Research Paper Notes on Diabetes

Research Paper Notes on Diabetes

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Article #1: Prevalence/Incidence
Global Estimates of the Prevalence of Diabetes for 2010 and 2030
Diabetes is a disease that continues to increase worldwide. It continues to be a large problem in both developed and undeveloped countries. This article summarizes a study that focused on the future estimated number of people diagnosed with diabetes from 2010 to 2030. The findings were that the amount of people diagnosed with the disease would increase worldwide by about 1% (increasing by about 200 million more diagnosed adults ranging from ages 20-79 years old). It does not sound like much, but the number of people diagnosed with diabetes in underdeveloped countries would increase by about 69% by 2030 and the number diagnosed in developed countries would increase by about 20% by 2030.
This article goes to show that the problem of diabetes is not going away anytime soon. It is a growing epidemic that continues to affect millions of people worldwide. I think that more people need to be educated about diabetes and their personal lifestyle choices that affect their health in such an immense manner. I know that it is easier said than done, but knowledge is power. And in this case, the more knowledge people have about diabetes and diabetes prevention, the more the numbers of people diagnosed with the disease will go down.





Article #2: Treatment
Liraglutide: Effects Beyond Glycaemic Control in Diabetes Treatment
The article expresses the correlation of obesity and patients with type 2 diabetes and how the GLP-1 receptor, Liraglutide, can stimulate weight loss in these obese patients. Because of their high levels of insulin resistance, obese individuals have a greater chance of being diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. After performing clinical trials by treating patients diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, it was found that Liraglutide does stimulate weight loss as well as increase beta-cell function. Scientists believe that Liraglutide can decrease the number of patients diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes as well as prevent Cardio Vascular Disease.
I found this article to be very interesting. I knew that obesity played a large role in the diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes, but I did not know the lengths to which scientists are trying to decrease obesity through certain hormone injections. I think that the growing obese population in the United States should adopt a healthier overall lifestyle before having to turn to hormone injections for weight loss. Even though the use of Liraglutide can lower both Type 2 diabetes and Cardio Vascular Disease, so can a healthy lifestyle.

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Article #3: Recreation
Autonomy Support at Diabetes Camp:
A Self Determination Theory Approach to Therapeutic Recreation
This article referred to a study where the importance of autonomy in the lives of campers living with Type 1 diabetes was examined. It has been shown that people living with Type 1 diabetes have lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of social problems because of their ongoing battle with their illness. They are paying constant attention to the regulation of their glycemic levels, which greatly increases stress and tampers with their ability to communicate with others who do not suffer from the illness. The study examined campers at a camp specific to those diagnosed with diabetes. It was found that autonomy has great importance in the lives of the campers in both recreational and social settings. In order for the campers to successfully cooperate with one another and the activities at hand, it was necessary for them to feel confident and determined with themselves, which ended up having a direct correlation with social support from therapists and comrades.
I believe that recreation is very important in the lives of those living with illness and disease. It is a way for them to escape their disease and just feel “normal.” I think that the findings of this study can be very beneficial in the lives of those living with Type 1 diabetes and other illnesses. The importance of autonomy and self-worth is essential for both the social and psychological development of the patients and can help them to live a fulfilling life.


Article #4: Personal Story
Living with Type 1 Diabetes Since 1931
This personal story is about Edward Danielson, a man who was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes 79 years ago (only ten years after insulin was discovered). He said that when growing up, his teacher believed there was something wrong with him and that he should see a doctor. It was on his second visit to the doctor that he was finally diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes. Danielson said that growing up, his family tried keeping it a secret, they did not want anyone to know that he was living with the disease. He recalls all of the different medical techniques he has used throughout the years to treat his diabetes, and the great advancements that have occurred in the diabetic world. Today, Danielson has had to have both of his feet amputated as a result of his diabetes. His doctor told him even though the amputation had to take place, it was a miracle he has lived this long with the disease and that he took very good care of himself. Danielson stresses the importance of a healthy diet, exercise, and maintaining a firm schedule.
Edward Danielson’s story is absolutely incredible. To be diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at a young age in a time when the disease was fairly new and still be living 79 years later is remarkable. He has not let his disease hinder him from accomplishing any of the goals he had set for himself. Danielson continues to live a healthy and structured lifestyle even after his feet had to be amputated. He never let his diabetes hold him back growing up and still will not let his negatively affect him today.


Article #5
Identifying Children at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in Underserviced Communities
This article focused on ethnic children from minority groups in Wisconsin and their risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. It has been found that children from minority groups, specifically Hispanic, African-American, and Native American, have a higher chance of developing Type 2 diabetes than do children from Caucasian families. This is because these children tend to have less availability to healthy foods, lower overall stability in neighborhoods, and fewer recreational areas and fewer high quality schools. The article stressed the importance of physical activity and a healthy diet for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes in children as well as in adults. Even though the findings of the study paralleled the known statistics, there still needs to be more study on the physical activity and education of the minority families to more successfully determine the probability of Type 2 diabetes in ethnic children.
This article was very interesting to me. It was interesting to read the statistics of children from minority groups and the probability of them being diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes at some point during their lifetime. Because diabetes is a major problem throughout the United States, there needs to be greater education on healthy lifestyles starting at earlier ages. It is hard to ensure that if children are educated on healthy lifestyles that they will actually be able to initiate their knowledge into their own lifestyles, especially if their families are not as educated and do not live/promote healthy lifestyles in the home. Either way, it is good to have a good foundation on ways to live a healthy lifestyle and understand the risks associated with Type 2 diabetes.


Article #6
Changes in Alcohol Consumption and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men
This study focused on frequent alcohol consumption in men and its possible effect of Type 2 diabetes. It was found that there is a lower subsequent risk of Type 2 diabetes with moderate to intense male alcohol drinkers that lowered their alcoholic intake. The lower levels of alcohol positively affected the glycemic levels of the men. The article stresses not only the affect that alcohol consumption could have on Type 2 diabetes but also its link to cardiovascular and liver diseases. Therefore, it is important to remember to consume alcohol in the recommended amounts.
I found this study to be very informative. I thought that diabetes was more common in men, so the approach to alcohol consumption was an interesting one. Men tend to drink more alcohol than women, so it is interesting to see the correlation between alcohol consumption and Type 2 diabetes. Even though the findings were not staggering, there was still a correlation. It is very important to consume alcohol responsibly as there are many health risks associated with consuming excessive amounts.





Article #7
Diabetes in Pregnancy
This article talks about diabetes and pregnancy. It was once thought that women who had been diagnosed with diabetes would not be able to have children, but now we know that is not true. There is certainly a high risk associated with pregnancy and diabetes, but it can definitely be done. The mother and child are both put to high risk, one being hypoglycemia. The mother must follow a strict diet, exercise the recommended amount, and closely monitor glucose levels. This process is very time consuming for the expecting mother. She must monitor her blood glucose levels at least 8 times daily. The article also stresses that the healthy and careful routine during pregnancy is also very important for diabetic mothers post-pregnancy. It lowers the levels of post-partum depression and helps the mother to maintain healthy glucose levels.
Before I started researching for articles for this paper, I did not even think about the affect that diabetes has on pregnancy. I know that prenatal precautions are important in normal pregnancies, so they are even more important when the mother has diabetes. I did not know that diabetes can also develop during pregnancy, and it is becoming more and more common. For the health of both the mother and the child, it is important to remember to follow all instructions on blood glucose control, diet, and exercise.




Article #8
Diet, Lifestyle, and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Women
This article is about a study conducted on a group of about 85,000 women that were free of diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease over a sixteen-year period. At the end of the study, doctors found over 3000 new cases of Type 2 diabetes. The most significant predictor of diabetes among the women was obesity and overweight. Women who were also frequent smokers, did not exercise, and had an unhealthy diet regimen were also at high risk for Type 2 diabetes. The study successfully concluded that the increasing number of Type 2 diabetes among women could dramatically decrease with the adoption of a healthier overall lifestyle.
After reading this article, it just solidifies the importance of a healthy lifestyle. A healthy lifestyle does not only decrease the chances of being diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, but it also is important for a healthy lifestyle free of other diseases as well. Before reading this article, I did not know that consumption of alcohol could decrease your chances of developing Type 2 diabetes. This is in small amounts of course; excessive drinking can actually increase the chances of diabetic development.






Article #9
Intake of Vitamin D and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Birth-Cohort Study
This article spoke about the link between Type 1 diabetes and Vitamin D. Scientists found in animals, that Vitamin D had a direct correlation with the development of Type 1 diabetes. In this study, doctors wanted to find if Vitamin D had the same effect in humans and if they were exposed to too much or too little Vitamin D in infancy, would Type 1 diabetes develop. After the study, they found that correct supplementation of Vitamin D in infants could help reduce the risk of Type 1 diabetes later in life.
I did now know before reading this article that there was a correlation between Vitamin D and Type 1 diabetes. There is an increasing amount of cases in Type 1 diabetes, which is believed to be linked to Vitamin D deficiency in infancy. This article explains the importance of nutrition in infancy. I feel that today many parents are not well educated on the correct nutrition for their children in their early lives. More parents should be informed on the importance of health, nutrition, and vitamin intake.






Article #10
Mortality and Survival in Type 2 (Non-Insulin-Dependent) Diabetes Mellitus
This article talks about the many differences faced with those diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Each patient is different, therefore their cause for diagnosis is different and their possibility of potential death from diabetes is different. There is one thing that doctors found in conclusion of their findings. It was that no matter what the diabetic case, the cause of death could not be from “late complications.” According to doctors, the cause of death is connected to pre-existing metabolic or genetic bases. It is common for the cause of death to be linked with cardiovascular complications, which doctors are looking more into their correlation today.
I think this article was informative. It addresses the fact that we are all different, and not all cases of diabetes are going to be similar. The link between diabetes and cardiovascular disease is an interesting one. Hopefully one day, the direct link will be identified and there will be a more understood path to understanding this link. It is informative even though the article is a little outdated, yet still we are still striving to understand the same basic underlying concepts facing diabetes today.



Works Cited

Becker, T., Carrel, A.L., Vivian, E.M. (2011). Identifying Children at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes in Underserviced Communities. The Diabetes Educator, 37(4), 519-527.
Chiuve, S.E., Hendriks, H.F.J., Hu, F.B., Joosten, M.M., Mukamal, K.J., Rimm, E.B. (2011). Changes in Alcohol Consumption and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men. Diabetes, 60(1), 74-76.
Colditz, G., Engl, N., Hu, F.B., Lieu, S., Manson, J.E., Solomon, C.G., Stampfer, M.J., Wilett, W.C. (2001). Diet, Lifestyle, and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Women. The New England Journal of Medicine, 345(11), 790-797.
Halprin, E.S. (2009). Diabetes in Pregnancy. Contemporary Diabetes, 1(1), 235-250.
Hill, E., Sibthorp, J. (2006). Autonomy Support at Diabetes Camp: A Self Determination Theory Approach to Therapeutic Recreation. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 40(2), 107-125.
Hypponen, E., Jarvelin, M., Laara, E., Reunanen, A., Virtanen, S. (2001). Intake of Vitamin D and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Birth-Cohort Study. The Lancet, 358(9292), 1500-1503.
McGill, J.B. (2010). Liraglutide: Effects Beyond Glycaemic Control in Diabetes Treatment. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 64(167), 28-34.
Panzram, G. (1987). Mortality and Survival in Type 2 (Non-Insulin-Dependent) Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetologia, 30(3), 123-131.
Shaw, J.E., Sicree, R.A., Zimmet, P.Z. (2010). Global Estimate of the Prevalence of Diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 87(1), 4-14.
Wartburg, L. (2011, March 10). Living With Type 1 Diabetes Since 1931. Retrieved from http://www.diabeteshealth.com/read/2011/03/10/7080/living-with-type-1-diabetes-since-1931.

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