Error correction is a delicate balance, and not for the faint-of-heart. Error correction of ELL students is a useful tool in the hands of a skillful educator. It can point a learner toward discovering correct answers, motivate and push them to work a little harder, and engage a receptive student with useful and informative feedback. Error correction, however, is NOT a punishment. Nor is it an opportunity to denigrate or shame a learner – consciously or unconsciously. Most of us want to be corrected constructively, thoughfully, and respectfully. ELL students deserve no less.
In this essay I will discuss error correction in the context of ELL instruction. Specifically I will describe the Error Correction Hypothesis, strategies for error correction and corrective feedback that instructors can use with ELL students, how and when to provide appropriate feedback regarding errors, and the possible effects of error correction on the student’s affective filter.
The Error Correction Hypothesis
The question of whether receiving error corrective feedback can actually hurt an ELL student’s ability to learn is the focus of the Error Correction Hypothesis. Stephen Krashen, in his Affective Filter Hypothesis, puts forth the idea that learners have an Affective Filter which is triggered by emotional variables such as anxiety or stress. Once activated, this filter can operate as an unintended barrier, hindering one’s ability to receive input, and therefore learning. As a result, Krashen advocates for limited error correction in second language instruction, and primarily as a clarification in meaning.
On the other hand, Vigil and Oller believe that error correction is necessary for ELL students. In their Communication Feedback...
... middle of paper ...
Johnson, K. (1988). Mistake Correction. ELT Journal, 42(2), 89-96.
Lennon, P. (2006, October 27). Investigating Fluency in EFL: A Quantitative Approach*. Wiley Online Library. Retrieved February 8, 2014, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1990.tb00669.x/abstract
Lightbown, P., & Spada, N. M. (2006). How languages are learned (3rd ed.). Oxford [england: Oxford University Press.
Nation, I. S., & Newton, J. (2009). Teaching ESL/EFL listening and speaking. New York: Routledge.
Tomasello, M., & Herron, C. (n.d.). Transfer Errors: The Garden Path Technique., Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1989. ERIC - Feedback for Language Transfer Errors: The Garden Path Technique., Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1989. Retrieved February 8, 2014, from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ400841
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Summary of Written Feedback The positive feedback provided me with things my respondents believe I should continue doing. Some respondents noted that I am confident and motivated. The results also showed that my respondents think I am efficient. Another response was that I adapt to change well. Other words like cheerful, encouraging and fun to be around were some of the positive responses received. Great communication is also something noted that I should continue to do. My responses showed that I am a hard worker.... [tags: Negative feedback, Feedback, Communication]
705 words (2 pages)
- In Feedback as a gift, Friedrich discusses his points on how feedback should be viewed. The author describes feedback as a gift and if we view it that way it would change our mindsets when receiving it. On another note the article by Stone and Heen, Difficult conversations 2.0: Thanks for the feedback, the main focus is on the benefits we receive from accepting feedback and becoming a skillful receiver. The author also discusses why we as humans reject feedback calling these reactions triggers. In Max Performance Feedback, Sadri and Seto discuss the three different types of feedback.... [tags: Negative feedback, Feedback, Ratio]
1444 words (4.1 pages)
- Case Study 1: Feedback Loops What is a feedback loop. A feedback loop maintains homeostasis by keeping variables within particular limits. They consist of a stimulus that produces a change in a variable where the change is then detected by a receptor. The receptor sends the information along an afferent pathway to a control centre where it decides how to react. The information is then output from the control center and sent along an efferent pathway to an effector. The effector creates a response to the stimulus and returns variable to homeostasis.... [tags: Feedback, Negative feedback, Blood sugar, Insulin]
1737 words (5 pages)
- The time I received feedback was on a paper during my undergraduate year. The paper was a personal reflection based on a prompt. I went to the professor’s office for clarity about the grade that I received on the paper. The feedback I receive is that I did not go deep enough with the paper. I did not agree with the feedback because I felt if the paper I wrote was based on my personal experience therefore I went deep enough as I can with the paper. She also stated that I needed to improve on my grammar.... [tags: Negative feedback, Feedback, Positive feedback]
731 words (2.1 pages)
- There has been a very large jump in the number of immigrants coming to the United States. This has led to a rise in the number of English Language Learners in schools around the U.S.. However, this means that educators, administrators, and those apart of the education district need to work together to create more support for this growing population of ELL students. This article brings up five different lessons on creating support for ELL learners in schools. The first lesson is, “Make success for ELLs a central issue.” This involves the commitment of everyone involved in the school towards improving the education of these students.... [tags: Education, Teacher, School, Second language]
1131 words (3.2 pages)
- 5. Vallerand, R.J., Reid, G. (1988). On the relative effects of positive and negative verbal feedback on males’ and females’ intrinsic motivation. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 20 (3), 239-250. The goal of this study was to analyze the effects of both positive and negative feedback on male and female students’ intrinsic motivation. Research was conduced with a random sample consisting of 30 male and 30 female undergraduate students. All students were studying physical education in the Montreal, Canada area.... [tags: Negative feedback, Feedback, Positive feedback]
711 words (2 pages)
- Accepting negative and positive feedback can be something someone can take in a good or bad way. So why is it that most people avoid criticism. Well that’s because in most cases it can either make you work harder or make you not want to try at all. In the majority of times criticism is meant to be something positive to try and encourage you to be better. Ideally, it brings balance into our lives, provides us with a basis of comparison, and brings truth, honesty, and intimacy. Hopefully, it gives us honest feedback-a balance of praise and criticism.... [tags: 2007 singles, Debut albums, Better, Feedback]
1072 words (3.1 pages)
- Discoveries Through Learning I came into the program knowledgeable on the complex intricacies of sexual interactions and sexuality because of my own independent research on the topic. I had never, however, learned the basics of sexuality. In my undergraduate and graduate programs, the students in liberal arts majors were prohibited from taking human sexuality courses due to the overwhelming number of science students that needed the course as a pre-requisite. My English Education degree, unfortunately, did not afford me the opportunity to delve into my passion.... [tags: Reflection ]
1868 words (5.3 pages)
- Breaking Down Barriers with Positive Feedback Each one of you is faced with the challenge of giving feedback each day. Whether it is on a stimulating topic in class or something as simple as telling a friend whether or not you like the outfit that they have on, giving feedback is something that everyone has had experience with. However trivial this process may seem, it is imperative that one understands its importance. This semester I took a course called En101, or College Writing. In this class we are required to give feedback on essays and articles.... [tags: Education Feedback Advice Essays]
1340 words (3.8 pages)
- Feedback The exhibition at the New York Hall of Science helped me to explore how machines and living things sense changes in their environment and how they adapt as a result. A wide range of mechanical and biological systems use the same essential method, called "feedback". At the museum I was able to pedal an airplane propeller, direct a chain on a spinning windmill and observe an old-fashion steam engine as I explored self-sensing machines and how they work. The organization for the automatic regulating of an electrical, mechanical, or biological system by sending part of its output as input is feedback.... [tags: Papers]
369 words (1.1 pages)