A good backdrop for this study would be a glimpse into regional migration trends. In a general sense, migration usually denotes migrant workers seeking greener pastures. There are migrants, however, who settle in another country and raise a family either with a spouse from the host country or someone from the passport country.
Indonesia is a major sending country in Asia (ranked at no. 9) with Saudi Arabia and Malaysia being the leading destinations for its migrant workers. Total number of migrant workers reached a peak in 2008 with 748, 825 according to government statistics.Vis-à-vis these migration figures are the numbers of Indonesians who settle permanently in other countries, notably its two immediate neighbors, Malaysia and Singapore. Studies showed that the population of Indonesians who become either citizens or permanent residents in Singapore was pegged at 54,404 in 2010, almost double of the 29,314 accounted for in 2000. On the other hand, Indonesians account for the more than half of 1.38 million Malaysians born in foreign countries.Studies have also shown that a significant number of Indonesians are marrying people from other countries. One study showed that many Indonesian-Taiwanese and Indonesian- Vietnamese couples are getting married (Aris & Nurvidya Arifin, 2014).
With these trends, it is clear that there would be a growing population of Indonesian TCKs born out of cross-cultural parents and growing up in a host country.
Another example worth noting is that of Filipinos. The Philippines stands as among the top migrant-sending countries in the world. It is reported that 10% of the Philippine population, translated to 10.5 million Filipinos, are migrant workers (Casco, 2013).
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... Filipino but his skills in the Thai language is quite limited to functional purposes only, for instance ordering food.
Isabelle exhibited one of the basic signs of being a TCK, namely, feeling more associated with her fellow TCKs and having many friends from other nationalities. She had been studying at International Pioneers School since 2009, or five years now as of this writing. Aside from Thai students, she has also made friends with Indian students whose parents have recently migrated to Thailand, Thai-Indian students, and Filipino students who, like her, have grown up in Thailand.
I find it easier and more comfortable to be around the friends that I’ve made here in Thailand than those that I’ve made in the Philippines. I think it’s due to the fact that I grew up and spent more time with my friends here. (I. Amurao, personal communication, 10 December 2014)
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