The Byzantine Empire tends to break it down into three stages. The time of the 3 AD - 8 AD is known as the Late Antique or Late Roman. The Middle Byzantine period begins around 565 AD after the death of the emperor Justinian; during this time around 610 AD we had the accession of the emperor Heraklios. Then in 717 AD we had the start of the Isaurian dynasty; and in 848 the end of Iconoclasm. It ends in either 1071 AD with the Battle of Mantzikert, or when the Byzantine army was defeated by the Seljuqs and the emperor was captured, or in 1204 with the Sack of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade by the Latin Crusaders. Late Byzantium covers 1204 AD - 1261 AD also during that time we had the recovery of Constantinople from the Latins to the end of the empire in 1453 AD when it was destroyed by the Ottoman Turks. The Byzantine Empire at one time had a land mass stretching from the southern tip of Spain all the way to the black sea and to the Persian Gulf.
Islam was founded around 610 AD by Muhammad the Prophet. He was born in Mecca, to a prominent Arab family. In 610 AD, Muhammad received visitations from Gabriel and proclaims the message of Allah has begun. Islam struggled in its first few years of extinction and had to fight to establish it dominates in the area.
The Battle of Badr fought in 624 AD in the Hejaz region of western Arabia in what is now present-day Saudi Arabia,...
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...coration - to Byzantine art, the plan of the Umayyad Mosque has also a remarkable similarity with 6th- and 7th-century Christian basilicas, but it has been modified and expanded on the transverse axis and not on the normal longitudinal axis as in the Christian basilicas. This modification serves better the liturgy for the Islamic prayer. The original mihrab of the mosque is located almost in the middle of the eastern part of the Qibla wall and not in its middle, a feature which can be explained by the fact that the architect might have tried to avoid the impression of a Christian apse which would result from the placement of the mihrab in the middle of the transept. The tile work, geometric patterns, multiple arches, domes, and poly-chrome brick and stone work that characterize Islamic and Moorish architecture were influenced to some extent by Byzantine architecture.
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