Essay PreviewMore ↓
Question 1: How might one justify flipping the switch in the Trolley case but not pushing the large man off the bridge in the variation?
Answer: Flipping the switch in the first case is justified because the switch operator is acting on the principle of Utilitarianism. By flipping the switch, the operator would save two people toed to the rail track and thus his actions would lead to Greatest Good for the Greatest Number (GHGN). However, in the second case where the switch-operator is faced with the situation of sacrificing the life of the fat man, then he may not be justified in doing so. This can be understood from Kant’s perspective where he believes that right thing to do is course that respects individual rights. Thus the means and the process are as important as the end. Aristotle’s principle of Virtue Ethics can be another explanation for not justifying the action of sacrificing life of the fat man. The action seems totally unjustified when seen from Virtuous Behaviour perspective.
Question 2: “Words of a language are not literally owned by anyone.” How might this bear on the question of the wrongness of plagiarism?
Answer: "Words of a language are not literally owned by anyone" would have a serious implication on the concept of plagiarism. If it is accepted that words are not literally owned by anyone then it would justify plagiarism and thus there would not be any wrong in plagiarising. However, words of a language used in academic writing matter a lot. Words when used to explain a specific concept or theory become the medium of the author to introduce his/ her ideas to the world. When used in this sense, they no longer are to be used freely by anyone as they become the copyright of the author who used them to explain his/ her concept. For example, When Einstein first introduced the general theory of Relativity and produced Relativity Equation, E=mc2, then the theory became so popular that words as "Relativity" became associated with Einstein forever. If anyone wants to improvise on the theory need to acknowledge the theory proposed by Einstein and any plagiarism would become intolerable in the academic and scientific domain. Thus words of a language used to define a theory or concept definitely become copyright of the person proposing the concept and it would be considered plagiarism if these words are used as it is without acknowledging the original scientist or author.
How to Cite this Page
"Research Ethics for Graduate Students." 123HelpMe.com. 18 Jul 2018
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- ... This, according to Johnson (1994) will help make students (future computing professionals) aware of the ethical issues surrounding computers, to sensitise them to ethical issues in the use of computers, and in the practice of the computing professions, convey to students a deep understanding of the ways in which computers change and impact on society, and provide conceptual tools and develop analytic skills for ethical decision making within the computing world. Several authors have defined Computer ethics differently.... [tags: crime, hacking, viruses, privacy, stress]
879 words (2.5 pages)
- Ethics, though sometimes overlooked, are an integral part in conducting proper research. Though the primary goal of the researcher may be to find answers that support his hypothesis—particularly, positive results that successfully can apply to the general population—maintaining ethical conditions is also just as important, if not more. Some of the most infamous studies that have occurred in the social sciences field throughout the years were ones that raised ethical concerns. One such study is known as the Landis Facial Expression Study that was conducted in 1924 by Carney Landis, who was a graduate student in psychology at the University of Minnesota at the time.... [tags: Animal Cruelty, Psychology, Disgust]
665 words (1.9 pages)
- Preceptor recruitment, preparation, and compensation; preparation and evaluation of the students; as well as the setting and overall experience for both student and preceptor have long since been starting points for literature reviews when addressing new graduate nurse practitioner (NP) clinical competency upon entry to practice. Preceptor models and student/mentor relationships address, in part, the following benefits: opportunities for critical thinking, operationalizing theoretical concepts, enhancing professional behaviors, interaction with peers and ancillary personnel, all while doing so in a real world environment (Ivey, 2006).... [tags: preceptor recruitment, preparation, compensation]
1488 words (4.3 pages)
- I am the graduate research assistant to Dr. Hasebe-Ludt, a professor in the Faculty of Education at the University of Lethbridge. While she is my supervisor, we have never had a formal discussion about research. I have worked with a sociocultural/cognitive psychology researcher and a cognitive neuropsychologist researcher, so I had some prior knowledge of quantitative research. The turn-around rate of their research was incredibly short (a few months to just under a year, depending on funding and ethics approval) and was rigid and controlled as a result of the quantitative nature of it.... [tags: research, inquiry, nature, agenda]
1321 words (3.8 pages)
- Cloning and Embryo Research: The Science Fiction Reality The idea of cloning a life form seemed like something read from a science fiction novel just ten years ago. Now, the theories, ideas and facts of cloning embryos have made cloning one of the most talked about social issues of our time. The researchers of this scientific breakthrough have made a lot of progress in recent years. Many have heard of Dolly, the cloned sheep, and that’s just the tip of the ice burg. This is undoubtedly the biggest and most recent breakthrough science has seen in some time.... [tags: essays research papers fc]
886 words (2.5 pages)
- From the times of Walter Williams to now, journalism and especially ethics have been changing. Ethics in journalism is very important for journalists in today’s society. Williams was a 20th century journalist that founded the first American journalism school, the School of Journalism at Indiana University (Ibold). He brought a global perspective to journalism at a critical point while American journalism and code of ethics were developing (Ibold). Everything changes with time. So, has ethics in journalism changed from the past to now.... [tags: Journalism]
2147 words (6.1 pages)
- Exposure therapy has garnered attention for its effectiveness and timeliness to cure diagnoses like posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobias, and other anxiety disorders. Manuals have been created, self-help books have been published, and online support groups have been developed all for the purpose of establishing an exposure therapy community. Most of the literature around the ethics of it focuses on intentionally causing anxiety and causing harm for the client.... [tags: anxiety, stress disorders, exposure therapy]
1108 words (3.2 pages)
- As the result of a colleague’s sudden serious illness, a clinical psychologist is asked to teach a physiological psychology course, which is definitely outside his area of expertise. The course begins in one week. The department chair recognizes that the psychologist is not competent is this area, but he is as qualified as anyone else in the department and is the only person whose schedule can accommodate the course. The course is required for graduation, and several seniors will not graduate at the end of the semester if they do not take the course now.... [tags: Psychology Case Study]
1255 words (3.6 pages)
- Introduction Background The literature being studied is an article written by Hellen O’ Sullivan, the Director of Scientific Methods Australia. The article entitled “Business ethics are set to set to stage a comeback” was published on the 75th page of The Australian Financial Review on the 6th February 1990. Literature Review Basically, the article discussed several important issues about business ethics. One of the most prominent was the remark she made about business ethics making a comeback.... [tags: essays research papers fc]
3278 words (9.4 pages)
- Student Support Services (SSS) is a marvelous program that is federally funded on the campus of Western Kentucky University which provides academic advisement, personal counseling, tutoring, and other services to help students adjust to college life, succeed academically and graduate from the university. I have worked for this program since the beginning of my sophomore year and I am also a current participant. It’s like a family away from home. I pretty much know everything there is about this program but I wanted to go behind the scenes of the organization to inform others.... [tags: students, academic advisement]
1540 words (4.4 pages)
Question 3: What's one reason for thinking that plagiarism is wrong?
Answer: The most important reason for thinking Plagiarism is wrong is that it is against the virtue of honesty. Although the plagiarizee may not bother much about stealing someone’s ideas, yet it is morally and ethically wrong to do so. It not only deprives the original author the credit he/ she deserves, but it ultimately vitiates the entire atmosphere of research ultimately by bringing about stagnation in the research ideas. If people keep on using each others’ ideas without contributing anything new to the research realm, then the entire future of research is at stake. The entire process of gradual death of research due to plagiarism has been depicted below in form of a diagram:
Question 4: Stanley Fish compares rules forbidding plagiarism to the rules of golf. Why?
Answer: The explanation for Stanley Fish using the example of Golf to explain the rules forbidding plagiarism can be two-fold.
1. The first reason for drawing the similarities between Golf and Plagiarism is the particular nature of the game. Golf is a peculiar sport which has very specific and severe rules which are practically unimaginable by people outside this game. Thus unlike games like cricket, football or baseball which have certain universal rules, Golf rules are more "in-house". Taking the analogy to Plagiarism, this particular act of plagiarism is an insiders' obsession (as used by Fish). It matters more in professions where originality means a lot and there are clear-cut boundary lines between the final product of two scientists or academics. On the other hand, professions like that of a musician, novelist or painter where boundary lines are smudged and thus unlike Golf, they do not have severe specific rules.
X comes up with a novel idea and publishes it
Y copies X's ideas and publishes X's work without acknowleding him
The process of plagirism continues with every new researcher
Research is stagnant
Research realm is vitiated and its future at stake as no new research happens rather a repetion of old research
Violation of virtue of Honesty. Action is morally wrong.
Morally wrong actions of stealing; theft
Death of ethics in research
Gradual death of research itself
2. The second reason for this analogy is that both Golf and Plagiarism assume that if there is a violation of a rule, then it is not violation of moral rule, rather of a non-moral rule. It is definitely a breach of disciplinary decorum but not breach of morality. Even if a person is caught plagiarising, he may be penalised but there is no blot on his/ her soul. And better still, if the person is not caught, he may not even be penalised and let free.
Question 5: What's one reason for thinking that close personal relationships between advisors and advisees should be avoided?
Answer: An important reason (and in my view the sole reason) for thinking that close personal relationships between advisors and advisees should be avoided is that it may affect the quality of research. Since the assessment of research work should be objective, the close relations between the supervisor and supervisee may interfere with the fairplay and may introduce certain bias which can have detrimental effects on the final outcome (i.e. the actual production of thesis).