Spanish, Asian and Western influences are visible within the Filipino culture as a result of colonization and liberation from multiple countries to include Spain, Japan and finally, the United States-twice. Spanish influence dates back to the 16th Century in the era of Ferdinand Magellan; a Portuguese explorer under the direction of Spain’s king. Uprisings and eventual defeat of Spanish influence ceded with U.S. assistance under the Treaty of Paris in 1898.
However, American rebellion soon grew thereafter, which sparked the American-Philippine War that lasted for approximately three years resulting in over tens of thousands Filipino deaths (combatants and civilians). In 1902 U.S. President William Taft agreed to a general amnesty, which halted the fighting. Decades later as the nation was on path to rebuilding its government, Japan invaded the country in its quest to expand its empire during WWII. Again in 1944, America provided military assistance under the direction of GEN. Douglas Macarthur; the Philippines declared liberation from Japanese occupation on July 4, 1945. One year later, Presid...
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...esources to consider such as the Gender Handbook for Humanitarian Action as well as the Guidelines for Gender Based Violence Interventions.
Several security concerns need to be assessed when supporting displaced persons in the Philippines that are similar to most if not all IDP camps worldwide. Intelligence support from the host nation, the U.S. Embassy and local leaders will be paramount to begin to understand the overall security problem. This review should encompass any and all criminal activity, any gender based violence, threat of human trafficking, and violence to aid workers. A survey must be done to understand any threat actors within the camp and begin to separate them from the populace. Single adult males and females need to be separated from families for security as well as they are likely targets of recruitment for rebel groups and human trafficking.
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