There are three causes of acute renal failure; prerenal causes, renal causes, and post renal causes. Prerenal causes are due to such factors as dehydration i.e... vomiting diarrhea, or sweating, or poor fluid intake. Other factors could also include weak or irregular blood flow to and from the kidneys because of an obstruction in the renal artery or vein. Intrarenal kidney failure is damage directly to the kidney. Causes include sepsis (the body is overwhelmed by infection and shuts down) multiple myeloma (acute glomerulonephritis or inflammation of the kidneys filtering system) as well as rhabdomyolysis (the body has broken down muscles and these fibers clog the filtering system). Post renal causes are factors that affect the outflow of urine. Such factors include tumors which may surround the ureters, prostate cancer which could prevent emptying the bladder, as well as kidney stones. Kidney stones can only cause failure if there is only one present. Because we know the causes, now we can explore by performing exams that would tell us the next best course of action.
The first step in any client consult is taking a look at their medical history as well as a physical exam. The first exam is known as a serum creatine exam. If the cause of failure is prerenal then the creatine in the blood will increase. Another test is the blood urea nitrogen exam. If your kidney cannot excrete waste products, then your BUN levels will increa...
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...to the clients recovery. Therapy also includes but is not limited to support groups. These support groups will help clients with moral support on their road to recovery.
Renal failure is a disease that takes lives every day. It is important to educate our communities in order for us to prevent this disease before it even starts. If a client finds themselves with renal failure, it is important to maintain kidney function in the acute stage so it does not progress into the chronic stages.
Anne C. Poinier, K. R., Mitchell H. Rosner (2009, rev. June 03, 2009). Acute Renal Failure. Retrieved July 30, 2011, from http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/acute-renal-failure-topic-overview
Scott Walters, C.P., Patrick D. Brophy (2008). Dialysis and pediatric acute kidney injury: choice of renal support modality. Educational Review (24, pp. 37-48).
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