intrinsic biological traits, extrinsic human induced effects and stochastic factors that likely determine the population trends ()....   [tags: animals, Population Decline, ]

Better Essays
558 words (1.6 pages)

Preventing Extinction and World Change Essay example

- Thirteen years ago, wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. Of two potential locations considered (Snowflake Springs and Butte Rock) they were placed in the low-risk prey Butte Rock for the purpose of encouraging the wolves to spread out and create packs. Before and during the reintroduction project, Oregon State University researchers measured the rate of willow growth along 2.6 miles of the Gallatin River, which ran through Butte Rock and Snowflake Springs. During their study from 1998 to 2002, the researchers discovered that Snowflake Springs, where the elk were and no wolves lived, the willow growth dropped from 92% to nothing (“How Wolves Help Willows,” 4)....   [tags: animals, Yellowstone, Extinction, linguistics,]

Better Essays
1188 words (3.4 pages)

The Decline of Unions Essay

- Trade unions around the world are falling on hard times in the organized workplace. The phrase ‘union live and die at the workplace’ is becoming a reality sooner than later. The likely obituary of trade unions world-wide are declining membership, density collapse, weaken bargaining power, and the lost of prominence and place in polity. Analyses of trade unionism in the literature for some 20 years now have commonly referring to a crisis of trade unionism. Most authors puts it ‘unions under siege’, ‘stagnant and declining’, and ‘experiencing near death’....   [tags: Labor Union Decline]

Better Essays
2808 words (8 pages)

Shark Population Decline Essay example

- Every Jaws fan knows the shark gets it in the end. What they do not know is that too many sharks have gotten it; and that has caused a rapid decline in the shark population over the past thirty years. Since the 1970's, sharks of the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico shores have declined eighty-five percent. Sharks are vital animal to our world's ecosystem, and if the decline is not controlled; we could be facing devastating problems in years to come. Information has been obtained from two books: The Shark Almanac by Thomas B....   [tags: Sharks Extinction Population Endangered Species]

Better Essays
1505 words (4.3 pages)

Mass Extinction Essay

- ABSTRACT Several mass extinctions have occurred during the Earth’s history. The Cretaceous – Tertiary Boundary (K-T) Extinction caused the loss of at least three-quarters of all species known at that time including the dinosaurs. The cause of this mass extinction is a controversial subject among scientists but the fossil evidence of it’s occurrence is abundant. INTRODUCTION The K-T Extinction occurred 65 million years ago. Many species perished in that extinction. Today evidence for this extinction can be seen in the fossil record....   [tags: K-T Extinction]

Better Essays
2446 words (7 pages)